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A. M. 128. A. C. 3876; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 200. A. C. 5211. GEN. CH. 4. TO VER. 25. fort to his disconsolate parents. So that Cain must have ing the mark which God set upon Cain, to prevent his been an hundred and twenty-nine years old when he abdi- being killed. Some think that God stigmatized him on cated his own country; at which time there might be a his forehead with a letter of his own name, or rather set sufficient quantity of mankind upon the face of the earth, such a brand upon him, as signified him to be accursed. to the number, it may be, of an hundred thousand souls. Others fancy that God made him a peculiar garment, to For if the children of Israel, from seventy persons, in distinguish him from the rest of mankind, who were the space of a hundred and ten years, became six hun- clothed with skins. Some imagine, that his head condred thousand fighting men, (though great numbers of tinually shaked; others, that his face was blasted with them were dead during this increase,) we may very well lightning ; others, that his body trembled all over : and suppose, that the children of Adam, whose lives were so others again, that the ground shook under him, and very long, might amount at least to a hundred thousand made every one fly from him : whereas the plain sense in a hundred and thirty years, which are almost five of the words is nothing more, than that God gave Cain generations.
a sign, or wrought a miracle before his face, thereby to Upon this supposition, it will be no hard matter to convince him, that though he was banished into a strange find Cain a wife in another country; a though it is much land, yet no one should be permitted to hurt him ; and more probable that he was married before his banish- to find out the land into which he was banished, is not ment, because we may well think that all the world so hard a matter as some may imagine. would abhor the thoughts of marriage with such an impi- The description which Moses gives us of it is this :ous vagabond and murderer. Upon this supposition we 3 And Cain went out from the presence of the Lord, and may likewise find him men enough to build and inhabit a dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east side of Eden; and city; especially considering that the word Hir, which there he built a city, and called the name of it after the we render city, may denote no more than a certain nun- name of his son Enoch.' Hereupon the learned Huetius ber of cottages, with some little hedge or ditch about observes, that Plolemy, in his description of Susiana, them: and this cluster of cottages (as was afterwards places there a city called Anuchtha; and that the syllacustomary) he might call by his son's name rather than ble tha, which ends the word, is, in the Chaldee lanhis own, which he was conscious was now become odious guage, a termination pretty common to nouns feminine, every where. Upon this supposition, lastly, we may and consequently no part of the name itself: from account for Cain's fear, lest every one that lighted on whence he infers, that this Anuchtha, mentioned by him would kill him ; for by this time mankind was Ptolemy, is the same with the city Enoch mentioned by greatly multiplied, and ? though no mention is made of Moses; especially since Ptolemy places it on the east Abel's marriage, (as, in so short a compendium, many side of Eden, which agrees very well with what Moses things must necessarily be omitted,) yet be perhaps says of the land of Nod. “But though it be allowed, might have sons who were ready to pursue the fugitive, that Anuchtha and Enoch be the same name, yet it will in order to revenge their father's death ; or some of his not therefore follow, that there was no other city so own sisters, enraged against him for the loss of their called but that which was built by Cain. It is certain, brother, might possibly come upon him unawares, or that there was another Enoch, the son of Jared, and fawhen they found him asleep, and so dispatch him. ther of Methuselah, a person of remarkable piety, in the Various are the conjectures of learned men concern- antediluvian age; and why might not the city, mentioned
by Ptolemy, be called after him, in respect to his illus"Le Clerc's Commentary. ? Patrick's Commentary.
