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A. M. 1536. A. C. 2468; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 2136. A. C. 3275. GEN. CH. 5. AND 6. TO VER. 13. translator, calls them, the latter of whom found out the sidering that Egypt was at first divided into three, and food which is gathered from trees : that their issue were afterwards into four sovereignties for some time, so that! called Genus and Genea, who were the first that prac- three or four of his kings were many times reigning tised idolatry; for, upon the occasion of great droughts, together: which, if duly considered, will be a means to they made their adorations to the sun, calling him Beel- reduce the Egyptian account to a more reasonable samen, which, in Phænician, is the Lord of heaven; that compass. the children of these were Phos, Pur, and Phlox, that a The substance of the account however (as it stands B is, light, fire, and flame, who first found out the way of unexplained in Manetho) is this :—That there were in generating fire, by rubbing pieces of wood against one Egypt thirty dynasties of gods, consisting of 113 geneanother: that these begat sons of vast bulk and stature, rations, and which took up the space of 36,525 years ; whose names were given to mount Cassius Libanus, An- that when this period was out, then there reigned eight tilibanus, and Brathys, whereon they seized: that of these demigods in the space of 217 years; that after them were begotten Memrumus, and Hypsuranius, the latter succeeded a race heroes, to the number of fifteen, of whom was the inventor of huts made of reeds and and their reign took up 443 years; that all this was be. rushes, and had a brother called Usous, the first wor-fore the flood, and then began the reign of their kings, shipper of fire and wind, in whose time women became the first of whom was Menes. very abandoned and debauched : that many years after

Now, in order to explain what is meant by this prodithis generation, came Agreus and Halieus, the inventors gious number of years, we must observe, 3 that it was a of the arts of hunting and fishing : that of these were be- very usual and customary thing for ancient writers to gotten two brothers, the first forgers and workers in iron; begin their histories with some account of the origin of the name of one is lost, but Chrysor (who is the same things, and the creation of the world. Moses did so in with Vulcan) found out all fishing tackle, and, in a small his book of Genesis; Sanchoniatho did so in his Phoeboat, was the first that ventured to sea, for which he was nician history; and it appears from Diodorus, that the afterwards deified: that from this generation came two Egyptian antiquities did so too. Their accounts began brothers, Technites and Autochthon, who invented the about the origin of things, and the nature of the gods ; art of making tiles; from these Agrus, and Agrotes, who then follows an account of their demigods, and terresfirst made courts about houses, fences, and cellars; and trial deities; after them came their heroes, or first rank from these Amynus, and Magus, who showed men how of men; and last of all, their kings. Now, if their kings to constitute villages, and regulate their flocks. This began from the flood; if their heroes and demigods is the substance of what Sanchoniatho relates during reached up to the beginning of the world : then the acthis period; and how far it agrees with the account of count which they give of the reigns of their gods, before Moses, especially in the idolatrous line of Cain, our these, can be only their theological speculations put learned bishop Cumberland has all along made his into such order as they thought most philosophical. observations.

To make this more plain, we must observe farther, Manetho Sebennita was high priest of Heliopolis in that the first and most ancient gods of the Egyptians, the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus, by whose order he and of all other nations, (after they had departed from wrote his history; but that which destroys the credit of the worship of the true God,) were the luminaries of it, (though it gave him an opportunity of invention,) is, heaven; and it is very probable, that what they took to that 'he professes to transcribe his Dynasties from in- be the period of time in which any of these deities scriptions on the pillars of Hermes (whom the Egyptians, finished their course, that they might call the time of his out of veneration, call Trismegistus) in the land of reign. Thus a perfect and complete revolution of any Seriad, which land no one knows any thing of, and star which they worshipped, was the reign of that stur ; which pillars being engraven before the flood, can hardly be supposed to escape undefaced.

