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A, M. 2949. A. C. 1085; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 4341. A. C. 1070. 2 SAM. i–xix. about the same age ; and that Rahab might bear Boaz in so incommoded with extraordinary heats, that the earth the sixty-second year of her age, which in those days became dry, and barren for several years, ' it hence bewas no extraordinary thing : and then it is but suppos-came a renowned fable among the poets, that by his ing farther, that Boaz was 102 years old before he begat misguidance of the horses of the sun, who is said to have Obed; Obed 111 before he begat Jesse ; and Jesse of been his father, he set the earth on fire. the same age before he begat David ; and the whole About the fourteenth year of Tolah's judging Israel, difficulty is removed: only it may be thought a little Ganymede, the son of Tros, king of Phrygia, being bestrange, that men, above 100 years old, should be capa- loved by Jupiter, as the poets fable, was by him carried ble of begetting children, until it be considered, that up to heaven in the shape of an eagle, and much against Moses and Aaron, and Joshua and Caleb, were all Juno's will made cupbearer to the gods. vigorous men at this age; that, long after this, Jehoiada, About the sixth year of Jair's government, Perseus the high priest, was 130 years old when he died; and appeared in the world, and of him the fabulous writers that, almost in our own remembrance, our countryman, have many strange stories; as, that he was begot by Thomas Parr, lived to 152, and had a son when he was Jupiter on Danae in a golden shower ; that when he 105 years old.

came to be of age he conquered the Gorgons, with their This may suffice for settling the chronology; and now queen Medusa, whose hair was interwoven with snakes ; to proceed to the history of this period. Our last con- that he subdued the inhabitants of Mount Atlas, and first nexion of the sacred and profane history we concluded delivered Andromeda, by killing the sea monster sent with the life and adventures of Sesostris, a who reigned to devour her, and then married her ; that afterwards he in Egypt, and made a very distinguished figure in several fought against the kings of Mauritania and Ethiopia, parts of the world, while the Israelites were sojourning and, returning to Greece, overcame his uncle Prætus, in the wilderness; but from the time that they entered and Polydectes king of the island Seriphus. into Canaan, 6 they seem to have had no intercourse Few things are more famous in the songs of the poets with the Egyptians, nor do their several histories at all than the expedition of those valiant Greeks that accominterfere.

panied Jason to Colchos ; e and the foundation of the All history, indeed, in this period of time, is so de- story is conceived to be this :—That the Argonauts sailed faced and corrupted with fables, that it is a hard matter to some part of Scythia, to carry offa share of the riches to discern any lineaments of truth in it; and yet it may of that country, where the inhabitants gained a great not be amiss to take notice of some of its remarkable deal of gold out of the rivers that ran from Mount Cauevents.

casus, by using sheep skins with the wool on, in order to About the thirty-ninth year of Ehud's government in take up that precious metal, from whence it was called Israel, in the time of Deucalion son of Prometheus, there the golden fleece. But the poets, out of their fruitful happened such a deluge in Thessaly, C as gave the brains, have made large additions to the story, namely, poets an occasion to say that all mankind were therein that Jason fell in love with Hypsipyle at Lemnos; and destroyed, and that Deucalion, and Pyrrha his wife, that at Colchos he married Medea, the king's daughter, re-peopled the world, by throwing stones behind them, who, being a famous witch, taught him how to kill the which were instantly changed into men and women. dragon that kept the rich fleece ; how to conquer the

Much about this time lived Phaeton, a prince of the bulls, that vomited fire; and how to sow the serpent's Ligurians, and a great astrologer, that applied himself teeth, out of which there arose an army of men; with chiefly to the study of the course of the sun ; and because, many more fictions of the like nature. in his days, the country of Italy, near the river Po, was But, of all the occurrences in this period, that which

has been niost celebrated by the poets is the siege of 'Ovid's Metamorphoses, b. 1. fab. 7.

Troy; and the probable occasion is supposed to be this: a See note on this subject, p. 336.-ED.