trious character, and miraculous exemption from death ? a There is an original tradition, that Eve, at her two first
or rather, why might it not take its name from some birtlis, brought twins, a son and a daughter; Cain, with his sis- other Enoch, different from both the former, and living ter Azron, and Abel, with his sister Awin; that when they came some generations after the flood ? For it is scarce ima-, to years of maturity, Adam proposed to Eve, that Cain should ginable, how the city of Enoch, built before the flood, marry Abel's twin-sister, and Abel Cain's, because that was some small remove from the nearest degree of consanguinity, should either stand or retain its ancient name, after sú which even in those days, was not esteemed entirely lawful; that violent a concussion, and total alteration of the face of Cain refused to agree to this, insisting to have his own sister, nature. who was the handsomer of the two; whereupon Adam ordered Nor should it be forgot, that the province of Susiana, them both to make their offerings, before they took their wives, where Huetius places the land of Nod, is one of the most and so referred the dispute to the determination of God; that while they went up to the mountain for that purpose, the devil fruitful and pleasant countries in the world; whereas, put it into Cain's head to murder his brother, for which wicked considering that Cain's banishment was intended by God intent his sacrifice was not accepted: and that they were no to be part of his punishment, it seems more reasonable sooner come down from the mountain, than he fell upon Abel, to think, that he should, upon this account, be sent into and killed him with a stone.- Patrick's Commentary; and Universal History, No. 2.
soine barren and desolate country, remote from the place 6 Almost all the versions have committed a mistake in trans- of his nativity, and separated by mountains, and other lating ver. 15, that God had put a mark upon Cain, lest any finding him should kill him.' The original says no such thing,
3 Gen. iv, 10, 17. and the LXX have very well rendered it thus: “God set a sign
On the Site of Paradise. before Cain, to persuade him, that whoever should find him should
5 Well's Geography. not kill him. This is almost the same with what is said in Ex. the Babylonish captivity. This exposition is natural, and agreex. 1., that God did signs before the Egyptians;' and Isa. Ixvi. able to the methods of divine providence, which is wont to convince 19., that he would set a sign before the heathen;' where it is the incredulous by signs and wonders; nor could any thing else evident, that God did not mean any particular mark which assure Cain, in the fear he was under, that the first who met should be set on their bodies, but only those signs and wonders him should not kill him, after what God had said to him in the which he wrought in Egypt, to oblige Pharaoh to let his people exprobation of his crime.—Patrick's Commentary, and Saurin's go; and the miraculous manner wherein he delivered them from Dissertation.
A. M. 128. A. C. 3876, OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 200. A. C. 5211. GEN. CH. 4. TO VER. 25. natural obstructions, from the commerce of his relations. For which reason the learned Grotius is clearly of opinion, that the country into which Cain was sentenced CHAP. III.-Of the Institution of Sacrifices. to withdraw, was Arabia Deserta : to the barrenness of which, the curse that God pronounces against him, seems The first plain account that we meet with of sacrifices, pot improperly to belong. 1. And now thou art cursed is here in the examples of Cain and Abel. Mention is from the earth, and when thou tillest the ground, it shall made indeed of the skins of some beasts, where with not, henceforth, yield unto thee her strength.' But after God directed our first parents to be clothed; but exposall, their opinion is not to be found fault with, who sup-itors are not agreed, whether what we render skins pose, that the word Nod, which signifies an exile, or fu- might not denote some other sort of covering, or shelter gilire, is not a proper, but only an appellative name; from the weather ; or, if they were the real skins of and that therefore, wherever the country was where Cain beasts, whether these beasts were offered unto God in took up his abode, that, in after ages, was called the sacrifice or no; whereas, in the Scripture before us, we land of Nod, or the land of the banished man.
have oblations of both kinds, bloody and unbloody sacThus the account, which Moses gives us of the mur-rifices, (as they are commonly distinguished;) the fruits der of Abel, stands clear of the imputation of all absur- of the field, offered by Cain, and the firstlings of the dity or contradiction, wherewith the lovers of infidelity flock, by Abel.' So that from hence we may very prowould gladly charge it. The time when his brother perly take an occasion, to inquire a little into the origmurdered him, was in the 129th year of the world's cre- inal of sacrifices; for what ends and purposes they were ation, when, « according to a moderate computation, at first appointed; and by what means they became an their and their parent's descendants could not but be acceptable service unto God. very numerous. The manner in which he murdered him The Scriptures indeed make no mention of the first might not be with a sword or spear (which perhaps then institution of sacrifices; and from their silence, in this were not in use,) since a club, or stone, or any rural respect, some have imagined that they proceeded originstrument, in the hand of rage and revenge, was suffi- inally from a dictate of nature, or a grateful inclination cient to do the work. The place where he murdered to return unto God some of his own blessings. But in him, is said to be in the field, 2 not in contradistinction so short an account of so large a compass of time, (as to any large and populous city then in being, but rather we have said before,) it may well be expected, that sevto the tents, or cottages, where their parents and offeral things should be omitted. To this purpose, therespring might then live. The cause of his murdering fore, others have observed, that Moses says nothing of birn, was ' a spirit of emulation, which, not duly man- Enoch's prophecy; nothing of Noah's preaching ; aged, and made a spur to virtue, took an unhappy turn, nothing of the peopling of the world; though these be and degenerated into malice: and the true reason of referred to in other parts of Scripture : 8 nor does he all (as the apostle has stated it) was, that * « Cain was of here introduce the sacrifices of Cain and Abel, with an that wicked one, and slew his brother, because his own intent to inform us of the origin of that rite, but merely works were wicked, and his brother's righteous.' to let us know what was the unhappy occasion of the
first murder that ever was committed in the world.