Shuckford's Connection, b. 1. The plain truth is, the LXX translation was, not long

a The accounts of Munetho seem at first sight so extravagant before this time, finished ; and when the Jewish antiqui- omit attempting to say any thing concerning them; though other

that many great writers look upon them as inere fictions, and ties came to appear in the world, the Egyptians (who learned men and more especially our countryman Sir Jokna are mighty pretenders this way) grew jealous of the hon- Marsham, in his Canonical Chronology, p. 1.) not well satisfied our of their nation, and were willing to show, that they with this proceeding, have undertaken an examination of them could trace up their memoirs much higher than Moses and with some success. The misfortune is, we have none of had carried those of the Israelites. ? This was the chief author that properly gives us any sight or knowledge of them.

the original works from whence they were collected, nor any me design of Manetho's making his collections. He was The historians Diodorus Siculus and Herodotus, did not examine resolved to make the Egyptian antiquities reach as far these matters to the bottom; and we have no remains of the old backwards as he could ; « and therefore, as many several Egyptian Chronicon, or of the works of Monetho, except some names as he found in their records, so many successive quotations in the works of other writers. The Chronographia of

Syncellus, wrote by one George, an abbot of the monastery of St monarchis he determined them to have had; never con- Simeon, and called St Syncellus, as being sutliagan of Tarasius,


patriarch of Constantinople, is the only work we can have re

From these antiquities Syneellus collected the que See Stillingficct's Sacred Origins, b. 1. c. 2. No. 11.

tations of the old Chronicons of Manctho, and of Eratosthenes, as Shuckford's Connection, part 1. b. 1.

he found them in the worhs of Africanus and Eusebius; and a Allowing the thirty dynasties, which he described from the works of Africanus and Eusebius being now lost, (for it is memoirs preserved in the archives of the Egyptian temples, to be known that the work which goes under the name of Eusebius' successive, they make up a series of more than 5,300 years to Chronicon is a composition of Scaliger's) we have nothing to be the time of Alexander the Great, which can be nothing but a depended upou but what we find in Syncellus above mentioned. manifest forgery.--Roliin, p. 20.

-Shuchford's Connection.


course to.


Had his sen

ia tl. year of his


year of the


Lived after

his ma's birth, years

Died in the year of the





A. M. 1536. A. C. 2468; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 2136. A. C. 3275. GEN. CH. 5, AND 6. TO VER. 13. and as a period of 36,525 years is what they call an

Began his 3. According to the in the

Lived in all, entire mundane revolution, that is, when the several

the Septuagint. beavenly bodies come round to the same point, from which all their courses began; so is it very remarkable, Adam

1 230 700 930 that they made the sum total of the reigns of all their


230 205 707 912 sereral gods, to amount to the self-same space of time. This I take to be a true state of the Egyptian dynasties :


435 190


905 and if so, it makes their history not near so extravagant as has been imagined, and sinks their account of time

Cainan......... 625 170 740 910 some hundred years short of the Jewish computation.

The Jewish computation indeed is not a little ambi- Mahalaleel.... 795 165 730 895 nuous, by reason of the different methods, which men

Jared....... 960 162 800 962 find themselves inclined to pursue. The three common ways of computing the time from the creation to the


1122 165 200 365 thood, are, that which arises from the Hebrew text, from the Samaritan copies, and from the LXX. inter- Methuselah ... 1287 187


969 pretation

Lamech.. 1474 188 565 753












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The difference between the Hebrew and Samaritan computation is easily perceived, by comparing the two former tables together; nor will it be any hard matter to reconcile them, if we consider what ' St Jerome informs us of, namely, that there were Samaritan copies which made Methuselah 187 years old at the birth of Lamech; and Lamech 182 at the birth of Noah. Now, if this be true, it is easy to suppose 62 (the age of Jared at the birth of Enoch) to be a mistake of the transcriber, who might drop a letter, and write 62 instead of 162; and thus all the difference between the Hebrew and Samaritan copies will entirely vanish.

