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A. M. 2888. A. C. 1116; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 4301, A. C, 1110. I SAM. i. TO THE END. the people : during which time, David took the oppor- been in, he was so terrified at the thoughts of it, that c tunity to remove from En-gedi, and to retire farther into he turned quite stupid, and in the space of ten days the wilderness of Paran, not far from Maon, where he died : whereupon David sent for his wife and married had been once before.

her, as he did likewise another woman,

whose name was In the neighbourhood of this place, there lived a Ahinoam, a Jezreelite ; for his first wife, who was Saul's wealthy man, whose name was Nabal, but himself was daughter, by her father's command, was at this time of a surly and morose disposition. While David abode given to another. in this wilderness the time before, he had taken great The Ziphites, as we said before, were always forward care to restrain his men from doing any injury to Nabals to give Saul information where David and his men were Aocks, and now in the time of his sheep-shearing, (which concealed ; and therefore, understanding from them, in these countries was always a season of great festivity that he was somewhere about the mountain Hachilah, é and entertainment,) he sent messengers to him, that in he took 3000 men, and went in quest of him. David consideration of the many civilities he had shown him, had intelligence where Saul's army lay encamped ; and he would be pleased to send some provisions for the therefore, going first of all privately himself, to reconsupport of his army. But Nabal received the messen- noitre it, he I took with him at night his nephew Abishai, gers very rudely, and with some opprobrious reflections and entering the camp, found Saul and Abner, and all upon David himself, sent them away empty, which so the rest of the host fast asleep, Abishai, would have exasperated David, that in the heat of his resentment, gladly made use of this opportunity to despatch the he vowed to destroy all Nabal's family before next | king, but David would by no means permit him, for the morning, and with this resolution he set forward. But same reasons that he had saved his life in the cave; only Abigail, Nabal's wife, who was a very beautiful woman, the 8 spear, and cruise of water, that were at his bed's and in temper the very reverse of her husband, being informed by her servant of what had passed, took this c The words in the original are, he became a stone;' but our expedient to divert his ire.

translation has wisely supplied the particle as, which should al. She ordered her servants immediately to pack up two ways be done, when the Scripture affirms something of another

that is not absolutely of the same nature. We may observe hundred loaves of bread, a two bottles of wine, five however, that this manner of expression is very common among sheep ready dressed, five measures of parched corn, an profane authors. Thus Ovid brings in Ariadne expressing her hundred clusters of raisins, and two hundred cakes of griefs and astonishment at the loss of Theseus, who had left her figs ; and with this present she made haste to meet David. in the island Dia: “Cold and wan I sat on a rock, gazing on the

sea, and as much as the stone was my seat so much was I myself David was marching with all speed, to put in execution

a stone.”—The like expression is used of Hecuba, when she saw his rash vow;

but Abigail when she met him, approached the dead body of her son Polydorus: “Like the hard stone she him with that respect, and addressed him b in such mov- stood dumb and torpid.” But in the case of Niobe, who is said ing language, that she soon disarmed him of his rage,

to be turned into a statue of stone, Cicero, in his Tusculan

Questions, observes, that this fable only represents her perpetual and stopped the effects of his indignation; so that they

silence in mourning: and accordingly Josephus tells us of Nabal, both parted with mutual satisfaction; he, for being thus that when his wife told him of the danger he had escaped, he prevented from shedding of blood, and she, for having was struck with such an astonishment, that he fell into a thus happily succeeded in her embassy.

numbness all over his body, of which he soon died.—Le Clerc's When she got home, she found her husband rioting and

Commentary, and Dis. de statua salis.