Not long before this remarkable event happened, the 6 We have formerly taken notice, (b. 3. c. 5. in the notes,) of the series of the Egyptian kings, written by Erastosthenes, and

seas were very much infested with pirates, who, landing preserved by Syocellus; and here to proceed with that catalogue. on the shores, seized upon all the women and cattle In the year of the world 2523, reigned in Egypt Echesius Caras they could meet with; and so carrying them off, either one year. In the year 2524, began Nitocris, and reigned six sold them in some distant country, or kept them for years. In the year 2530, began Myrtæus, and reigned twenty their own use. Hereupon Tyndarus, the father of Heyears. In the year 2552, began Thyosimares, the same that Herodotus calls Myris

, or Myrios, and reigned twelve years. In lena, considering the beauty of his daughter, caused all the year 2564, began Thyrillus, and reigned eight years. In her lovers, who were some of the principal men of the year 2572, began Semiphucares, and reigned eighteen years. Greece, to bind themselves by a solemn oath, that, if at In the year 2590, began Chuter Taurus, and reigned seven years. In the year 2597, began Cheres Philosophus, and reigned any time she should be taken from her husband, they twelve years. In the year 2609, began Chomo Ephtha, and reigned eleven years. In the year 2620, began Anchurius

2 Ovid's Metamorphoses, b. 2.f. 1. Ochus, and reigned sixty years. In the year 2680, began Pen- d With respect to the era of Phaeton and Ganymede there is teathyris, and reigned sixteen years. In the year 2696, began no evidence whatever; no good evidence indeed that such perStamenes

, and reigned twenty-three years. In the year 2719, sonages ever existed. 'Perseus is supposed to have been the most began Sistosichemes, and reigned fifty-five years. In the year ancient of all the Grecian heroes, and founder of the city of My2774, began Maris, and reigned forty-three years. In the year cenæ, of which he was the first king. According to most chro2817, began Siphous Hermes. In the year 2826, began Phru- nologists, he flourished in the year 1348 B.C. and was contemporon, or Nilus. In the year 2843, began Amurrhæus, and rary with the Hebrew judge Gideon. Sir Isaac Newton, however, reigned sixty-three years, or to the year of the world 2906.-See brings him down to the year 1028 B, C.-Bp. Gleig. Millor's Church History, c. 1, period 4.

e The Argonautic expedition was made, according to Hales, c This flood occurred B. C. 1518, or twelyo years before the in the year 1225 B. C. during the administration of the judge commencement of Ehud's administration.Hales.-ED. Abdon.-Bp. Gleig.

“ By

A. M. 2949. A. C. 1055 ; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 4341. A. C. 1070. 2 SAM. 1-xix. would join all their forces together to recover her. And | Hector fell the city, which was soon reduced to ashes, and so, being left to choose whom she would have for her its inhabitants forced to undergo a military execution. husband, she made choice of Menelaus king of Mycenæ, But, how severe soever the Greeks might be to their and brother to Agamemnon. Paris, one of the youngest conquered enemies, several historians have observed, sons of Priamus, king of Troy, upon the report of her that in their return home, they suffered almost as much beauty, came into Greece to see her, and was kindly misery as they had brought upon the Trojans. For this entertained by Menelaus; but he soon took an opportu- is the account which Thucydides gives of them.“ nity to debauch his wife, and having robbed the husband reason of their long absence, they found many alteraof a great deal of treasure, found means to make his tions when they returned, so that some of them were escape both with her and it.

driven by their neighbours from their ancient seats ; · Menelaus, as soon as his wife was gone, complained many were expelled their countries by faction; others of the injury that had been done him, to all the Grecian slain, soon after their arrival; and others deposed from princes, and required the performance of their oath; their kingdoms by such as had staid at home.” Nestor which they readily consented to, and made his brother and Pyrrhus got safe home indeed, but were slain by Agamemnon general of the forces, that were to be em- Orestes. Idomeneus and Philoctetes, upon their return, ployed in this expedition. The Greeks, however, being were soon driven away to seek for new babitations. unwilling to enter into a war, if matters could be accom-Agamemnon was, upon his first arrival, slain by his modated by a treaty, sent Ulysses and some others, as wife, and her adulterer Ægisthus, who had usurped his ambassadors to Troy, to demand Helena, and all the kingdom. Menelaus, having long wandered upon the things of value that were taken with her. What answer sea, was forced into Egypt, before he could return to the Trojans made to this demand, we are nowhere in- Sparta. Ulysses, after ten years' peregrination, and the formed; but sure it is, that the ambassadors returned loss of his whole company, came home in a poor conback so very much offended with their ill treatment, that, dition, and had much difficulty to recover the mastership in a short time, they fitted out a vast armament. of his own house. Ajax, the son of Oileus, was drowned ;

