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A. M. 2981. A. C. 1023; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 4375. A. C. 1036. 2 SAM. xix-1 KINGS viii. lem, just without the gates : and, as our Saviour suffered | extravagant, that when he returns again he will judge the there, we may presume it was the common place where world in this valley, merely because the prophet Joel criminals of all kinds were generally executed. • hath said, 'I will gather all nations, and will bring
The valley of Hinnom, or the sons of Hinnom, lay to them into the valley of Jehoshaphat, and will plead with the south of the city, and was remarkable for the cruel them for my people ;' for what is there called the valley and barbarous worship of Moloch, where parents made of Jehoshaphat, is not a proper, but an appellative name, their children pass through the fire, or be burned in the and denotes no more than the judgment of God. fire, by way of sacrifice to that idol ; and where it was There is another valley that the Scripture makes early usual to have musical instruments, from whence it obtained mention of, and that is ? " the valley of Shaveh,' which likewise the name of Tophet, the Hebrew word Toph, sig- is likewise called the king's dale, where Melchizedek nifying the same as Tympanum in Latin, and Timbrel in met Abraham in his return from the slaughter of ChedorEnglish, to drown the lamentable shrieks of the children laomer. According to Josephus, it was, in his time, but thus sacrificed. In this place there were afterwards about two furlongs distant from Jerusalem, and for this kept a perpetual fire, to consume the dead carcasses and reason, perhaps, it has been thought by some, to be no excrements, which were brought from Jerusalem; and other than the valley of Jehoshaphat; though others therefore our Saviour alluding to this, calls hell by the make it different, yet so, as to come up near to the said name of Ge-henna, or the valley of Hinnom.
valley, and to lie on the south-east part of the city, not The valley of Jehoshaphat, which is likewise called the far from the king's gardens. : Why it obtained the valley of Kidron, because of the above mentioned brook name of the king's dale, whether it was from its near which runs through it, lies on the east of Jerusalem, be- situation to the king's palace and gardens, or from its tween the city and the mount of Olives. Our Saviour, being the place where the kings were wont to exercise indeed, ascended from this mount ; but the notion is very themselves, or at least to entertain themselves, with seeing
others perform their exercises of running, riding, and the a Mr Buckingham, who is satisfied of the identity of the pre- like, is not agreed, and very likely will never be detersent hill shown as Calvary, imagines that it was at the time of the mined. crucifixion, as it is now, within the city. Of the arguments by
There were several gates, belonging to the ancient which this opinion is supported, the following is an abstract:The objections commonly urged against the position of Calvary Jerusalem, that are mentioned in Scripture ; but it is within the walls are-that the term Golgotha, which is interpreted the place of a skull,' implies a place of public interment;
1 Joel iii. 2. . Gen. xiv. 17, 18. that it was contrary to the custom of the east to bury in cities; and that it would be considered as defiling by the Jews to have a place
* Wells' Geography of the Old Testament, vol. 3. of execution in the heart of the town. To the first of these objec- 6 The present style of building in Jerusalem will, perhaps, in the tions it is auswered, on the part of Mr Buckingham, that the unchanging character of eastern customs, best enable us to word Golgotha thus translated a place of skulls, implies merely understand its ancient structure. The streets of almost every a skull; and is so used by St Luke, who, without mention-castern city are parrow, for the purpose of excluding the sun ing Golgotha, writes, . And when they were come to a place and wind between the deep and almost blank walls of the houses, called skull,' &c.; that the name applies rather to a tradition that having small and but few windows towards the street; their the skull of Adam was found in this spot; or, which is more pro- fronts, properly speaking, being towards the central quadrangle. bable, that it was derived from the figure of the eminence itself, The entrance into the principal houses is by a porch, having which was a mound of small elevation, consisting of a round nodule benches on each side, where visits are received and business is of rock, which, from a resemblance which it bore to the shape of despatched; few guests being permitted to penetrate further into a skull, obtained that name for it. To the second objection it the mansion. This porch communicates with the court in the is replied, that whatever the general custom of the east may be, centre: which, with persons of rank or wealth, is paved with it was the common practice of the Jews to bury in their own marble, and laid out with fruit-trees and fountains. This court gardens, whether within or without