But it is not so between the Hebrew and the Septuagint. The Hebrew, according to the highest calculation, makes no more than 1656 years before the flood, but the Septuagint raises it to no less than 2262; so that in this one period (without saying any thing of the wide difference between them in subsequent times) there is an addition of above 600 years, which can a hardly be accounted for by any mistake of transcribers, because all the ancient and authentic copies, both of the Hebrew and Septuagint, agree exactly in their computation. And therefore the generality of learned men, despairing






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' In his Inquiries on Genesis. a Lud. Capellus, in his Sacred Chronology prepared lıy I'alton for the Polyglot Bible, attempts to reconcile this diference by telling us from St riustin, On the Government of God, c. 13, that this edition was not made by the LXX. themselves, but by some early transcriber from them, and probably for one or other of these two reasons. 1st, Perhaps, thinking the years of the antediluvians to be but lunar, and computing, that at this rate the six fathers (whose lives are thus altered) must have had their children at five, six, seven, or eight years old (which could not but look incredible ;) the transcriber, I say, finding this, might be induced to add one hundred years to each in order to make them of a more probable age of manhood at the birth of their respective children: or, 2ndly, If he thought the years of their lives to be solar, yet still he might imagine, that infancy and childhood were proportionably longer in men who were to live seven, eight, or nine hundred years, than they are in us; and that it was too early in their lives for them to be fathers at sixty, seventy, or ninety years of age; and for this reason, might add one hundred years, to make their advance to manhood (which is commonly not till one-fourth part of life is over) proportionable to what was to be the term of their duration.-Shuckford's Connection, c.).

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A. M. 1536. A. C. 2168 ; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 2136. A. C. 3275. GEN. CH. 5. AND 6. TO VER. 13. of a reconciliation, have fairly entered the lists, and Those who maintain the authority of the Hebrew text, taken the side which they thought most tenable. as the standard and rule of reckoning the years of the

Those who espouse the cause of the Greek version, patriarchs, oppose their adversaries in this manner. draw up their arguments in this rank and order. They They tell us * that the Hebrew text is the original, in tell us, that the alteration in the Septuagint computation which the Spirit of God indicted the Scriptures of the must have been purposely made; because, where letters Old Testament, and being, consequently, authentic, is must necessarily have been added, and where sometimes better to be trusted than any translation made by men both parts of a verse, and sometimes two verses together liable to error, as the Seventy interpreters were; and are altered, and so altered, as still to keep them con- that the Jews, to whom were committed these oracles sistent with one another; this, whenever done, must be of God, used the greatest diligence to preserve them done designedly, and for no other reason that they can pure and entire, insomuch, that in the course of so many imagine, but rarely a detection of errors in the Hebrew years (as © Josephus testifies in his time) no person durst copies.

add, take away, or misplace any thing therein. They tell us, that, though they have no positive proof They tell us, that no reason can be assigned, why the of such errors in the present Hebrew copies, yet they Hebrew text should be corrupted, but many very probahave good grounds to suspect there are such, because ble ones, why the Septuagint might; since, either to that, before the time of Antiochus, the Jews, while in exalt the antiquity of their own nation, or to conform to peace, were so very careless about their sacred writings, the dynasties of the Egyptians, the Jewish interpreters that they suffered several variations to creep into their at Alexandria might falsify their chronology; since, in copies; that when Antiochus fell upon them, he seized this very point, there are so many different readings in and burnt all the copies he could come at, so that none, the Septuagint, and so many errors and mistranslations but such as were in private hands, escaped his fury; in it, that 'the learned Dr Lightfoot (to whom, as yet, that, as soon as that calamity was over, those copies no sufficient reply has been made) has proved it a very which were left, in private hands, the Jews got together, corrupt and imperfect version, in order to transcribe others from them; and that, from They tell us that the Hebrew computations are supthese transcriptions, came all the copies now in use. ported by a perfect concurrence and agreement of all Now suppose, say they, that these private copies which Hebrew copies now in being; that there have been no escaped the fury of Antiochus, but were made in an age various readings in these places, since the Talmuds were confessedly inaccurate, had any of them dropped some composed; that, even in our Saviour's time, this was the numerical letters, this might occasion the present He- current way of calculation, since the paraphrase of brew text's falling short in its computations: and, to Onkelos (which is on all hands agreed to be about that confirm this,