The ' Jews indeed, to whom he primarily wrote, knew Gen. iv, 11,
* Le Clerc's Commentary. Skuckford's Connection. '1 John iii. 12.
very well, that their own sacrifices were of divine insti
tution, and that God had manifested his acceptance of a Though we should suppose that Adam and Eve had no other children than Cain and Abel in the year of the world 123, which them, at the very first solemn oblation after that insti(* the best chronologers agree) was the time of Abel's murder; tution, by a miraculous fire from the divine presence ; yet, as it must be allowed, that they had daughters married with nor had they any reason to doubt, but that they were so these two sons, we require no more, than the descendants of these instituted, and so accepted from the beginning : and two children, to make a considerable number of men upon the therefore there was less reason for Moses to expatiate earth in the said year 128. For, supposing them to have been married in the 19th year of the world, they might easily have upon a matter, which had doubtless descended to them bad each of them eight children, some males, some females, in in a clear and uninterrupted tradition. the 25th year. In the 50th year there might proceed from them, A grateful sense of God's blessings will, at any time, in a direct line, 64 persons; in the 74th year, there would be engage us to offer him the calves of our lips, (as the amount to 32,769. If to these we add the other children, de- Scripture terms them,) or the warmest expressions of scended from Cain and Abel, their children, and the children of our praise and thanksgiving ; but what dictate of nature, their children, we shall have in the aforesaid 1220 year, 421,164 or deduction of reason, could ever have taught us, that, Den, capable of generation, without ever reckoning the women, to destroy the best of our fruits, or the best of our catbuah old and young, or such children as are under the age of 17 tle, would have been a service acceptable to God ? Fars.- See Chronological and Geographical Dissertation on the Bible History, in the Journal of Paris, January, 1712, vol. Goodness, and mercy, and lenity, and compassion, are Il. p. 6.
the ideas we have of that infinite being ; and who would There is an oriental tradition, that when Cain was confirmed then have thought, that putting an innocent and inoffen. in the design of destroying his brother, and knew not how to go sive creature to torture, spilling its blood upon the about it, the devil appeared to him in the shape of a man, holding a bird in his hand; and that, placing the bird upon a rock, earth, and burning its flesh upon an altar, would have he took up a stone, and with it squeezed its head in pieces. Cain, instructed by this example, resulved to serve his brother in
5 Jude 14, 6 2 Pet, ii, 15. ? See Gen. iv. he same way; and therefore, waiting till Abel was asleep, he lified up a large stone, and let it fall, with all its weight, upon
Outram on Sacrifices. Revelation Eramined. Lis head, and so killed him; whereupon God caused him to hear thou pass in perpetual fear.'—Calmet's Dictionary on the word I voice from heaven, to this purpose, « The rest of thy days shalt | Abel.