d The reason of Saul's putting this indignity upon David, was drinking ; so that she deferred telling him of what had to extinguish as far as he could, all relation and kindred, and to passed until he was a little soberer the next morning. cut off his hopes and pretences to the crown upon that account: But when he came to understand the danger he had but as the Jewish doctors are of opinion, that this Phalti, to

whom she was given, was a very pious man, and would never

approach her, because she was another man's wife, and as David a lt must be obvious to every reader, that two bottles of wine had never been divorced from her, he received her again, when wowd bear no proportion to the other parts of the present, nor he came to the throne.—Poole's Annotations, and Calmet's answer the exigencies which David's army might be in, if they Commentary. be understood of such bottles as are now commonly in use with e The inconstancy, falseness, and implacable rage of this prince us: but in these eastern countries, they used to carry and keep is really inconceivable. Not long ago, he was obliged to David their wine and water in leather bags, made on purpose to hold for his life, and acknowledged his error, and made David swear liquid things, which vessels they called, or at least we translate, that he would be kind and merciful to his posterity; and yet now bottles. Such were the bottles which the Gibeonites brought to he openly declares himself again his enemy, and goes in pursuit Joshua's camp, which they said were worn out, and torn in their of him to kill him.- Patrick's Commentary, pretended long journey, Josh, ix. 13. And of such as those it f This may seem a bold and strange attempt for two persons is not unlikely, that our Saviour speaks, Mat. ix. 17. where, to go into the midst of an army of 3000 chosen men; but in in the marginal note of our old Bible, bottles are explained by answer to this, many things may be considered: as that, accordbags of leather, or skins, borachios, wherein wine was carried on ing to the accounts of many credible historians, several gallant asses or camels; and that two such vessels as these might hold men have attempted things of no less danger and difficulty than a quantity of wine proportionate to the rest of the present, which this was; that David had all along assurance given him, that Abigail carried with her, needs not to be disputed. Howell's God would preserve him in all dangers to succeed in the kingHistory, in the notes.

dom; and that at this time, he might have a particular impulse 6 The speech which the sacred historian puts in Abigail's and incitement from God to go upon this enterprise, and might mouth, upon this occasion, is certainly an artful piece of elo- possibly be informed by him, that he had cast them into a deep quence, full of fine turns and insinuations; nor is that of Jose- sleep, that he might give him this second opportunity of maniphus, especially in the conclusion, much amiss ;— Be pleased, festing to Saul his innocence, and the justness of his cause. Not Sir, I beseech you, to accept of the good will of your poor servant to say, that as secrecy, at this time, was the great point, David in these small presents, and upon my humble request, to pass might think himself safer, in this respect, with one single comover the offence of my husband, who has so justly incurred your panion, than with more.-Poole's Annotations, and The Life of displeasure; for there is nothing so well becoming the character | King David, of a person, whom providence designs for a crown, as clemency and compassion.'-Jewish Antiquities, b. 6. c. 14,

g That it was customary for warriors, when they laid them down to rest, to have their arms placed in order by them, is evi

Jea

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A. M. 2888. A. C. 1116; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 4301. A. C. 1110. I SAM, 1. TO THE END. head, a he bid him bring with him, that he might show | king of Gath, a safe conduct for himself and his retinue, the king how much his life had been at his mercy: and he, for some time, lived in the royal city; but not liking accordingly when they had got at a convenient distance, his accommodation here so well, as he grew in favour David, with a loud voice, called unto Abner, and, in with the king ever more and more, he obtained of him an ironical manner, upbraided him with this neglect of at last to have the d town of Ziklag assigned for his bapreserving the king's life, since his spear, and the cruise bitation, and, as soon as he was settled here, several of of water that were so near his bed's head, were so easily Saul's best officers and soldiers came over to him. taken from him; and when Saul, upon hearing his voice, David at first had some suspicion of them; but having, came out of the camp, and spake to him, he expostulated for some time, made trial of their fidelity, he received with him, much in the same manner as he did after his them into his service, and gave them commands : and escape from the cave, with this additional complaint, with this accession to his army he was enabled to make that by thus expelling him from his own country, he several excursions against the e Amalekites, and other forced him to converse with infidels, and, as much as in nations, in which he was accustomed to kill all, that him lay, to embrace their religion. Whereupon Saul, none might carry information, and, at the same time, by accusing himself of cruelty, and applauding David's certain ambiguous expressions, made the king believe, generosity, confessed his guilt, and promised, for the that the booty he brought back with him, was taken from future, never to make any further attempts upon his the Israelites, which was no unpleasant news. life.