age) is the same exactly with the Hebrew in this matter; They tell us, that Joseplus, 'who expressly declares, that St Jerome and St Austin (who were the best skilled that he wrote his history from the sacred pages, ? in in the Hebrew tongue of any fathers in their age) folhis account of the lives of the antediluvian patriarchs, lowed it in their writings, and the vulgar Latin, which agrees with the Septuagint; and that the Greek histori- has been in use in the church above 100 years, entirely ans before Josephus, such as Demetrius Phalerius, agrees with it. Philo the elder, Eupolemus, &c., very accurate writers, They tell us, that Demetrius, the real historian, (for and highly commended by Clemens Alexandrinus, and Phalerius was none,) lived not before the reign of Eusebius, in their calculation, differ very much from Ptolemy Philopater, the grandson of Philadelphus, near the common Hebrew: so that not only Josephus, but seventy years after the Septuagint translation was these elder historians likewise must have either seen, or made: that Philo was contemporary with our Saviour, been informed of certain Hebrew copies which agreed wrote almost 300 years after the said translation, and, with the Septuagint, and differed from what have de- living constantly at Alexandria, might very well be supscended to us. In short,

posed to copy from it; that Josephus, though a Jew, They tell us, " that the whole Christian church, Eastern and perfectly skilled in the Hebrew language, in many and Western, and all the celebrated writers of the instances, (which learned 8 men have pointed out,) church, are on their side; that all the ancient manuscripts have exactly the same computations with the com

Millar's Church History.

5 Rom. iii. 2. mon Septuagint, except here and there a variation or

Against Appion, b. 1. two, not worth regarding; and therefore they conclude,

"See his Works, vol. 2. p. 932. edit. Utrecht, 1699. that, as there is a manisest disagreement between the

* See Care's History; Litt. p. 2. in Joseph; and Well's Dis.

sertation the Chronicles of Josephus, pp. 19–21. Greek and Hebrew copies in this respect, the mistake

a Demetrius Phalerius was the first president of the college should rather be charged upon the Hebrew, than the of Alexandria, to which the library belonged, where the original Septuagint; because, as the Hebrew is thought by some manuscripts of the Septuagint were reposited. He was a great to fall short, and the Septuagint to exceed, in its account scholar as well as an able statesman and politician; but I doubt of the lives of the patriarchs, it is obvious to conceive, Bishop Walton is mistaken, when (in his ninth Preface to the that a fault of this kind may be incurred by way of omis- whose works might prove the Septuagint computation to be more

Polyglot Bible) he quotes him as one of those Greek historians sion rather than addition,

probable than the Hebrew. The Phalerian Demetrius lived a busy, active life, was a great officer of state, both at home and

abroad, and I do not find that ever he wrote any history. It was Against Appion. Antiquities, b. 1. c. 3. Demetrius the historian therefore, that the Bishop should have Shuckford's Connection; and Heidegger's llistory of the quoted; but he, living in the time that I mentioned, does not Patriarths.

maho much to this purpose. - Shuckford's Connection, b. I.

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A. M. 1536. A. C. 2468; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 2136. A. C. 3275. GEN. CH. 5. AND 6. TO VER. 13. aulheres to the Greek in opposition to the Hebrew; and It inight be some entertainment to the reader, could that the fathers of the first ages of the church, though we but give him any tolerable view of the religion, they were very good men, had no great extent of learning; understood the Greek tongue better than the He- of the book of Genesis, that the world would last 6000 years, brew, and for that reason gave the preference to the because the letter Aleph, which stands for 1000, occurs six times Septuagint computation.

in the first verse; because God was six days about the creation; In this manner do the advocates for the Hebrew text and because with him 'a thousand years are but as one day! defend its authority: and, since it is confessed, there after this, they taught that there was to be " a seventh day, or a

millenary sabbath of rest." Now it being certainly foretold that bas been a transmutation somewhere, if that transmuta- the Messiah should be sent in the last times, it appears that the tion was designedly and on purpose done, (as the ad- Rabbis inferred his advent to be about the middle of the sixth verse party agrees,) it is indifferent " whether it was done millenary, or the 5500th year of the world ; and to find a preby way of addition or subtraction; only as it is evident, tence for rejecting Jesus as the Messiah, it occurred to them to that the Greeks did compute by numerical letters, world might be known, by subtracting a century from Adam's

alter the generations of the patriarchs, by which the age of the whereas it is much questioned, that the Hebrews ever age until the birth of Seth, and adding the same to the residue did, the mistake or falsification rather seems to lie on of his life, and doing the same thing with respect to the generathe side of the Greek translators, the very form of whose tion of many others of Adam's descendants down to Abraham.