But there was an unhappy accident, which mightily Teucer fled into Cyprus ; and Diomedes to king Daunus. retarded the siege of the city, and that was a difference Some of the Locrians were driven into Africa, others which fell out between Agamemnon and Achilles. Aga-into Italy, others into Sicily, and settled themselves in memnon, as general, had the preoption of what part of such numbers in these parts, that Greek became the the booty he pleased, and had then taken to himself a current language of this island, and most of the east captive woman, the daughter of Chryses, the priest of part of Italy obtained the name of Magna Græcia. Apollo, as Achilles, and the other commanding officers, Thus the wise Ruler of the world was pleased to make had made choice of others; but, being obliged to give one wicked nation the instrument of punishing another. up the priest's daughter, in atonement for the pestilence But, whatever they severally suffered, the succeeding that was fallen upon the army, he sent and took Achil-generations obtained this advantage by it, that the disles's captive from him, which so exasperated this gallant persion of the Greeks occasioned a fuller peopling of warrior, that, to revenge himself effectually, he took up distant countries, by an accession of these new inhabia resolution, neither to fight himself, nor suffer any tants : and the taking of Troy became, in some years, forces under him to engage; and this gave the enemy the settled epocha, whereby all that were acquainted 80 great an advantage, that Hector, at the head of his with the story of it, might agree in their account of time. forces, broke through the Grecian trenches one day, and set fire to the ships. In the midst of this extremity, Patroclus, the bosom

SECT. V. friend of Achilles, not being able to stand neuter any longer, begged of Achilles to let him have the use of his CHAP. I.–From the death of Absalom to the Building armour, and the command of his troops, in order to re

of the Temple. pulse the Trojans; which he bravely attempted, but, in the engagement fell by the hands of Hector, who took from him the arms of Achilles, and carried them off.

As soon as David was informed of his son's death, all This conjuncture Agamemnon made use of to be reconciled to Achilles; and to this purpose, sent him back the wall for that purpose ; and so the Greeks, returning en a his captive maid, with many very valuable presents, and sudden, and entering the breach, opened the horse, and seized made an excuse for his former bebaviour as well as he on the gates, and burned the city. But another author, who per could. Achilles, in order to be revenged for the loss of haps might know the truth as well as Virgil, gives us a different

account of this matter, namely, that Æneas, Antenor, and Pehis friend, laid aside all resentment, and joined the lydamus, having taken some disgust at king Priamus, agreed Greeks in the next battle, wherein he vanquished the with the Grecians to betray the city to them, upon condition

, Trojans; and, singling out Hector, never left pursuing that they might retire with their men wherever they thought fit, him, wherever he went, until he had killed him. a With provided they did not settle in Phrygia. To this purpose it wa

concerted, that the Grecians should set sail the day before to the

island Tenedos, as if they were quite gone, but retum in the a Homer indeed gives us this account of the taking of Troy; dark of the night, when the Trojans thought themselves secure, but Virgil has informed us, that it was done by a large wooden and so be let in at the Scæan gate, over which was a large horse, in which were enclosed several of the chief commanders image of an horse, which gave the first rise and occasion to all of the Greeks; that the rest setting sail to the island of Tenedos, this story. left Sioon to persuade the Trojans, that this horse was built upon 6 Troy was taken in the year B. C. 1193, and consequently a religious account, and was necessary for them to take into the just at the termination of Samson's administration. See Hales, city; that, by his craft and instigation, they pulled down part of l vol. i. p. 216, and vol. ii. p. 257.—ED.

THE HISTORY.