the town. The third objec- is surrounded with a cloister; over which is a gallery, having a tion is endeavoured to be removed, by showing, that Calvary was balustrade or latticed work on the side towards the court, and a not, as is generally supposed, a place of public execution; but the opposite one the entrances to the chambers. Whoever has was merely seized on by the enraged and impatient multitude, as a travelled in Spain or Portugal, where, by their Moorish pensesconvenient spot for carrying their mad purpose into speedy effect. sors, many eastern customs were introduced, may have seen This opinion is considered to be corroborated, by the singular houses of this construction : the convents almost universally fact, that it is nowhere said that Christ was led out of the city to answer to it exactly. The open space in the quadrangle is the be crucified; and by the no less extraordinary circumstance of place where company is received on festive occasions; and is the Joseph of Arimathea baving, on this same spot, a garden and a same as the to usoov, the “midst” or the middle of the house tomb, which he would not be likely to have had in a place defiled by into which the paralytic was let down, when our Savicur was public executions. Wherever Calvary was, it does not seem pro- preaching to a numerous assembly. (Luke v. 18, 19.) The bable that it was a place of common execution for malefactors. It is stairs are placed either in the porch itself, or at the entrance into quite inconceivable that a wealthy Jew like Joseph of Arimathea, the court; from whence they are continued up one corner of the should make choice of a place of public execution, where these gallery to the top of the house, which is made flat to walk on, horrid exhibitions must have been frequent, as the scene of his and surrounded by a parapet or balustrade. Thus a person may recreation while alive, and of his interment after death. The ascend from the porch to the top of the house without having any choice of this spot may rather be considered as accidental communication with its interior: and to this arrangement cur as the first convenient one which offered itself to the impatient Lord alludes, in his directions to his disciples respecting the Jews, on which to immolate their victim, and to which he was troubles which were approaching, and their flight from Jerusalem. hurried lest he should again escape them. This spot or mount is · Let him who is on the house-top not come down to take any a rock, the summit of which is ascended to by a steep flight of thing out of his house.' (Matt. xxiv. 17.) of the present state eighteen or twenty steps from the common level of the church, and appearance of Jerusalem, M. Chateaubriand gives the which is equal with that of the street without; and besides this, following account: “When seen from the mount of Olives, a there is a descent of thirty steps from the level of the church to the other side of the valley of Jehoshapliat, Jerusalem presents the chapel of Helena ; and eleven more to the place where it is an inclined plane descending from west to east. An embattled said the cross was found ; making in all sixty-one steps, or, if wall, fortified with towers and a Gothic castle, encompasses the the last eleven be considered as subterraneous, fifty ; equal to at city'all round ; excluding, however, part of mount Zion, which it least thirty-five feet of perpendicular height-sufficient to give formerly enclosed. In the western quarter, and in the centre of this little eminence the character of a mound or mount. -ED. the city towards Calvary, the houses stand very close; but in the
A. M. 2981, A. C. 1023; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 4375. A. C. 1036, 2 SAM. xix-1 KINGS viii. no easy matter to discover where their particular situa- | these gates did not lead out of the city into the country. tion was. There is reason to believe likewise, that their The gate of the valley, which doubtless had its name names have been varied, or that one and the same gate from leading into some valley, and a as travellers will has gone under different appellations ; and as there were have it, to the valley of Jehoshaphat, was situate on the several circuits of walls in the city, which had their east side of the city. respective gates, it is more than probable, that some of The dung gate, which seems to have taken its name