In short, to such a degree of confidence was he grown But notwithstanding these specious declarations, Da- with Achish, that he proposed taking him along with vid, who knew the instability of Saul's temper, and how hiin to the war, which the Philistines had at this time impossible it was for him to live in safety, while he con- declared against Saul; but some of the chief men about tinued in his dominions, determined at last to go over him declaring against it, as being apprehensive that in to the Philistines; and having obtained from e Achish, the day of battle he might possibly turn against them,

prevailed with the king to dismiss him. This was an dent from what Silius Italicus tells us of Mago, Hannibal's bro agreeable turn to David ; yet he so far dissembled the ther. “He, following the warlike custom of his forefathers, lay resting his wearied limbs on a bull's hide, and in sleep forgot the heavy cares of life; not far from the hero was his sword fixed in interest. But whether David did well or ill in either saing for the earth, and on its hilt was suspended his tremendous helmet, or accepting of the protection of this foreign king, is a point while around him on the ground his shield and coat of mail and that we shall have occasion to discuss hereafter.- Patrick's and spear, and bow, and sling, lay huddled together.”—B. vii. But Calmet's Commentaries; and The Life of King David, long before Silius, Homer describes the Thracians sleeping in d Ziklag was situate in the extreme parts of the tribe of Judah this manner in their tents: “The toil-worn heroes slept and near southwards, not far from Hormah, where the Israelites received them their beautiful armour hung in graceful order,” &c.-a defeat while they sojourned in the wilderness. In the division

of the land of Canaan, it was first given to the tribe of Judah, a l Sam. xxvi. 7. A description very similar to this is given (Josh, xv, 31.) and afterwards to that of Simeon, (Josh. xix. 5.) by Homer of Diomed sleeping in his arms with his soldiers but the Philistines seem all along to have kept possession : so that about him, and spears sticking upright in the earth.

it never came into the hands of either tribe, until by the gift of Without his tent bold Diomed they found,

Achish, it became the peculiar inheritance of David and his sucAll sheath'd in arms, his brave companions round;

cessors. Why David desired of Achish the liberty to retire to Each sunk in sleep, extended on the field,

this place, was to avoid the envy which the number of his alHis head reclining on his heavy shield ;

tendants might possibly occasion; to secure his people from the A wood of spears stood by, that fixed upright,

infection of idolatry; to enjoy the free exercise of his own reliShot from their tiashing points a quiv'ring light.

gion; and to gain an opportunity of enterprising something Iliad, üi. 89.- Pope.- Ep.

against the enemies of God, without the knowledge or observa6 This speech, which David makes to Abner, according to tion of the Philistines. Calmet's Commentary, and Povie's Josephus, is to this efiect. •Are not you a fit man to be a Annotations. prince's favourite, a general of his army, to take upon you the e In 1 Sam. xv. 7. we read, that “Saul smote the Amalekites, guard of his royal person, and under all these honourable obliga- and utterly destroyed all the people with the edge of the sword; tions, to lie dozing, and stretching yourself at ease, when your and yet we find here David making frequent incursions upon the, master's life is in danger ? Can you tell me, what is become Amalekites ; and therefore the meaning of the former passage of the king's lance, and the pitcher of water, that were this night must be, that Saul destroyed as many of them as fell into his taken by the enemy out of his tent, and from his very bedside, hands; for several of them might make their escape from Saul and you, in the mean time, all snoring about him, without into the deserts that lay towards Arabia Felix, and upon his knowing any thing of the matter? Whether this was neglect retreat, return and repossess their old habitation.—Le Clerc's or treachery, it is the same thing; you certainly deserve to lose Commentary. your head for it.'-Jewish Antiquities, b. 6. c. 14.

I The words wherein David answered this question of Achish, c Whether this was the same Achish, mentioned i Sam, xxi. • Whither have you made a road to-day ?' are these, ' Against 10. with whom David took shelter at his first flight from Saul, the south of Judah, and against the south of the Jeralmeclites

, or some successor of the same name, is a matter of some con- and against the south of the Kenites,” (1 Sam, xxvii. 10.) By jecture: His being called Achish, the son of Maoch,' seems to which nations David, in reality, meant the Geshurites, and the imply that he was a different person ; because, in the nature of Gezerites, who were both of them relicts of the Canaanites, whom things, these words can have no use, but only to distinguish this God ordered to be extirpated, and who did, in truth, live to the Achish from another of the same name.