A. M. 2981. A. C. 1023; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 4375. A. C. 1036. 2 SAM. xix-1 KINGS viii. the joy of the victory was turned into sorrow. The king this: 160 my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom, himself withdrew to a « private apartment, where he would God I had died for thee ! 0 Absalom, my son, vented his grief in such a b mournful exclamation, as my son!' And as for the army, instead of returning in

triumph, they stole silently into the city, as if they had a The place to which David withdrew, in order to vent his done amiss, and had lost, instead of gaining, the battle. grief, was, as Josephus tells us, (b. 7. c. 10.) to the top of one of This Joab perceiving, and being sensible that such the highest towers in the city; but the sacred history calls it the excessive grief, at this juncture of affairs, would be of chamber over the gate,' (2 Sam. xviii. 33.) For the gate was a spacious place, and much of the same form with the forum among great prejudice to the king, went boldly in to him, the Romans, not only the market for all commodities, but the

© and expostulated the matter with him in terms that place where all great assemblies of the people were likewise held. might perhaps be necessary on that occasion, but did not *There were several buildings, where the chief magistrates sat to so well become a subject's mouth. However they had administer justice, (Ruth iv. 1, 2.) and where the other affairs this good effect upon the king, that they roused him of the state were transacted; so that it is not improbable, that this chamber over the gate, where David went to weep, might be from his melancholy, and made him appear in public, to some withdrawing room in the place where the privy counsel the great satisfaction of all his loyal subjects, d but as was wont to meet. (Calmet's Commentary.) The death of this he thought himself very insolently used by Joab, upon favourite

but unprincipled son, was a grievous blow to the heart several occasions, from that time he made it his resoluwaited for intelligence of the fate of the day's engagement, and tion to take the first opportunity of e dismissing him from especially of Absalom, may be judged of from the position he being his general. occupied when the messengers arrived. To understand his situa- Those of his subjects, who had appeared in arms tion, it is necessary to remind the reader that he was then in against him, being now made sensible of the folly of their the provincial town of Mahanaim, in the tower that overhung the gates of which a sentinel was posted, as usual in cases of emergency, to hail the approach of any emissary from the seat of

12 Sam. xviii. 33. war. By this scout, communications of every thing important to hope well of his salvation: but this supposition, as I take he discovered were ever and anon made to the impatient mon- it, is not so well founded, since there is much more probability arch, who sat in an adjoining chamber-one of those which served that if Absalom had survived his father, he would have grown as halls of justice—and which, in ancient times, were always more profligate than ever, triumphed in his good success; situated on the gates of the city It was in this apartment, the insulted and persecuted all his father's friends; and proved a nearest in the city to the scene of action, and commanding, from wicked and abominable tyrant. But whether David's wish was its elevated position, an extensive view of the country, that deliberate or no, it is certain, that his grief might be increased David watched, in the most painful suspense, the tidings of the from this reflection, that himself, by his own sin in the case of civil contest that involved the fate of his crown. It was in this Uriah, had been the unhappy instrument and occasion of his chamber at the gate, that, according to the practice of remotest son's death; though some learned men have observed, that antiquity on the most solemn occasions, he continued to indulge the oriental people were accustomed to express their passions his pathetic lamentations over the death of his profligate son. It with more vehemence than we, in these parts of the world are was out of a window in the same place of public resort, that when wont to do; and that the repetition of the same word, 'My son roused by the remonstrances of Joab, he returned his thanks to Absalom, O Absalom, my son, my son,' is a style proper for mournthe army for their gallant defence of his life and his kingdom. ful lamentation. “To the stars we will extol thy Daphnis, DaphAnd it was in the same apartments that he appeared afterwards nis to the stars we will praise, for Daphnis also loved us." (Virg. before the people of the city, distributing justice to all who came Eccl, v.) “I am grieved for Adonis, Adonis the fair is dead, with cases for his decision. That it was the practice of the Adonis the beautiful is gone." (Bion. Id. 1.)— Patrick's and ancient kings of Israel, as well as of other Oriental monarchs, to Calmet's Commentaries. decide cases while sitting openly at the gate, appears from many c Josephus concludes the speech which he supposes Joab to passages of the sacred history; and, in many parts of the East, have made to David upon this occasion, in words to this effect: we are informed that the same practice prevails to this day. Mr -“Pray, Sir, does not your conscience, as well as your honour Campbell describes an interesting scene of this nature at which reprove you for this intemperate tenderness for the memory of so he happened to be present. “While in Kurreechare," says he, implacable an enemy? He was your son, it is true, but a most "a city twelve or thirteen hundred miles up from the Cape of Good ungracious one; and you cannot be just to God's providence, Hope, he was told that a cause was going to be brought before the without acknowledging the blessing of his being taken away. Let king. Being anxious to witness it, I was led in haste to the me entrent you therefore to show yourself cheerful to your people, gate, where I saw the king sit down at the right side of it, with and let them know, that it is to their loyalty and bravery that his secretary on his right hand, and the prosecutor, or complainer, you are indebted for the honour of the day; for if you go on, as on his left, who stated his case across to the secretary. During you have begun, your kingdom, and your army will most his narrating his case, the king was looking about, as if not infallibly be put into other hands, and you will then find someattending to what was said, but I saw from his eyes that he was thing else to cry for.'-Jewish Antiquities, b. 7. c. 10. attending to what, for form's sake, was addressed to the secre- d2 Samuel xix, 8. . And the king arose and sat in the gate.' tary. When the party had finished what he had to say, the The custom noticed in this passage appears to have been very secretary repeated the whole to the king, as if he had been ancient, and is found in other writings than the sacred books. entirely ignorant of the matter, after which he pronounced his Homer thus represents Nestor:judgment. This picturesque description gives us a lively idea