eastern part, along the brook Cedron, you perceive vacant spaces; And on the east, the deep valley of Jehoshaphat, vow at our feet aroong the rest, that which surrounds the mosque erected on the has some partial spots relieved by trees, though as forbidding in ruins of the temple, and the nearly deserted spot where once its general aspect, as the vale of death could ever be desired to stood the castle of Antonia and the second palace of Herod. The be, by those who have chosen it for the place of their interment. houses of Jerusalem are heavy square masses, very low, without Within the walls of the city are seen, to the north, crowded chimneys or windows: they have flat terraces or domes on the dwellings, remarkable in no respect, except being terraced by top; and look like prisons or sepulchres. The whole would flat roofs, and generally built of stone. On the south, are some appear to the eye one uninterrupted level, did not the steeples of gardens and vineyards, with the long red mosque of Al Sakhara, the churches, the minarets of the mosques, the summits of a few having two tiers of windows, a sloping roof, and a dark dome at cypresses, and the clumps of nopals, break the uniformity of the one end, and the mosque of Zion, on the sepulchre of David, in plane. On beholding these stone buildings encompassed by a the same quarter. On the west, is seen the high square castle stony country, you are ready to inquire if they are not the con- and palace of the same monarch, near the Bethlehem-gate. In fused monuments of a cemetery in the midst of a desert. Enter the centre, rise the two cupolas of unequal form and size, the the city, but nothing will you there find to make amends for the one blue and the other white, covering the church of the holy dulness of its exterior. You lose yourself among narrow, sepulchre. Around, in different directions, are seen the minapaved streets, here going up hill, there down, from the inequality rets of eight or ten mosques, and an assemblage of about 2000 of the ground; and you walk among clouds of dust or loose stones. dwellings. And on the east, is seated the great mosque of Al Canvass stretched from house to house, increases the gloom of the Harem, or, as called by Christians, the mosque of Solomon, from labyrinth; bazaars roofed over, and fraught with infection, com- being supposed, with that of Al Sakhara near it, to occupy the pletely exclude the light from the desolate city. A few paltry site of the ancient temple, of that splendid and luxurious king.” shops expose nothing but wretchedness to view; and even these The same author describes Jerusalem, as seated on unequal are frequently shut, from apprehension of the passage of a cadi. ground, on a range of high hills, which he computes at 1500 feet Not a creature is to be seen in the streets, not a creature at the above the sea; some of the eminences being higher than those on gates, except now and then a peasant gliding through the gloom, which the city itself stands. The whole country around is reconcealing under his garments the fruits of his labour, lest he presented as a rocky and barren space, which almost defies the should be robbed of his hard earnings by the rapacious soldier. efforts of human labour to fertilize by any common process. The Aside, in a corner, the Arab butcher is slaughtering some animal, fixed inhabitants he estimates at about 8000; but the continual suspended by the legs from a wall in ruins: from his haggard and arrival and departure of strangers make the total number of those ferocious look, and his bloody hands, you would rather suppose present in the city from 10 to 15,000 generally, according to that he had been cutting the throat of a fellow creature than the season of the year. These are made up of a mixed multitude killing a lamb. The only noise heard from time to time, in this of Turkish and Arabian Mohammedans, who are the most deicide city, is the galloping of the steed of the desert: it is the numerous, Greeks, Latins, Armenians, Copts, Abyssinians, Janissary who brings the head of the Bedouin, or returns from Syrians, Nestorians, Maronites, Chaldæans, and Jews; amongst plundering the unhappy Fellah.” The following is Mr Buck- whom, the poor Jews, in this their own city, are the most deingham's description of Jerusalem, as seen from the Mount of graded, and “are more remarkable from the striking peculiariOlives:-" Reposing beneath the shade of an olive-tree, upon ties of their features and dress, than from their numbers as conthe brow of this hill, we enjoyed from hence a fine prospect of trasted with the other bodies." Jerusalem on the opposite one. This city occupies an irregular Mr Joliffe, however, who visited Jerusalem in 1817, states, square of about two miles and a half in circumference. Its that the highest estimate makes the total number of inhabitants shortest apparent side is that which faces the east; and in this is amount to 25,000: of which there are supposed to bethe supposed gate of the ancient temple, now closed up, and the
13,000 small projecting stone on which Mohammed is to sit when the
from 3 to
4,000 world is to be assembled to judgment in the vale below. The
2,000 southern side is exceedingly irregular, taking quite a zigzag di- Roman Catholics
800 rection; the south-west extreme being terminated by a mosque,
400 built over the supposed sepulchre of David, on the summit of
50 Mount Zion. The form and exact direction of the western and
Dr Richardson, who was at Jerusalem in 1818, estimates the Dorthern walls are not distinctly seen from hence; but every part population at 20,000; whom he distributes into:of this appears to be a modern work, and executed at the same time. The walls are flanked at irregular distances by square
Christians towers, and have battlements running all around on their sum
5,000 mits, with loop-holes for arrows or musquetry close to the top.