But whoever it was, south of Judah; but Achish understood him in a quite contrary it is highly probable, that he either had invited David to come sense, namely, that he had fallen upon his own countrymen. So thither for his security, or that David had sent beforehand am- that since the formality of a lie consists in our imposing upon bassadors to treat with him, and to obtain his royal promise of those with whom we converse, we cannot but allow, that though protection. And this we are the rather induced to believe, be- David's answer may not be called a downright lie, yet it is an cause both found their advantage by this alliance: David se- equivocation with an intent to deceive, badly comporting with cured himself against the persecutions of Saul; and Achish, that honesty and simplicity which became David, both as a prince knowing David's valour, and the number of troops which came and professor of the true religion, wherein he is no way to along with him, thought he should give a powerful diversion to be excused, and much less to be imitated. Poole's Annotathe forces of Israel, if he could at this time attach David to his tions.

Il. x.

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A. M. 2888. A. C. 1118; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 4301. A. C. 1110. I SAM. I, TO THE END. matter, that the king, to oblige his nobles, was forced to resolved to consult some one of this profession, in order be very pressing and importunate with him to return to to know what the fate of this war would be. At Endor, Ziklag; which accordingly he did, and in his march about three leagues from Mount Gilboa, he was told thither, was joined by several of the tribe of Manasseh, there lived a 8 witch or sorceress : and therefore dis. as those of Gad and Benjamin had done before, to a guising himself, and taking but two servants with him, considerable augmentation of his forces. And well it so that he might not be suspected, he came to the woman happened; for upon his return to Ziklag, he found that by night, and desired of her i to raise up the ghost of the Amalekites had burned and pillaged the place, a and Samuel. carried away his two wives, and all the people that were Whether it was the ghost of Samuel, which God, upon therein ; and, what was no small accession to this mis- this occasion, permitted to appear, or some evil spirit fortune, his soldiers mutinied against him, as if he had whom the witch, by her enchantments, might raise up ; been the occasion of it. David, however, marching but so it was, that from this spectre k the woman learned away immediately, and having gained intelligence which that it was Saul who had employed her; and Saul, when way the enemy took, soon came up with them, fell upon he saw it, bowed his face to the ground.

The apparithem, and cut them to pieces; and not only recovered all tion spake first, and demanding the reason why he had the persons and the booty which they had taken, but several rich spoils likewise, that they had robbed others her incantations, and other diabolical arts, was capable of allayof in this expedition, whereof he made presents to his ing the uneasiness of his mind, or securing him from the apprefriends.

hensions of danger. It may be observed, however, that he

mentions a woman rather than a man to be consulted upon this In the mean time, the Philistine army, lay at d Shu- occasion, because he might mention that the weaker sex might nean, and Saul and his forces were encamped in Mount more easily be deceived by evil spirits, and were generally more Gilboa, from whence having a prospect of the enemy's addicted to these unlawful practices.-Calmet's and Patrick's

Commentaries. strength, e his courage failed him, when he saw how much more numerous the Philistines were, and found, at her belly, or stomach,' as most magicians affected to do: and

9 The Septuagint have called her, 'a woman that speaks from the same time, that God, in this pressing juncture, would some modern authors have informed us, that there were women not be consulted by him, nor give him any instructions who had a demon, which spake articulately from the lower part what to do. He had, some time before, banished all the of their stomachs, in a very loud, though hoarse tone: “The wizards, and such as dealt with familiar spirits, out of the spirit conversing with the witch shrieked loud and dismally.”