The old man early rose, walk'd forth, and sat of the scenes in which the chiefs and kings of sacred history are

On polish'd stone before his palace gate. frequently represented as placed among their dependents or their

With unguents smooth the lucid marble shone, people; and accounts for the universal joy that pervaded the whole

Where ancient Neleus sat, a rustic throne; city of Mahanaim, when it was known that their alllicted mon

But he descending to the infernal shade, arch had resumed his daily custom of meeting with, and taking

Sage Nestor fill'd it, and the sceptre sway'd. an interest in the affairs of the people at the gate of the city.

Odyss. i. 518,-ED. Jamieson's Eastern Manners.-ED.

e For he had sufficient reason to think of depressing a man, 6 Nothing certainly can be more moving and pathetic, than who was grown so insuflerably insolent and imperious. He had the words which David utters upon this sad occasion ; but slain Abner most perfidiously in cool blood; had killed Absalom whether it was David's deliberate wish, that he had died in against the king's express command; in his late bold reproof had Absalom's stead, or only the effect of his excessive love and insulted over his sorrow, and, if we may believe Josephus, grief for him, is not so easy a matter to determine, St Austin threatened to depose him, and give his kingdom to another. To seems to be on the affirmative side, and gives this reason for it: such a state of arrogance will ministers sometimes arrive, when

- That Absalom died impenitent, but might have lived to they find that their service is become necessary to their prince. become a better man; whereas, if David had died, he had reason - Patrick's Commentary.

A. M. 2981. A. C. 1023 ; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 4375. A. C. 1035. 2 SAM. xix --) KINGS vill.
rebellion, became the forwardest for his restoration ; but, | king's absence, until the king arrived: but when he was
what grieved him much, his own tribe, the tribe of Judah, admitted into his presence, and the king seemed to be
seemed a little indifferent as to the matter ; which made angry with him for not having accompanied him in his
him send to Zadok and Abiathar the chief priests, not exile, he charged this seeming neglect upon the perfidy
only to remind them of their own duty, but to authorize of his servant, and d set his case in so fair a light, that
them likewise to treat with Amasa, who though he had the king revoked the hasty grant he had made in favour
commanded Absalom's army was still a man of great of Ziba, and put his estate upon the same foot of pos.
authority, in the tribe, to offer him his pardon, and in session that it was before.
case he would come fully into his interest, to promise

When David was passed the Jordan, he was willing to
him the generalship in the room of Joab.