By this device their computation showed that Jesus Christ was letters was more susceptible of it.

manifested near the middle of the fifth, instead of the sixth, This is a true state of the controversy, wherein the millenary of the world, which according to them was to last 7000 arguments for the Hebrew computation do certainly years; and they said, We are still in the middle of the time, and preponderate; though the names, the venerable a names,

the time appointed for the Messiah's advent is not yet come:

Those Rabbis, however, were obliged to leave the ages at on the contrary side, have hitherto been more numerous, which Jared, Methuselah, and Lamech had their several sons,

as they found them. “ Had these been curtailed, like the rest,

and the century taken from each added to the subsequent life of 'Heidegger's History of the Patriarchs.

the patriarch as is done in other cases, Jared would have sur& The names for the Septuagint computation, which the learned vived the deluge 66 years; Methuselah 200 years; and Lamech Heidegger, in his History of the Patriarchs, (as he takes them 95 years. Not daring, therefore, to shorten the lives of these from Baronius,) has reckoned up, are such as these: Theophi. three patriarchs, the Jews were forced to let the original amounts he, bishop of Antioch, St Cyprian, Clemens Alexandrinus, of their generations remain unaltered.” Hippolytus, Origen, Lactantius, Epiphanius, Philastrius, Orosius, “ The tradition of the Jews respecting the age of the world Cyril

, the two Anastasii, Nicephorus, and Suada; to whom he was found also in the Sybilline Oracles; in Hesiod; in the writmight add several more, as Heidegger suggests, while those ings of Darius Flysta spes, the old king of the Medes, derived among the ancients who contended for the Hebrew calculation, probably from the Magi; and in Hermes Trismegistus, and was were only St Austin and St Jerome, but men of great skill and adopted by the early Christian fathers. Its prevalence therefore proficiency in the Hebrew language. On the Age of the Patri. throughout the Pagan, Jewish, and Christian world, whether wellarcás, Essay 10.

founded, or otherwise, was a sufficient reason for the Jews to invali. Such may have been the case 100 years ago: 'but it certainly date it, by shortening their chronology.” This probability is height

Dr Hales has proved, with the force of demon- ened by the testimony of Justin Martyr and Irenæus, who were stration, that there was originally no difference between the both eminent Christian writers of the second century, the former Hebrew genealogies and those of the Greek version; that the a Samaritan by birth, and well skilled in the Hebrew tongue, as computation of Josephus was, in his own time, conformable to well as in the Hebrew and Greek Scriptures. Now, in his celeberich; and consequently that the chronology either of the original brated conference with Trypho the Jew, Justin expressly charges Hebrew, or of the Greek version of the Scriptures, as well as of the Rabbis with having expunged many passages out of the the writings of Josephus, has been since adulterated. That the Septuagint version; whilst Irenæus affirms of the same Rabbis, milful adulteration took place in the Hebrew rather than in the that if they had known the use that was to be made of their Greek copies, is rendered highly probable by the reasons which Scriptures, they would not have hesitated to burn these ScripSellow, Aecording to Dr Hales, who has bestowed much tures ? The Septuagint version was indeed their abhorrence, pains ca the question, the Masorites, who published the edition because it was generally referred to by the Christian writers; of the Hebrew Bible which is now in use, deducted a century and, in order to bring it as much as possible into disrepute, they from the age at which each of the patriarchs-Adam, Seth, instituted, in the beginning of the second century, a solemn fast Enus, Cainan, Mahaleel, and Enoch-had their respective sons on the 8th of Tebeth (December) to curse the memory of its whose genealogy is decided by Moses. Their motive for this having been made! Had it been in their power, there cannot canduet be states from Ephrem Syrus, who lived about the period be a doubt, but that, with these dispositions, they would have at which the change was made, and of whom the learned Cave destroyed that version entirely; but this was not in their power, sys (llist. Lil.)-“From his earliest years he exercised him- whilst it was easy to alter the chronology of the Hebrew text, so keli in monastic philosophy, and with all his energy so perfected as to make it suit their own purposes. humself in the studies of the more learned sciences, that with “In the course of the Jewish war," says Dr Hales, “until tase he could understand the most difficult theorems." Such a the final destruction of Jerusalem, and expulsion of the Jews man was not likely to write at random of a fact, of which he had from Judea in the reign of Adrian, vast numbers of the Hebrew the best possible opportunity of ascertaining either the truth or copies inust have been lost or destroyed, besides those that were the falsehood. That Ephrem had such an opportunity is unques- taken away by the conquerors among other spoils; and the few, ticarable ; for he died A. D. 378; and the corruption of the He- that were left, were confined in a great measure to the Jews brew chronology, though it began as early as A. D. 130, appears themselves, as the Hebrew language was not generally undernot to have made any considerable progress for two centuries, stood like the Greek. Whereas, of the Greek copies, even if Euzebins having found, in the Hebrew copies which he con- all, that were possessed by the Hellenistic Jews, not only in sulted, different accounts of the same times, some following the Palestine, but throughout the world, had been destroyed, which lunger, and others the shorter computations. Now Ephrem was far from being the case, yet the copies of the Septuagint, in affirtns, that the Jews “subtracted 600 years from the genera- | the possession of the Christians everywhere, rendered any mateLions of Adam, Seth, &c, in order that their own books might rial adulteration of the Greek text, at least in so important a case Cult convict them concerning the coming of Christ: he having as that of the genealogies, well nigh impossible." The Jews did been predicted to appear for the deliverance of mankind after however all that they could to deprive the Christians of the argu