– 1. nation ; but being now in the utmost perplexity,' he was h They could not go the direct way; for then they must have

passed through the enemy's camp; and therefore they took a

compass, and travelled by night, that they might not be discova It may seem a little strange, that the Amalekites, who had ered; besides that the night was the properest time to consult so often been cut to pieces by David, should not, upon their suc- those that pretended to magical incantations, it being a common cess, slay, rather than carry away, the people, which they found opinion among the Greeks, as perhaps now it might be among in Ziklag: but this may be imputed either to their covetousness, the Hebrews, that none of the terrestrial demons did appear in who might keep them for sale, and to make money of them as the daytime.—Patrick's Commentary. captives; or to their cruelty, who might reserve them for more i It was a common pretence of magicians, that they could lingering and repeated torments, or perhaps for the gratification raise up ghosts from below, or make dead persons appear to deof their brutal lusts; though principally it is to be ascribed to clare unto them future events. “Gore was poured out into a God's overruling providence, who restrained and set bounds to dish that thereby they might draw out the manes, those spirits of their rage.-- Poole's Annotations.

prophecy."Hor. Sat. b. 1. And therefore Saul addresses the 6 This he might seem to be, in relinquishing his own country, woman, as if he believed her abilities in that way. This how

and coming to Ziklag; in provoking the Amalekites by the ever shows, not only the antiquity of necromancy, but the preey paslaughter of all that came in his way; and in going with Achish vailing opinion theo, that the soul, after the death of the body,

to war, while he left the place, where their wives and children did survive; otherwise it would have been impertinent for Saul were, unguarded.-- Poole's Annotations.

to desire the woman to raise up Samuel. Which makes it the c His friends were chietly those of his own tribe; but besides greater wonder, that we have nowhere, in the Old Testament, these, we find he sent to others, namely, to the inhabitants of the a positive declaration of the soul's immortality.-- Calmet's and Le city of Bethel, which belonged to the tribe of Ephraim, and this Clerc's Commentaries. he did, not only in the acknowledgment of the shelter and support k How the woman me to know it to be Samuel, we may which he had received from them in his banishment, but in pros- thus imagine. She saw an apparition she did not expect; she pect of their future favour and interest, in case there should hap- knew the prophet; she knew the veneration which Saul had for pen & vacancy in the throne.Le Clerc's and Patrick's him; she knew that prophets were only sent to kings; and she Commentaries.

knew withal, that her art, whatever it was, had never before a Shunem was a city on the borders of the tribe of Issachar, that time exhibited a person of that figure to her; and from about five miles to the south of Mount Hermon, according to St hence she concluded, that the apparition must needs be Samuel, Jerome and Eusebius, who tells us likewise, that Gilboa was a and the person who came to consult her, in all probability was ridge of mountains, six miles distant from Scythopolis, anciently Saul.- The History of the Life of King David. called Bethshan; and that Endor was a town in the valley of I The words of Samuel are, why hast thou disquieted me, Jezreel, at the foot of Mount Gilboa.—Wells' Geography of the and brought me up ?' which seem to imply, that Samuel was Old Testament; and Le Clerc's Commentary.

raised up by the force of this woman's enchantments. But as it e The Philistines must have had, on this occasion, several hired is not in the power of witches to disturb the rest of good men, forces, otherwise Saul had no reason to have been afraid of them, and bring them into the world when they please, it is much because the small tract which the Philistines inhabited could not more rational to think, that the Scripture here expresses itself in possibly supply them with an army any thing equal to the He- a manner suitable to the prejudice of the vulgar, among whom brews, who, in some of their wars, have carried to the field some it was a common notion, that these incantations gave trouble to hundred thousands of men.-Le Clerc's Commentary.

the souls that were at rest. For which reason, they were either A strange infatuation this of Saul! He had banished all to be appeased by offerings, or constrained by the force of enchantwizards and sorcerers out of his kingdom, as a dangerous sort of ments: for so the tragedian has informed us, “ He pours out people, who made profession of a wicked and unwarrantable art; the magic song, and in a threatening tone hurriedly sings whatand yet he here inquires after one, and puts his whole confidence ever either appeases or coustraius the airy spirit.” -Seneca in in what he had so wisely exploded before ; as if a witch with Epid.