make all possible haste to Jerusalem ; and, as the tribe
Thus all things conspiring to his happy restoration, of Judah was the first that came to conduct him home,
the king left Mahanaim, and set forward on his journey he, very probably to gratify them, marched on without
to Jerusalem, when the chiefs of the tribe of Judah came waiting for the great men of Israel, who, in all parts of
to meet, and conduct him over the Jordan. Old Bar- the kingdom, were making ready to join him. This oc-
zillai, who had been very kind to the king in his exile, casioned some hot disputes between the princes of Israel
and supplied him with provisions while he continued at and those of Judah : and, as the king was loth to dis-
Mahanaim, hearing that he was upon his return, came to please either party, and therefore did not care to inter-
take his leave of him; and see him safe over the river, meddle in the controversy, several of the tribes of Israel
and when the king in gratitude for his kindness gave him took an outward umbrage at this, which occasioned a
an invitation to go with him to Jerusalem, the good fresh insurrection. Sheba, a Benjamite, e and not un-
old man modestly excused himself, upon the account likely one of Saul's family, made public proclamation
of his age, as having now lost the relish of the plea- by the sound of trumpet, that “ since the tribe of Judah
sures of a court, and desired rather to retire to his bad engrossed David to themselves, they might even take
own estate, where he might spend the remainder of him; and, since all the other tribes he had visibly de-
his days in quiet: but as he had a son, whose age was serted, their wisest way would be to stand to their arms,
more proper to attend him, if his majesty would be and in like manner desert him.” Whereupon a great
pleased to confer any favour on him, the obligation many of the other tribes followed Sheba ; but the men of
would be the same; a which David promised to do, Judah persisted in their loyalty, and conducted the king
and so with much mutual blessings and salutations, to Jerusalem. As soon as he arrived in the city, the
they parted.

first thing he did was to declare Amasa his general, and
Among the many others who came to meet David upon
this occasion, Shimei the Benjamite, who not long before since no one, who neglected himself to this degree, could be suppos-
had loaded him with curses and imprecations, came, not cutting his toe nails

, or his not washing his feet, which tlie
ed ambitious of a crown. Not dressing his feet, may signify

, eitler
with a thousand men of his tribe to beg pardon for his Jews were accustomed very frequently to do, because of the bad
fault; and when Abishai would have persuaded the king smell which was natural to them, as well as the Arabians, and
to have him killed, he resented the motion as an indig- some other nations ; and therefore his omission of this could rat
nity put upon himself : and being unwilling to eclipse letting his hair grow negligently, and without any order. For

but make him offensive to himself. Not trimming his beard was
the public joy with the blood of any one, gave him his the manner of the Jews was, to cut the hair from the lip upwards

,
royal word and oath that he should live.

and what grew likewise on the cheek; but what was on the chin,
Another remarkable person that came to wait upon and so backwards to the ear, that they suffered to grow; and not
David at this time, was the perfidious Ziba, with his fif-washing his clothes must denote his putting on no clean linen,
teen sons and twenty servants. He had again imposed Commentaries.

but wearing the same shirt all the while. Calmet's and Patrick's
upon his master, and, when he ordered him to make à Josephus brings in Mephibosheth pleading his excuse to David
ready his ass that he, among others, might go and meet for not attending him, and expressing a grateful sense of his fa
the king, slid away himself to make his court first; so

vours, in such like words as these:-"Nor has he only disappoint-

ed me in the exercise of my duty, but has been doing me spiteful
that Mephibosheth, being lame, was forced to stay at offices to your majesty likewise: but you, Sir, are so just and so
Jerusalem, where he had all along o mourned for the great a lover of God and truth, that I am sure your generosity

and wisdom will never entertain a calumny to my prejudice

,

Our family has had the experience of your piety, modesty, and
a What David did for Chimham is uncertain; but as he had goodness, to a degree never to be forgotten, in passing over and
a patrimony in Bethlehem, which was the place of his nativity, pardoning the innumerable hazards and persecutions that you
it is not improbable, that he gave a great part of it to Chimham, were exposed to, in the days, and by the contrivance of my
and his heirs for ever; and that this was afterwards called the grandfather, when all our lives were forfeited, in your power, and
habitation of Chimham' in the days of Jeremiah, (Jer, xli. 17.) at your mercy. But then, after all this gracious tenderness
--- Bedford's Scripture Chronology, b. 5. c. 4.