ments with which it furnished them in proof of Jesus of Nazareth The reader will look in vain for this prediction in the books of being the Messiah promised in the Old Testament. They ser the Old Testament; but the Cabbalists found in the first chapter I up ttvee other Greek versions in opposition to the Septuagini,

is nel now.

6500 years.


A. M. 1536. A. C. 2463 ; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 2136. A. C. 3275, GEN. CH. 5. AND 6. TO VER. 13. polity, and learning, of the antediluvian people: but the hints suggested therein, so very few, and so very obscure sacred history, in this respect, is so very short, and the withal, that, during this period, we are left, in a great

measure, in the dark. However, we cannot but observe,

that it is a mistaken notion of some authors, who affirm, framed on the Hebrew text curtailed in the manner which has that at the beginning of the world, for almost 2000 been already mentioned. The first was that of Aquila, published about A. D. 128—two years before the Seder Olam years together, mankind lived without any law, without Rabba; the second by Symmachus; and the third by Theodo- any precepts, without any promises from God; and that tion. Aquila was originally a pagan priest, and afterwards a the religion from Adam to Abraham was purely natural, Christian; but being excommunicated for the irregularity of his and such as had nothing but right reason to be its rule conduct, he became a Jew, and the most rancorous enemy the gospel of Christ. By Epiphanius he is charged with wrest- and measure. The antediluvian dispensation indeed ing the Scriptures, in order to invalidate their testimonies to the was, in the main, founded upon the law of nature; but claim of our Lord to the character of the Messiah; and, in an still it must be acknowledged, that there was (as we unpublished Greek tract in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, it is showed before) a divine precept concerning sacrifices; said " Wherever you find in the Hebrew (for even there he that there was a divine promise concerning the blessed also obliterated) or in the Greek, the testimonies concerning Christ disguised, know that it was the insidious contrivance of Seed; and that there were several other precepts and Aquila."

injunctions given the patriarchs, besides those that were That he might be able to perform these exploits, Aquila, when built upon mere reason. he became a Jew, put himself under the tuition of the famous Rabbi Akiba, who, for forty years was president of the Sanhe