10,000 The walls appear to be about 50 feet in height, but are not sur- Which, probably, judging from other estimates, increases the rounded by a ditch. The northern wall runs over slightly de- number of the Jews in the same proportion as it diminishes that clining ground; the eastern wall runs straight along the brow of of the Mohammedans. Mount Moriah, with the deep valley of Jehoshaphat below; the There is very little trade in Jerusalem, and few manufactures; southern wall crosses over the summit of the hill assumed as the only one that at all flourishes, is that of crucifixes, chaplets, Mount Zion, with the vale of Hinnom at its feet; and the western and relics; of which, incredible as it may seem, whole cargoes wall runs along on more level ground, near the summit of the are shipped off from Jaffa for Italy, Portugal, and Spain. -Ed. high and stony mountains over which we had at first approached a Our countryman, Mr Sandys, is of opinion, that the gate the town.
As the city is thus seated on the brow of one large of the valley was formerly the same with what is now called St hill, divided by name into several smaller hills, and the whole of Stephen's gate, not far from the golden gate, or great gate, which these slope gently down towards the east, this view from the leads into that which was formerly the court of the temple. He Mount of Olives, a position of greater height than that on which likewise supposes, that this gate of St Stephen's was formerly the highest part of the city stands, commands nearly the whole called the sheep gate; but into this opinion perhaps he might be of it at once.
Oo the north, it is bounded by a level and appa- led by the nearness of St Stephen's gate to the pool of Bethesda, rently fertile space, now covered with olive-trees, particularly there the sacrifices were washed before they were brought to near the north-east angle. On the south, the steep side of Mount the priest to be offered ; and therefore, since the valley gate, and Zion, and the valley of Hinnom, both show patches of cultivation the sheep gate, are distinctly mentioned by Nehemiah, we cannot and little garden enclosures. On the west, the sterile summits but think, that they must have been different gates. - Wells' of the hills there barely lift their outlines above the dwellings. I Geography of the Old Testament, vol. 3.
A. M. 2981. A. C. 1023; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 4373. A. C. 1036. 2 SAM. xis-1 KINGS vüi. from the dung and filth of the beasts that were sacrificed | upon as a wonder, is, that the ceiling, the doors, as well at the temple, being carried out of it, was probably the as all the rest, their hinges, their posts, their frames, same with what is now so called, and stands on the east &c., are all cut out of the same continued rock. It may side of the city likewise.
therefore be worth our inquiring a little in what manner The water gate, which took its name from its use, these structures were employed, and who possibly might because through it was the water brought to serve the be the persons that were reposited in them. city and the temple, was 'on the same side ; and so was That these subterraneous structures were not the se
The gate of the fountain, so called from its nearness pulchres of the kings of Judah, the generality of those to the fountain of Siloam, only inclining a little towards that have inspected them are agreed, because the Scripthe south.
ture tells us, that David and Solomon, and most of their The gate of Ephraim, which opened to the main road, successors were buried in the city of David; and yet leading to the tribe of Ephraim, and from it derived its these grots lie without the gate of Damascus, as it is now name, stood on the north side of the city, because on called, at a considerable distance from the city of David: that side was that tribe seated ; a though others had rather but how far this city of David did formerly extend, or place it on the west.