A. M. 128. A. C. 3876; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 209. A. C. 5211. GEN. CH. 4. TO VER. 23. been either a grateful sight, or an offering of a sweet, ficing among them is thought to be too late, why may smelling savour' to the Most High ?
not we suppose, that they received it by tradition from No ' being, we know, can have a right to the lives of their forefathers, who had it originally from Adam, as other creatures, but their Creator only, and those on he had it from God by a particular revelation ? Now whom he shall think proper to confer : but is evident, that there was some warrant and precept of God for it, that God, at this time, had not given man a right to the seems to be intimated by the author to the Hebrews, creatures, even for necessary food, much less for unne- when he tells us, that?" by faith Abel offered unto God cessary cruelty; and therefore to have taken away their a more acceptable sacrifice, than Cain :' for 8 if “faith lives, without God's positive injunction, would have cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God, been an abominable act, and enough to desecrate all faith is founded on some word, and relieth on divine their oblations. When therefore we read, that his ac- command or promise ; and therefore, when Abel offered ceptance of sacrifices of old was usually testified by the best of his flock in sacrifice, he did what was enway of inflammation, or setting them on fire, by a ray joined him by God, and his practice was founded upon of light which issued from his glorious presence, we a divine command, which was given to Adam, and his must allow, that this was a proof of his previous insti- sons, though Moses, in his short account of things, tution of them; otherwise we cannot possibly think, why makes no mention of it. he should so far concern himself about them, as even In fine, if it appears from history, that sacrifices have to be at the expense of a miracle, to denote his appro- been used all over the world, have spread as far, as bation of them. 2. Who hath known the mind of the universally among men, as the very notions of a Deity; Lord,' is the Apostle's way of arguing, or who hath if we find them almost as early in the world as mankind been his counsellor ?' And, in like manner, without a upon the earth, and, at the same time, cannot perceive divine revelation, it would have been the height of vanity that mankind ever could, by the light of reason, invent and presumption, to have pretended to determine the such notions of a Deity, as might induce them to think, way of reconciliation with him, and (without his order that this way of worship would be an acceptable service and appointment) to have entered upon a form of wor- to him ; if mankind indeed could have no right to the ship, entirely new and strange, by killing of beasts, and lives of the brute creation, without the concession of burning their fat. *No man,' says another Apostle, God; and yet it is evident, that they exercised such • taketh this honour to himself, but he that is called of right, and God approved of their proceeding, by visible God, as was Aaron ;' nor can any one lay hold on the indications of his accepting the sacrifices; then must promise of forgiveness of sins (which is the great design we necessarily suppose, that sacrifices were of his own of all sacrificing) any other way than by symbols of institution at first; and that they were instituted for God's own institution.
purposes well becorning his infinite wisdom and goodness. In * most nations indeed, the custom of sacrificing did For we must remember, that Adain and Eve were, at prevail : but that it did not arise from any principle of this time, become sinners, and though received into nature or reason, is inanifest from hence that the mercy, in constant danger of relapsing; that, by their gravest and wisest of the heathen philosophers always transgression, they had forfeited their lives, but as yet a condemned bloody sacrifices as impious, and unaccep- could have no adequate sense, either of the nature of table to their gods; but this they would not have done, the punishment, or the heinousness of the sin which prohad they looked upon them as any branch of natural cured it; and that now they were to beget children, who religion, which none were more warm in extolling were sure to inherit their parents' corruption and infirthan they. It is po improbable conjecture, therefore, mity. Since man, therefore, had forfeited his life by that other nations might take the rite of sacrificing from his transgressions, and God, notwithstanding, decreed the Jews, to which the devil, in heathen countries, to receive him into mercy, nothing certainly could betinight instigate his votaries, purely to ape God, and imi- ter become the divine wisdom and goodness, than the tate his ordinances: or if this commencement of sacri-establishnient of some institution, which might at once
be a monition both of the mercy of God, and the pun" Revelation Eramined. * Rom. xi. 34. ? Heb. v, 4.
ishment due to sin. And because God foresaw that Heidegger's History of the Patriarchs, Essay 1. man would often sin, and should often receive mercy, • Edward's Survey of Religion, vol. 1.
it was necessary, that the institution should be such as * Heidegger's History of the Patriarchs, Essay 8.