d

A. M. 2888. A. C. 1116; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 4301. A. C. 1110. I SAM. I. TO THE END. raised him from the dead, was answered by Saul, that , adab and Malchishua, were killed upon the spot, and the the Philistines, with a powerful army had invaded him, whole army put in confusion. and in his distress, God had forsaken him, and would Saul defended himself as well as man could do ; but give no answer « which way soever he consulted him. the small party that remained with him, being entirely To whom the spirit replied, that for his disobedience in broken, and the e enemy's archers pressing hard upon not destroying the Amalekites, God had taken away the him, he found himself so weakened with his wounds and kingdom from his family, and given it to David; and as loss of blood, that for fear of falling into their hands, to the fate of the war, the Philistines, the next day, and being insulted, he fell upon his own sword, and 60 should rout his army, and he and his sons fall in the died. He had requested of his armour-bearer before battle,

this to despatch him; but his armour-bearer was startled Saul had no sooner heard his doom, but he fainted at the proposal and refused to do it : however, when be away; and as he had eaten nothing for some consider- saw his master dead, he desperately followed his able time, the woman and his servants, with much ado, example, and in the same manner put an end to his life. prevailed with him to take some refreshment : which The next day, when the Philistines came to take a view when he had done, he went away, and marched all night, of the field of battle, finding the bodies of Saul and his that he might come early enough to the camp next sons among the slain, they stripped them of their armorning.

mour, cut off their heads, and sent expresses to every The next morning the two armies met, and engaged; place of their victory. 8 Their armour they sent to the but the Israelites were forced to give way, and main- temple of Ashtaroth, their heads they fixed up in the tained a running fight, until they came to mount Gilboa, where, gaining the advantage of the ground, they at- dedition, and so a civil war might have arisen concerning the tempted to rally again, but with as little success as be- successor, which, by his dying in this manner, was prevented. — fore. Saul and his sons did all that was possible for Poole's Annotations. brave men to do; but the Philistines aiming wholly at armies, or battles, before this, in which they are said to have

e There is no mention of archers in any of the Philistines' them, in a short time, overpowered them with numbers, pressed hard upon Saul, as doubtless they were of great advantage so that Jonathan and two others of his brothers, Abin- to the Philistines in making their attack; 1st, because an assault

with this kind of weapon was new and surprising, and therefore

generally successful; and, 2dly, because the arrows destroying the a The sacred historian has reckoned up three several ways of Israelites at a distance, before they came to close fight, threw inquiring of God, namely, by dreams, by Urim, and by pro- them naturally into terror and confusion. And for this reason phets; and it may not be amiss to observe, that there were the some think, that when David came to the throne, he taught the same methods of consulting their gods among the Gentiles; Israelites the use of the bow, (as we read 2 Sam. i. 18.) that they as it appears by what Achilles says in the council of the might not be inferior to the Philistines, nor fall into the like disGreeks, when met together to consult about the plague which aster that Saul had done; and for this reason it certainly was, Apollo sent among them. “Come now let us address some pro- that when he had made a peace with the Philistines, he took some phet or priest, or interpreter of dreams, for dreams ever are from of their archers, who in the following books are frequently menJove.

tioned under the name of Cherethites, to be his body guards.b The phrase wherein Samuel expresses himself, is this,'to Patrick's Commentary, and The History of the Life of King morrow shalt thou and thy sons be with me.' Where the word David. to-morrow, as some interpreters imagine, is not to be taken in a

f The learned and ingenious author of the Historical Accomi strict sense, because, as they conceive, this battle was not fought of the Life of King David, seems to make it evident, that Saul till some time after; but in the passage before us, there seems and his armour-bearer died by the same sword, namely, that to be no reason why to-morrow should not be taken literally. which belonged to the armour-bearer. Now, it is an established For as Endor was at no great distance from the Israelites' camp, tradition of the Jewish church,' says he, “that this armour-hearer Saul might go that night, consult the witch, stay, and eat with was Doeg the Edomite, who, by Saul's command, slew such a her, and get back to the camp before it was light. The next number of priests in one day, (1 Sam. xxii. 18.) and if so, then day the battle begins ; Saul is vanquished, and seeing his army Saul and his executioner fell both by the same weapon wherewith routed, despairs, and stabs himself. All this might very well be they had before massacred the servants of the Lord. Even as done in the space of twelve or fourteen hours; and therefore I Brutus and Cassius killed themselves with the same swords with see no occasion why we should depart from the plain significa- which they treacherously murdered Cæsar; I say treacherously tion of the words—Calmet's Commentary.