The law of sacrifices (which confessedly at this time drim, and had 40,000 pupils, which qualified him to become one obtained) was partly natural, and partly divine. of the most subtile and formidable as well as most malignant sacrifices were tokens of thankfulness and acknowledge adversaries of Christianity. It was under the auspices, and by ments, that the fruits of the earth, and all other creathe instigation of this famous Rabbi, that in the year 130, was published or “sealed,” says Dr Hales, “the Seder Olam tures, for the use and benefit of man were derived froin Rabba, or Jewish curtailed system of chronology; and as God; they were a service dictated by natural reason, Aquila's version agrees with it, there can be little doubt, but, and so were natural acts of worship: abut, as they carried that in this exploit, he was aiding to his master. These facts with them the notion of expiation and atonement for the were undoubtedly known to Usher and other eminent chronolo- souls of mankind especially as they referred to the gers; but, as Dr Hales ohserves, “the superstitious veneration for what was called the Hebrew verity, or supposed immaculate Messias, and signified the future sacrifice of Christ, purity of the Masorite editions of the Hebrew text, which gene- they were certainly instituted by God, and the practice rally prevailed among the most eminent divines and Hebrew of them was founded upon a divine command. scholars of the last age, precluded all discussions of this nature." “But the inspection of various editions since, and the copious

It is not to be doubted,'but that Adanı instructed his collations of the Hebrew text with a great number of MSS. col children to worship and adore God, to commemorate his lected from all parts of the world, by the laudable industry and goodness, and deprecate his displeasure; nor can we extensive researches of Kennicott De Rossi, and other learned suppose, but that they, in their respective families, put men, have proved that the sacred classics are no more exempt his instructions in execution; and yet we find, that in from various readings than the profane." Errors many and great have crept into the chronology of the Scriptures as well in the original Hebrew as in the Septuagint version ; nor have the

· Edward's Survey of Religion, b. 1. antiquities of Josephus by any means escaped the confusion with respect to dates, which disfigures the Sacred Oracles from which Josephus rather than that of Dr Hales, and therefore the true those antiquities were transcribed.

computation of Moses. It is, however, chiefly by the means of some genuine dates and numbers which still fortunately subsist in the work of Jose- According to phus, that our author has been enabled to restore the Scripture Hales, &c. chronology to its original state. This he has done by strictly following the analytical method of investigation, which, he truly observes, is at least as applicable to chronology as to natural philosophy. The leading elementary date, by reference to which he has adjusted the whole range of sacred and profane chronology, “is (1 quote his own words) the birth of Cyrus, before Christ 599, which led to his accession to the throne of Persia, B. C. 559; of Media, B. C. 551; and of Balıylonia, B. C. 536; for, from these several dates carefully and critically ascertained and veritied, the several respective chronologies of these kingdoms branched off; and from the last especially, the destruction of Solomon's temple by Nebuchadnezzer, B. C. 586, its correcter date, which led to its foundation, B. C. 1027; thence to the

595 Heb. 277 Exode, B. C. 1643; thence to Abraham's birth, B. C. 2153; thence to the reign of Nimrod, 2554; thence to the deluge,

10. Noah.......... B. C. 3155; and thence to the creation, B.C. 5411. And this

Deluge. date of the creation is verified, by the rectification of the systems

Gleig's Edit. of Josephus, and Theophilus, who was bishop of Antioch, A. D. 169, and the first Christian chronologist.” By the same a This seems inconceivable, though it is an opinion that has patient and analytical investigation, Dr Hales has ascertained been held by men of the highest eminence in the church, as well the genealogies of the antediluvian patriarchs, to have been very for learning as for piety. Whilst men possessed no notion of different from what they are represented to have been in the property, what could lead them to offer gifts to God? And present Hebrew; and though it would undoubtedly be presump- though they must have been all conscious of guilt, is it possible tuous to say that his system is without errors, it appears to ap- that they could hope to propitiate the Creator by taking away the proach so near to perfection, that the following computation, life of his, not their, guiltless creatures. For complete proof of which differs widely from those of the Hebrew, Samaritan, and the Divine institution of all kinds of sacrifice, the reader may Septuagint texts at present, must, I think, be acceptable to the have recourse to wagee's Discourses and Dissertations on the reader. It may be considered as the original computation of | Scriptural Doctrines of Atonement and Sacrifve.-Gleig's Edil.


Lised after the
in the

birth of his su-
year of he year


Live in all


Died in the yeas

the word

1. Adam ....






2. Seth






3. Enos




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