where we shall find any other signs of a the places, The horse gate, sheep gate, and fish gate, are sup- where David and the other kings his successors were posed by some to have had their denominations from the buried, we have no hints given us. The Rev. Mr Maunseveral markets of these creatures, that were kept there. drell, from this passage in Scripture, And Hezekiah The horse and sheep gates were both on the east side, slept with his fathers, and they buried him in the chiefest not far from the palace and the temple; and the fish of the sepulchres of the sons of David,' is of opinion, gate was on the north, though some, who think it had its that this was the place where Hezekiah, and the sons name from the fish that were brought from the Mediter- immediately born to David, that were not reposited in ranean sea, had rather place it on the west side. the royal sepulchres, were buried : but it is much more
Lastly, the high gate, or the gate of Benjamin, so probable, and what both the Syriac and Arabic versions called from its situation towards the land or tribe of seem to confirm, that by the sons of David here, we are Benjamin, is supposed by some to have been the prin- not to understand his immediate sons, properly so called, cipal gate of the royal palace; but from what we read but the kings rather that succeeded him. This is a form of 3 concerning Jeremiah's being grossly abused near this speech frequently made use of by the sacred writers: and gate, it appears to have been situated by the house of therefore the sense of • Hezekiah's being buried in the sethe Lord.
pulchres of the sons of David, 'must be, that he was buried Thus we have passed through most of the gates of this in the sepulchres of the kings descended from David. ancient city; and on the north side of it, without the The more probable opinion, therefore, is that of Le walls now, but then probably within them, we meet with Bruyn, who supposes, that these grots were the sepulsome subterraneous chambers, that are wonderfully mag- chres of Manasseh, his son Amon, and his grandson nificent, and at present called the sepulchres of the Josiah, kings of Judah. Of Manasseh the Scripture kings, * of which some late travellers give us a descrip- tells us expressly, that he was buried in the garden of tion to this effect. " When you come to the place, you his own house, in the garden of Uzza ;' and of Amon it pass through an entry hewed out of a rock, which admits is said that he was buried in the garden of Uzza;" you into an open court about twenty-six feet square, all which garden Manasseh might very probably purchase, cut out of the rock, which is of solid marble, and serves and being taken with the pleasantness of it, might there instead of walls. On the left hand of this court is a build him a house, which is here called “ bis own house, portico nine paces long, and four broad, with a kind of in contradistinction to the royal palace, which was built, architrave running round its front, cut out of the same and inhabited by his ancestors, on Mount Zion. Of Jorock, as are likewise the pillars that support it. At the siah indeed the sacred history does not say expressly
, end of this portico there is a passage into the sepulchres, that he was buried here ; all that it tells us is, that he which when you have crept through it with some diffi- was ‘ buried in the sepulchres of his fathers ;' but whether culty, lets you into a large chamber of above four and twenty feet square. Its sides and ceiling are so exactly $ 1 Kings ii. 10. and xi. 43. 62 Chron. xxxii, 33. square, and its angles so just, that no architect, with
2 Kings xxi. 18, 26.
& 2 Chron, XXXy, 24. levels and plummets, could build a room more regular. lates, that not ‘above fifteen years before, a wall belonging to
a Benjamin of Tudela, who wrote about the year 1173, reFrom this room you pass into six more, one within ano
mount Sion, fell down, and the priests set twenty men to work ther, and all of the same fabric with the first, except that upon it. Two of these workmen being one day left alone, took the two innermost are deeper than the rest, and have a up a stone, which opened a passage into a subierraneous place, descent of about six or seven steps into them. In every into which they entered. There they found a palace, supported one of these rooms, except the first
, were coffins of stone, entrance was a table, and upon this table a golden crown and placed in niches, along the sides of the room, and sceptre. This, say the Jews, was David's monument, and ep. amount in all to about fifty."
posite to it was Solomon's, adorned in the like manner. As This perhaps is the only real work that now remains they were attempting to penetrate farther, they were overset by of the old Jerusalem; and what makes it justly looked heard a voice, bidding them arise, and begone. Benjamines
a whirlwind, and remained senseless till the evening, when they
sures us, that he had this story from the mouth of one Abraham, "Neh. iii. 26.
a Pharisee, who, as he said, had been consulted about this event * Explication du nouveau plan de l'ancienne Jerusalem, par by the patriarch of Jerusalem, and declared that this was David's M. Calmet. • Jer. XX. 2.
monument. But the whole of this account has so much the air • See Thevenot's Voyages, part 1. b.2. c. 4. and Maundrell's of a fable, that it is needless to confute it.-Calmet's Dictionary, Journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem.
under the word David.