your superadding the honour of taking me to your table, a person
6 The reason why Shimei came with so large a retinue, was so obnoxious in regard of my relations, as a friend, and as a guest

,
to let David see that he was a man of some considerable rank, nothing could be either greater, or more obliging than this."-
and capable of doing him great service among the people, which Jewish Antiquities, b, 7. c. 7.
might be some inducement to the king to grant him his pardon; e In the text, Sheba is called a man of Belial.' The express
or, very likely, he was one of the captains of a thousand in his sions sons of Belial," men of Belial,' and children of Belial,
own tribe, and might carry them along with him, to make the occur frequently in Scripture, and seem to imply wicked, worth-
stronger intercession for his pardon.- Poole's Annotations. less men; those who refuse to submit to any restraint; rebels

,
c 'The words in the text are, that he had neither
dressed his licentious and disobedient persons. (See Deut. xiii

. 13. Jod.
feet, nor trimmed his beard, nor washed his clothes, from the day xix. 22. 1 Sam, ii, 12., x. 27.) The primary meaning of tle
that the king departed,' (2 Sam. xix. 24.) These were some word Belial, is uselessness, worthlessness, according to Gesenius

;
of the instances wherein the Jews were wont to express their and the Septuagint renders the phrase avčess saparous, laxeless
mourning; and they are here mentioned by the historian, as men. In the New Testament, Belial is applied to Satan, as the
evidences of the falsehood of Ziba's information against his master, 1 patron and epitome of licentiousness, (2 Cor. vi. 15.)–ED.

A. M. 2981. A. C. 1023; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 4375. A. C. 1035. 2 SAM. xix-1 KINGS viii. to order him to get together a sufficient body of forces, besiegers from off the walls, and desired to speak with as fast as he could, to pursue after Sheba. a Amasa, their general. When Joab was come within hearing, however, found more difficulty in executing this order the woman addressed herself to him in a very handsome than was expected; which when David understood, he manner, and told him, “ that e by a long prescription of sent Abishai with his guards, for he was resolved not to time, it had always been a custom, founded on the law employ his brother Joab any more, in quest of Sheba, of God, whenever the Hebrews came before any city, to until Amasa, with the rest of the army, could join him. offer peace in the first place, even though the inhabitants Exasperated at this, Joab, without any order went along were of another nation; much more then ought this to with his brother; and when Amasa came up with them, have been done to a people, that were all of the same which was at Gibeon, and was going to take upon him blood, and the greatest part of them loyal subjects to the command of the whole army, he advanced, with all the king.” To which Joab replied, “ that he had no ill seeming friendliness to salute him; but when he came design against the people of the city, only as they harwithin reach, he took him by the beard, and stabbed him boured a rebel and a traitor, whom he demanded of to the heart; and so, leaving him to wallow in his blood, them :" whereupon the woman persuaded the inhabitproclaimed himself general in chief, and taking the army ants to cut off Sheba's bead, and throw it over the wall, with him, pursued after Sheba, c leaving orders for the which when they had done, Joab raised the siege, and forces that were coming up, to follow after.

withdrew with his army to Jerusalem; where his services, Sheba had gone about all the tribes of Israel to see if upon this occasion, were thought to be such that the he could prevail with them to take up arms against king sound himself obliged to restore him to his post of David; but finding very few, that, upon second thoughts, captain-general. were willing to engage in his measures, he was forced Not long after this, there happened a sore famine in at last, with the few forces he had got together, to the land, and the long continuance of it, which was for shut himself up in Abel, a fortified town in the tribe of three years, made David suspect that it did not proceed Naphtali, in the northern part of Judea. But Joab was from any common cause, but was inflicted by the imsoon at his heels, and having besieged the town, and mediate hand of God; and when he consulted the divine battered the walls, was making preparations for an as-oracle to know the occasion of it, he was given to unsault, when a d woman of great prudence called to the derstand, that Saul's cruelty to the Gibeonites, in slaying