might frequently be repeated; and in such repetition, a It is the opinion of Tertullian, Apol. e. 46. that none of frequently remind man of his own endless demerit, and the ancient philosophers ever compelled the people to sacrifice of God's infinite goodness to him ; to which purpose the living creatures. Theophrastus is quoted by Porphyry in Eusebius' Evangelical Preparation, b. 1. c. 9. as asserting that the institution of sacrifices for sin was of excellent use and first men offered handfuls of grass; that, in time, they come to service. sacrifice the fruits of the trees: and, in after ages, to kill and of- Both from the commandment which at first was given fer cattle upon altars. Many other authors are cited for this to Adam, and the sentence which was afterwards dethe ancient sacrifice was only fruits of trees (of the vive espe- nounced against him, we learn, that death was the pecially,) and of honeycombs and wool. Empedocles on the nalty of his disobedience ; and since it was so, certainly most Ancient Times, affirms, that the first altars were not stained it was highly proper, that he should know what he was to with the blood of creatures; and Plats on Laws, b. 6. was of suffer; and consequently that he should see death in all its opinion, that living creatures were not anciently offered in sac- horror and deformity, in order to judge rightly of the rifice, but cakes of bread, and fruits, and honey, poured upon evil of disobedience. And what could exhibit this evil them; for “ The heavenly deities delight not in the sacrifice of an ox,” was an old position of more writers than Ovid.-See Shuckford's Connection, vol. 1. b. 2
: Bob. vi. 1.
* Rom. x, 17.
A. M. 126. A. C. 3876 ; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 200. A. C. 5211, GEN. CH. 4. TO VER. 25. more strongly, than the groans and struggles of inno- Thus to represent the horrid nature of sin, and to seal cent creatures, bleeding to death for his guilt, before the eternal covenant of mercy; to be types of the great his eyes, and by his own hands ? Sights of this kind expiatory sacrifice of Christ's death, and a standing are shocking to human nature even yet, though custom means of obtaining pardon and reconciliation with God, hath long made them familiar: with what horror then, seem to be some of the principal ends of God's instimay we imagine that they pierced the hearts of our first tuting sacrifices at first : and what was of use to gain parents, and how was that horror aggravated, when they them a favourable acceptance in his sight, we may, in considered themselves as the guilty authors of so much some measure, learn from the reasons, that are usually cruelty to the creatures which were about them? Nay, alleged, for his rejection of Cain's, and approbation of when the groans of these dying animals were over, what Abel's sacrifice. a sad, a ghastly spectacle must their cold carcasses Most of the Jewish interpreters have placed the difyield ? and even after their oblation, how dismal a me- ferent events of these two sacrifices in the external quanditation must it be, to consider the beauty and excel- tity or quality of them. They tell us, that Cain brought lency of these animate beings reduced to an handful of of the fruits of the ground' indeed, but not of the firstdust; especially, when they could not see them in that fruits (as he should have done,) nor the fullest ears of condition, but under sad conviction, that they themselves corn, (which he kept for himself,) but the lankest and must follow the same odious steps to destruction ? latest; and, even what he brought, 'twas with a niggardly
We can hardly conceive, how God could strike the hand and grudging mind; so that he raised God's averhuman soul with a deeper sense of misery from guilt, sion 3" by offering to him of that which cost him nothing :' or with more abhorrence of the sad cause of that misery, whereas Abel found a kind acceptance, because she than by this method of appointing sacrifices : nor can honoured the Lord with his substance :' he brought of se imagine how our first parents could have ever sus- the firstlings of his flock,' and the very best and fattest tained themselves under such aflicting thoughts, had not of them, as thinking nothing too good to be offered in God, in his infinite goodness, caused some ray of hope devotion and gratitude to him from whom he received all. to shine through this scene of mortality and misery, and 5 Allowing the maxim of the Jewish church, namely, suade sacrifices (at the same time that they were such that without blood there is no remission,' to have been lirely emblerns of the horror of guilt) the means of its good, from the first institution of sacrifice, very