A. M. 2981. A. C. 1023; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A, M. 4375. A. C. 1036, 2 SAM. xix-1 KINGS viii. in the city of David, or in the garden of Uzza, it makes I court of the Israelites was 100 cubits. It was paved no mention : and therefore, since both his father and with marble of different colours, and had four gates, to grandfather were buried in this garden, there is reason every quarter one, and each rising with an ascent of seven to think, that Josiah was here buried likewise ; espe- steps. To separate this court from the court of the cially considering, that in one of these subterraneous priests, there was a wall of 200 cubits square ; and the rooms, as Le Bruyn tells us, which seemed to be more priests' court was 100 cubits, encompassed with cloisters lofty than the rest, there were three coffins curiously and apartments where the priests, that attended the seradorned with carved works, which he took to be the cof- vice of the temple, were used to live. This court had but fins of these three kings.
three gates, to the east, to the north, and to the south, But of all the buildings that ancient Jerusalem bad to and were approached by an ascent of eight steps. These boast of, the temple which David designed, and Solo- courts were all open, and without any covering, but in mon perfected, was the most magnificent. We are not, case of rain, or other bad weather, the people could rehowever, to imagine, that this temple was built like one tire under the cloisters, that were supported with rows of of our churches ; for it did not consist of one single edi- pillars, and went round every court. In the Israelites' fice, but e of several courts and buildings, which took court, over against the gate of the priests' court, was up a great deal of ground. The place whereon it was erected a throne for the king, which was a magnificent erected, was on the top of Mount Moriah, and the build- alcove, where he seated himself when he came to the ing altogether made an exact square of 800 cubits, or temple. In the priests' court was the altar of burnt-of1460 feet long on each side, exactly fronting the east, ferings, a great deal larger than that of the tabernacle, west, north, and south.
having ten brazen lavers, whereas the tabernacle had but To make this building more firm and secure, it was one, and a sea of brass, which the tabernacle had not, found necessary to begin the foundation at the bottom of supported by twelve oxen. the mount; so that the sides were 333 cubits, or about On the west side of the altar of burnt-offerings, there 608 feet high before they were raised to the level of the was an ascent of twelve steps, to what we may properly temple, and this afforded a most noble prospect towards call the temple; and this consisted of three parts, the the chief part of the city which lay westward. It is im- porch, the sanctuary, and the holy of holies. The porch possible to compute the labour of laying this foundation, was about twelve cubits long, and twenty broad, at the because it is impossible to tell how much of the moun- entrance of which stood the two famous pillars, Jachin tain must in some places be removed, and others filled and Boaz, whose names import, that God alone was the up, to bring it to an exact square for so great a height : support of the temple ;' and its gate was fourteen cubits but when we consider that there were 180,000 workmen, wide, the sanctuary or nave of the temple, was forty cufor seven years and a half constantly employed, we can- bits long, and twenty broad, wherein were the altar of not but admire what business could be found for so many incense, and the table of shewbread; but because the hands to do; and yet, when we reflect on the vastness temple was larger and wanted more light than the taberof this fabric, it would make one no less wonder, how nacle, instead of one, it had ten golden candlesticks. in so short a time it could possibly be completed. “For The holy of holies was a square of twenty cubits, wherein the foundation,” as Josephus tells us, was laid prodi- was placed the ark of the covenant, containing the two giously deep, and the stones were not only of the largest tables of stone, wherein God bad engraven his ten comsize, but hard and firm enough to endure all weathers, mandments; but instead of two cherubim, as were in the and be proof against the worm. Besides this, they were tabernacle, in the temple there were four. so mortised into one another, and so wedged into the Round about the temple, and against the walls thereof, rock, that the strength and curiosity of the basis was not as Josephus tells us, were built thirty cells, or little less admirable than the intended superstructure, and the houses, which served in the way of so many buttresses, one was every way answerable to the other."