murdered, because they lay in his bosom at the same time that c Josephus seems to be very warm in his commendation of they meditated his death.'—Vol. 1. this woman's generosity to Saul. “She received him, treated g We have taken notice before, that it was an ancient custom him, and relieved him; and all this so cheerfully, and so frankly, among sundry nations to hang up the arms and other spoils taken that she gave him all she had, without any prospect of reward; from the enemy, in the temples of their gods, as trophies and for she knew that he was doomed to die. And what is more,

monuments of their victory; and need only remark here, that the this she did for the very man whose prohibition had been her custom prevailed among the Greeks and Romans, as appears ruin.' But he rashly supposes, that in the words of the sacred from this passage of Virgil:-“In the hallowed halls hang may history, the narration is accurate, and defective in no one cir- an instrument of war; battle chariots taken from the foe, shattered cumstance; whereas, for any thing we know, this woman was far axes, helmets, huge bars of gates, javelins, shields, and rostra from being poor; Saul had amply rewarded her for raising up wrenched from war ships."-Æneid 7. Samuel, and his attendant might give her a round price for her h 1 Sam. xxxi. 10. The custom of dedicating to the gods the lamb. And though it must be owned, that her address to the spoils of a conquered enemy, and placing them in their temples king is tender and respectful enough; yet whether it proceeded as trophies of victory, is very ancient. Homer represents Hee from fear or affection, may admit of some debate.-- Le Clerc's tor as promising that, if he should conquer Ajax in single combat

, Commentary.

he would dedicate his spoils to Apollo:d It was certainly no small grief to David to hear of Jonathan's

And if Apollo, in whose aid I trust, death, and a trial it might be of his patience and resignation to

Shall stretch your daring champion in the dust, the divine will; but still there seems to be a direction of provi

Jf mine the glory to despoil the foe, dence in suffering him to be slain, that David might more easily

On Phæbus' temple I'll his arms bestow. come to the throne. For though Jonathan, no doubt, would have

Iliad.- Pope. made a voluntary dedition of it, yet as he was the people's great Pausanias says, the architraves of the temple of Apollo a favourite, some there might possibly be, who would not allow of the Delphi were decorated with golden armour, bucklers suspre udied

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A. M. 2888. A. C. 1116; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 4301, A. C. 1110. I SAM. I. TO THE END. temple of Dagon, and their bodies they hung upon gib- membered the story of the walls of Jericho 3 falling down bets against the walls of Bethshan. But the inhabitants by the power of this ark's seven times surrounding them. of Jabesh-Gilead, hearing of this indignity, and retain. They had heard of the defeat which their forefathers ing a grateful sense of the services Saul had done them, had suffered, when they presumed to march against the sent a party of their best soldiers by night, who took Canaanites without their leader, and without this ark ; down their bodies, and brought them away to Jabesh, and were fond enough to imagine, that God himself where the people first a burned the remains of their flesh; might be looked upon as overcome, if the Philistines next honourably interred their bones and ashes, in a should have the advantage, when the ark of his presence grove that was near their city; and then for the space of was with them. By this means, therefore, they thought to seven days, fasted and made great lamentation for interest his honour in the war, and make him responsible, theni.

as it were, for any disaster that should befall them; and upon these motives it was that they sent for the ark.