so many, contrary to the treaty then depending between a The people having been harassed in the late civil war, were him and them, was the cause of it. Hereupon David nut perhaps so forward as to engage in another. Some of them might not like to serve under a man who had lately headed a rebel- sent to the Gibeonites, to know s what satisfaction they lious army against the king, and others might have conceived so desired; and when he was told, that they expected seven high an opinion of Joab, as not easily to be brought to serve under of Saul's posterity to be delivered to them, he complied any other general. Any of these things might very well retard with their demand, and sent two sons of Rizpab, Saul's A masa's recruits,

and yet he might be loath to make such a re concubine, and & five of Merab, his eldest daughter, but port to the king, for fear that it might diminish his authority, and make him appear not so well qualified for the office wherein he had placed him.- Patrick's Commentary.

Deut. xx. 10. 6 It was an ancient custom among the Grecians, to take the e In the beginning of this woman's speech to Joab, there is person, to whom they had any address to make, by the chin, or something that seems both abrupt and obscure. They were beard: it was the custom of the ancient Greeks, in their prayers, wont to speak in old time, saying, They should surely ask counsel to touch the chin, says Pliny, (b. 11. c. 45.) and even to this at Abel, and so they ended the matter,' (2 Sam. xx. 18.) according day, the Turks, in their salutations, do very frequently take one to this translation, the sense of the words is, “ This city, which another by the beard, (See Thevenot's Travels, c. 22.) The thou art about to destroy, is no mean and contemptible one, but Arabians have a great regard to the beard: the wives kiss their so honourable and considerable for its wisdom, and the wise husbands, and the children their father's beard, when they come people in it, that when any difference did arise among any of to salute them; and, when two friends meet together, their cus- the neighbouring places, they used proverbially to say, We will tom is, in the course of their compliments, to interchange kisses ask the opinion and advice of the men of Abel about it, and we in this manner, (See Darvieux on the Customs of the Arabs, c. will stand to their arbitration; and so all parties were satisfied, 7.) as the like custom is still preserved among the eastern people, and disputes ended.” So that her words, according to this sense, the Indians, who take one another by the chin, when they would are an high commendation of the city of Abel, for its being a give an hearty salute, and say, bobba, that is, father, or bii, bro- place time out of mind, very eminent for the wisdom and pruther, as the author of the voyage to the East Indies relates. See deace of its inhabitants. But there is another translation in the Peter de Valles's Travels.

margin of our Bibles, which seems to be more natural, and makes c So insolent was Joab become, upon the presumption that the woman speak in this manner. “When the people saw thee David durst not prmish him, that as he ventured upon this lay siege to the city, they said, Surely he will ask, if we will bloody fact, so he imagined, that though the sight of Amasa's lave peace; for the law prescribes, that he should offer peace to dead body miglit stop the march of those that came by it, yet strangers, much more then to Israelitish cities; and if he would upon its being given out that he was again become their general, once do this, we should soon bring things to an amicable agreetheir love for him was such, that they would not scruple to follow ment; for we are peaceable people, and faithful to our prince.” him.- Patrick's Commentary.

So that, according to this interpretation, the woman both mod It seems not unlikely, that this woman was a governess in destly reproved Joab for the neglect of his duty, and artfully this city; for though that office was most commonly occupied by engaged him in the performance of it.- Patrick's Commentary, men, yet there want not instances of women, as in the case of and Poole's Annotations. Deborah, (Judg. iv. 4.) and queen Athaliah, (2 Kings xi.) who f This may seem strange, unless we suppose, as Josephus have been employed in the administration of civil affairs. If does, that when David consulted God, he told him, not only for she was invested with any such authority, she was the properest what crime it was that he sent this punishment, but that he person to desire a parley with the general; and reason good she should take such a revenge for it as the Gibeonites should dehad to desire it, because she knew the present temper and fear sire; and there was this farther reason for humouring the Gibeof the citizens and soldiers, namely, that considering the im- unites herein, because they had been modest under their sufierminent danger they were in, they were generally desirous of ings, and never made any complaint to David of the injuries peace, and restrained from it only by Sheba's power and authority, that had been done them.- Patrick's Commentary. - Poole's Annotations.

9 Michal is put in the text indeed, (2 Sam, xxi. 8.) but not by

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