learned expiation, and the seals of his covenant of grace. writer supposes, that Abel came, as a petitioner for
That God entered into a covenant of mercy with grace and pardon, and brought the atonement appointed man, immediately after the fall, is evident from the sen- for sin ; but Cain appeared before God as a just person, tence passed upon the serpent, wherein that covenant is wanting no repentance, and brought an offering in comprised: and therefore, as we find that, in after ages, acknowledgment of God's goodness and bounty, but no his usual way of ratifying covenants of this kind was by atonement in acknowledgment of his own wretched. sacrifices; so we cannot imagine that he failed to do so ness; and that upon this account his oblation was reat this time, when such mercy was more wanted than jected, as God's expostulation with bim seems to imply: ever it was since the foundation of the world. Sacrifi- ' If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted ? And if ces indeed have no natural aptitude to expiate guilt, in thou doest not well, sin lieth at thy door,' that is, if thou which sense, the apostle affirms it ? to be impossible art righteous, thy tighteousness shall save thee; but if for the blood of bulls, and of goats, to take away sins.' thou art not, by what expiation is thy sin purged ? it The death of a beast is far from being equivalent to the lieth still at thy door. death of a man, but infinitely short of that eternal death
The author to the 6 Hebrews has given us, I think, a to which the man's sinfulness does consign him : but key to this difficulty, when he tells us, that 'by faith still, as sacrifices are federal rites, and one of those ex- Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than ternal means which God had instituted, under the ante-Cain.'? The faith (of which the apostle gives us several diluvian dispensation, for man's recovery from sin, we instances in this chapter) is the belief of something decannot but suppose, but that, when piously and devoutly clared, and, in consequence of such belief, the performoffered, they were accepted by him, for the expiation of ance of some action enjoined by God: “By faith Noah, transgressions ; though it must be owned, that they did being warned by God, prepared an ark,' that is, he benat, of themselves, or by their own worthiness, atone for lieved the warning which God gave him and obediently any thing, but only in virtue of the expiatory sacrifice made the ark which he had appointed him, to make : of the Messias to come, whereof they were no more than By faith Abraham, when called' to go into a strange types and shadows. To speak strictly and properly, land, which God promised to give him for an inhertherefore, these sacrifices did not really and formally, itance, obeyed,' that is, he believed that God would give but typically and mystically expiate, that is, they did him what he had promised, and, in consequence of such not pacify God's anger, and satisfy his justice, and belief, did what God cominanded him: and thus it was, take away sin, by their own force and efficacy, but as that · Abel, by faith, offered a better sacrifice than Cain,' they were figures and representations of that universal because he believed what God had promised, that the sacrifice, which (in the divine intention)' was slain from seed of the woman should bruise the serpent's head, the foundation of the world, and, in the fulness of and, in consequence of such belief, offered such a sacritime,' was to come down from heaven, in order to fulfil the great undertaking of making atonement for the sins of all mankind.'
1 2 Sam. xxiv, 24. * Prov. iii. 9.
5 Bishop Sherlock's Use of Prophecy, dis, 3. Revelation Examined.
? Ileb. x. 4.
• Chi Pu xi. ver. 4. Shuckford's Connection, vol. 1. b. 2.
A. M. 128. A. C. 3876; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 200. A. C. 5213. GEN. CH. 4. TO VER. 25. fice for his sins, as God had appointed to be offered, until the seed should come.