and were, at the same time, no small ornament to it; for The ground plot upon which the temple was built was there were stories of these cells, one above another, a square of 600 cubits every way. It was encompassed whereof the second was narrower than the first, and the with a wall of six cubits high, and the same in breadth, third than the second, so that their roofs and balustrades and contained several buildings for different uses, sur- being within each other, made three different terraces, as rounded with cloisters, supported by marble pillars. it were, upon which one might walk round the temple. Within this space was the court of the Gentiles, fifty cubits wide, and adorned, in like manner, with cloisters 6 The temple itself, strictly so called, had two stories, the upand pillars. To separate this court from the court of per of which was raised quite above these little houses and their the Israelites, there was a wall of 500 cubits square. The roofs; for their roofs reached no higher than the top of the first
story. The second story, which had no building adjoining to its
side, made a large room over the sanctuary and the holy of holies, * Bedford's Scripture Chronology, b. 4. c. 5.
of equal dimensions with them; and it is no improbable opinion a These several parts of the temple the Greeks are very care- that this was the upper chamber, in which the Holy Ghost was ful to distinguish by different ames. What was properly the pleased to descend upon the apostles in a visible manner. This temple, they called o varós; and the courts and other parts of upper room was appropriated to the pious laity as a place for them the temple, sò isgér. Thus when Zacharias is said to have gone to come and pay their devotions in; and therefore it seems very into the temple to burn incense, (Luke i. 9.) which was done in likely that the apostles were here with other devout persons, the sanctum, the word is vads; but when it is said that Anna the while the temple was full of Jews of all nations, who were come prophetess departed not from the temple, (Luke ii. 37.) that is, to celebrate the feast of the Pentecost, and that thereupon they lived in that part of the court of the Israelites which was appro- below, hearing the noise, which was occasioned, by the shaking priated to religious women, the Greek word is isgév. And this of the place, ran up to see the cause of it, and, to their great observation holds good all through the New Testament.- Lamy, surprise, found the apostles distinguished from the other Jews De Tabern. b. 5. c. 5.
about them, both by the cloven tongues which sat upon each of ling money.
A. M. 2981. A. C. 1023 ; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 4375. a. C. 1036. 2 SAM. xix-1 KINGS viii. Within, these little houses were ceiled with cedar, their temple at Jerusalem, for it may be justly questioned, walls were wainscoted with the same, and embellished notwithstanding the profusion of gold, silver, precious with carving and fretwork, overlaid with gold, which, stones, &c., employed in the temple of Solomon, whewith their dazzling splendour made every thing about ther it cost any thing like the money expended on the them look glorious.
temple of Diana. Upon the whole then, we may observe, that the glory Pliny informs us, that 'in order to build one of the of this temple did not consist in the bulk or largeness of pyramids in Egypt, no less than three hundred and sixty it, for in itself it was but a small pile of building, no thousand men were employed for the space of twenty more than an hundred and fifty feet in length, and an years. But neither was the temple any such work as hundred and five in breadth, taking the whole of it to this. We may also observe that the temple was never gether from out to out, and is exceeded by many of our intended to hold a vast concourse of people; it was only parish churches, but its chief grandeur and excellency for the service of the Lord, and the priests were those lay in its out buildings and ornaments, in its workman- alone who were employed in it. The courts, chambers, ship, which was everywhere very curious, and its over- and other apartments, were far more extensive than the layings, which were vast and prodigious; for the over- temple itself; it was never designed to be a place to laying of the holy of holies, only, which was a room worship at. There God was known to have a peculiar but thirty feet square, and twenty high, amounted to six residence, and before him the tribes came, and the hundred talents of gold, which comes to four millions priests were a sort of mediators between him and the three hundred and twenty thousand pounds of our ster- people. In short, the temple was to the Jews in the
promised land what the tabernacle was to the Hebrews To conclude this chapter then, ? in the words of in the wilderness; the place where God's honour dwelt, the Jewish historian, “ The whole frame, in fine,” says and whither the people flocked to pay their adoration.