But because they presumed to send for it, without ever consulting God, as they used to do upon all momentous

affairs; because the iniquities of the people were become CHAP. II.--Difficulties obviated, and Objections

so enormous, as not to deserve any longer the divine answered.

presence among them; and because the flagitiousness of

the priests, who were killed in defending the ark, had Is the fourth chapter of this book of Samuel we read, for a long time, called for some judgment upon them ; that upon a defeat which the Israelites had received from that therefore his predictions concerning the sons of Eli the Philistines, the elders of Israel advised together in might be fulfilled, he permitted the ark to be taken, as council what might be the occasion of their ill success; thinking it more inconsistent with his honour to afford Wherefore,' say they,“ hath God smitten us to-day, assistance to the wicked and presumptuous, than to admit before the Philistines?". The justness of their cause, of the profanation even of the most sacred things. What they thought, was enough to entitle them to God's favour,

an affliction the loss of this ark was to the people of how wicked soever they were in their lives; and there- Israel we may learn from the sad fate of li, and his fore, without any thought of amending these, they daughter-in-law, who both died for grief at the bare devised another expedient that would not fail of securing hearing of it; and therefore we may suppose that a farthem victory : "Let us fetch the ark of the covenant of ther reason for God's permitting it, might be, to bring the Lord,' say they, “out of Shiloh, that when it comes his own people to a sense of their apostasy and ingraamong us, it may save us out of the hand of our enemies.'titude to him, when they came to consider what a damage * They had good reason to look upon the ark of the they suffered in the departure of this symbol of his precovenant as a certain token of the presence of God

sence, which was deservedly esteemed the glory of among them, and of his protection over them. They had

Israel, had frequent experience of battles won by virtue of his

What afflictions the taking or withholding the ark presence,

and lost in the absence of it ; and whenever they brought upon the Philistines, the fall of their god Dagon, had this token of the divine assistance along with them, the mice, the emerods, the pestilence, and other sore they always esteemed themselves invincible. They re-judgments, do abundantly testify; and therefore we may

suppose yet farther, that God's design in permitting this "1 Sam. iv. 3.

? Calmet's Commentary. capture of the ark, was to demonstrate his power among by the Athenians, after the battle of Marathon, and shields the heathens, and to let the Philistines know, that his taken from the Gauls under Brennus.—Chandler's Travels in dominion reached everywhere ; that he was equally the Greece, p. 262.-ED.

Lord both of the conquerors and conquered; and that a lt is certain that the usage among the Hebrews was not to the pretended deities whom they adored, in comparison burn, but to embalm the bodies of their dead with aromatic spices; but in this case the people of Jabesh might act otherwise, of hin, were of no avail. either because the bodies of Saul and his sons were, by this time, It was from an intent, therefore, to illustrate his al60 dried or corrupted, that they were not fit to be embalmed; or mighty power, and not from any inability to preserve it; because they were apprehensive, that if they should embalm that God suffered this ark of the covenant to be taken; them, and so bury them, the people of Bethshan might, at one time or other, come and dig them up, and fix them against their and though what the Jews call the shechinah, or visible walls again; and therefore the Jabeshites thought it advisable to token of God's presence, which abode under the two recede from their common practice, and for the greater security, cherubim upon the propitiatory, or covering of the 'ark, to imitate the heathens in this particular: “Weeping for their in the shape of the cloud, might not be so apparent, after gentle companion, they gathered up his whitened bones into a golden uro." (Hom. ii. xxiii.)—Calmet's and Le Clerc's Com- | it fell into the hands of the Philistines; yet that it had mentary.

divine and miraculous power attending it, is evident by It seems a little strange, that we nowhere read of any gene their own confession, who, upon seeing the destruction ral mourning that was made for Saul and his sons, who died in that its presence had occasioned, do frankly declare, battle; but the national troubles, which followed upon his death, might perhaps be an obstruction to this. David and his men that “the ark of the God of Israel should not abide with mourned but one day for Saul: and therefore, when it is said of the them, because his hand was sore upon them, and upon Jabeshites, that they fasted seven days, their fasting must not be Dagon their god.' understood in a strict sense, as if they ate nothing all this time,

It was a particular prohibition, 'that not only the but in a more large and general signification, as it is used both in sacred and profane writers, namely, that they lived very abste

common people, but even the Levites themselves, should miously, ate little, and that seldom, and that but mean food, and instead of wine drank water only.- Calmet's Commentary, and : Josh, vi. 4. *Num, xiv. 44, 45. Si Sam, iv, 22. Poole's Annotations.

6 1 Sam, v. 7.

* Num. iv. 20.

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