CHAP. IV. * In order to offer a sacrifice by faith then, there are three things requisite. 1st, That the person who offers On the Design of Sacrifice :-On the Sacrifices of the should do it upon the previous appointment and direc
Patriarchal Dispensation. tion of God. 2dly, That he should consider it as a sign and token of the promise of God made in Christ, and of
(SUPPLEMENTAL BY THE EDITOR.) remission of sins through his blood; and 3dly, That, while he is offering, he should be mindful withal (in the SCRIPTURE assures us that Christ was 'the Lamb slain phrase of St Paul) to present himself a living sacrifice, from the foundation of the world.' But what meaning holy, and acceptable unto God.' In the first of these are we to attach to these expressions, unless we underqualifications Cain was right enough, because he had stand them as referring to the significant and emblemalearned from his father, that, as God had appointed sa- tical rite of sacrifice, instituted to prefigure the death crifices, it was his duty to offer them : but herein was his incurred by sin, and the atonement by which its guilt great defect, that while he was offering, he gave no atten- was to be expiated ? It is admitted that this atonement tion to what he was about ; nor once reflected on the pro- had a retrospective efficacy; that through it God demise of God, made in paradise, nor placed any confidence clared his righteousness for the remission of sins that in the merits of a Saviour, to recommend his services; but, were past; and have we not, therefore, the best grounds vainly imagining that his bare oblation was all that was for regarding the institution of sacrifice as having been required to his justification, he took no care to preserve intended from the beginning impressively to show forth his soul pure and unpolluted, or to constitute his mem- the death of the Redeemer? He is described as the bers as "instruments of righteousness unto God.” In Lamb of God who taketh away the sin of the world,' beshort, his oblation was the service of an hypocrite, lying cause he really fulfilled that which the sacrifice of lambs unto God, and using the external symbols of grace for and of other animals prefigured. a cloak of maliciousness ;' whereas Abel's sacrifice was
In the first promise there is allusion to the sufferings attended with awful meditations on that seed of the of the Mighty Deliverer. In order that the great truths woman’ which was to become the world's Redeemer, comprehended in this promise might be more clearly unwith warm applications to him for mercy and forgiveness, derstood and deeply felt, we have every reason to beand with holy resolutions of better obedience, of aban-lieve that sacrifice was immediately and divinely instidoning all sin, and always abounding in the work of tuted as an explanatory ordinance. Though the words the Lord;' and therefore there is no wonder, that their of the institution are not recorded, the fact cannot be services met with so different a reception. For, how- questioned; because sacrifice constituted a part of the over sacrificing was an external rite, yet the rite itself worship of God from the fall of man; and we must feel would by no means do, unless the attention of the mind, assured that it could not be acceptably used in his worand the integrity of the heart went along with it, as he ship but in consequence of divine appointment. We that killed an ox was as if he slew a man; and he that know that the inferior animals were not used as food, at sacrificed a lamb as if he cut off a dog's neck;' so de- least with the divine permission, till after the flood; and, testable in the sight of God was a the richest oblation, consequently, there could be no occasion for slaying when the sacrificer was not a good man; nay, so ready them, unless it were for sacrifice, till after that period. was he to pass by all observances of this kind, if the Our first parents having been clothed at the expense of worshipper came but, in other respects, qualified : 36 For life, and by the special interposition of God, had a he that keepeth the law bringeth offerings enough; he striking representation given them of the mode in which that taketh heed to the law offereth a peace-offering; he forfeited happiness should be restored, and of that perthat requiteth a good turn oflereth fine flour ; and he that fect righteousness by which they were justified before giveth alms sacrificeth praise. To depart from wicked God. It was an intimation to them that the Deliverer, ness is a thing pleasing to the Lord; and to forsake un- denominated the Seed of the woman, should redeen righteousness is a propitiation.'
them by his sufferings.
Thus have we presented to our view immediately after
the fall, and before the first transgressors were expelled · Heidegger's History of the Patriarchs, Essay V. from paradise, the two principal methods in which God * Isa. lxvi. 3. * Ecclus. xxxv, 1, &c.
unfolded to mankind the way of salvation, namely, proa That it is not the quality of the sacrifice, but the mind and phecy and typical sacrifice. Both these methods of disposition of the sacrificer, which God regards, was the general divine revelation were continued in the church with insentiment of the wisest heathens, as appears by that excellent creasing clearness and precision till the coming of passage in Persius :
Christ; and both were intended to direct the faith of the 'Justice upright, and sanctity of heart,
people to the Substitute and Surety of sinners, who by A polished mind, pure at its inmost core
the one offering up of himself was to obtain eternal reA breast imbued with no dishonest art,
demption. In the first promise we have the foundation These I will yield, aud duly Jove adore.'
of that series of prophecies which was delivered from Sat. 2.
age to age, which announced the divine nature, the inAnd that other in Seneca:
carnation, the sufferings, death, and subsequent glories It is not by victims, though they be most valuable and glitter of the Redeemer
. In the first sacrifice we have the with gold, that honour is paid to the gods, but
by worshipping basis of that series of typical observances, which prethem with a pious and upright heart.'-On Old Age, 1. 6. figured the mediation and atonement of the Son of God.