was raised upon stones, polished to the highest “ Solomon laid the foundation of the temple, A. M. degree of perfection, and so artificially put together, 2992, B. C. 1008, before the vulgar era 2012; and it that there was no joint to be discerned, no sign of any was finished A, M, 3000, and dedicated in 3001, B, C. working tools being upon them, but the whole looked 999, before the vulgar era 1003 ; Kings viii. 2 Chron. liker the work of providence and nature, than the pro- v. vii. viii. The place that was pitched on for erecting duct of art and human invention. And as for the in- this magnificent structure was on the side of Mount Ziou side, whatever carving, gilding, embroidery, rich silks, called Moriah. Its entrance or frontispiece stood toand fine linen could do, of these there was the greatest wards the east, and the most holy or most retired part profusion. The very floor of the temple was overlaid was towards the west. The author of the first book of with beaten gold, the doors were large, and proportioned Kings, and of the second of Chronicles, has chiefly to the height of the walls, twenty cubits broad, and still made it his business to describe the temple properly so gold upon gold.” In a word, it was gold all over, and a called, that is the sanctuary, the sanctun, and the apartnothing was wanting, either within or without, that might ments belonging to them, as also the vessels, the imcontribute to the glory and magnificence of the work. plements, and the ornaments of the temple, without
giving any description scarcely of the courts and open areas, which however made a principal part of the gran
deur of this august edifice. CHAP. IV.-On the Temple,
“ But Ezekiel has supplied this defect by the exact
plan he has delineated of these necessary parts. InSUPPLEMENTAL BY THE EDITOR.
deed it must be owned that the temple as described by
Ezekiel was never restored after the captivity of BaDiana's temple at Ephesus was one of the seven won- bylon, according to the model and the mensuration that ders of the world. It is said that almost all Asia was this prophet has given of it. But as the measure he sets employed in the building of it for about two hundred down for the sanctum and the sanctuary are, within a years; but it was certainly more extensive than the small matter, the same as those of the temple of Solo* Prideaux's Con. part 1. b. 3. Jewish Antiq.b.8.c. 2.
mon; and as this prophet, who was himself a priest, had them, and by the several different languages that they spake.— seen the first temple ; it is to be supposed that the deLamy's Introduction, b. 1. c. 4.
scription he gives us of the temple of Jerusalem is the a it is not to be doubted, but that Solomon made all the uten- same as that of the temple of Solomon. sils and ornaments of the temple proportionable, both in number and richness, to that of the edifice; and yet Josephus seems to
“ The ground-plot upon which the temple was built was have carried his account beyond all credibility, when he tells us, a square of six hundred cubits, or twenty-five thousand that there were 10,000 tables besides those of the shewbread: royal feet ; (Ezek. xlv.) This space was encompassed 10,000 candlesticks besides those in the holy place; 80,000 with a wall of the height of six cubits, and of the same cups for drink-offerings; 100,000 basins of gold, and double that breadth. Beyond this wall was the court of the Gentiles
, number of silver: when he tells us that Solomon caused to be being fifty cubits wide. After this was seen a great wall
, linen robes and girdles for that of the common priests,' and which encompassed the whole court of the children of 200,000 more for the Levites and musicians: when he tells of Israel. This wall was a square of five hundred cubits. 200,000 trumpets made according to Solomon's direction, with 200,000 more, made in the fashion that Moses had appointed, and 400,000 musical instruments of a mixed metal, between
* Hist. Nat. b. xxxvi. c. 12. gold and silver, called by the ancients electrum-concerning 6 These dates are according to the commonly received chrono all which we can only say, that the text is either silent or con-logy. According to Dr Hales, the temple was begun A. M. tradicts this prodigious account.— Universal History, b. 1. c. 7. 4384, or B. C. 1027, and finished B, C, 1020,