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A. M. 1536. A. C. 2008; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A, M. 2136. A. C. 3275. GEN. CH. 3. AND 6. TO VER. 13. what our sacred historian relates: when we find all this, statue for him with a golden tongue, a good emblem of I say, we cannot but acknowledge, that these, and the his history, " says one, which made a fair and specious many more historians who are usually produced upon show, but was not within what it pretended to be, espethis head, are a strong testimony of the truth and author- cially when it attempts to treat of ancient times. It ity of Moses; and therefore, to conclude this reply, or cannot be denied, however, but that some fragments of vindication of him, with the reflection of the learned it which have been preserved from ruin by the care and Scaliger upon the agreement he perceived between industry of Josephus, Tatianus, Eusebius, and others, Moses and Abydenus, in the account they both give of have been very useful, not only for proving the truth of the dove and the raven which Noah is said to have sent Scripture history to the heathens, but for confirming likeout; “ Though the Greek historians,” says he,“ do not wise some passages relating to the Babylonish empire. always agree in particulars with the sacred one, yet they After a description of Babylonia, and a strange story are rather to be pitied for not having had the advantage concerning a certain creature, which, in the first year of of true and authentic antiquities and records to set them the world, came out of the Red sea, and, conversing right, than to forfeit their value and authority, from such familiarly with men, taught them the knowledge of letslips and deviations from the truth of the story as render ters, and several arts and sciences, he proceeds to give their testimony and confirmation of the truth of the sacred us a short account of ten kings which reigned in Chaldea history much stronger, because much less to be suspected before the flood, and these corresponding with the numthan if they agreed with it in every circumstance.” ber which Moses mentions, Alorus, the first, is supposed

to be Adam; and Xisuthrus, the last, Noah; and of this Xisuthrus he pursues the story in this manner.

* Cronus, or Saturn, appearing to him in a dream, CHAP. III.-Of the Heathen History, the Chronology, gave him warning, that on the fifteenth day of the month

Religion, Learning, Longevity, 8c., of the Antedilu- Dæsius, mankind should be destroyed by a flood, and vians.

therefore commanded him to build a ship; and, having

first furnished it with provisions, and taken into it fowls We are now arrived at a period, where it may be conve- and four-footed beasts, to go into it himself, with his nient to take some notice of such heathen writers as have friends and nearest relations. Xisuthrus did as he was given us an account of the times before the flood, through ordered, built a vessel, whose length was five furlongs, which we have hitherto been tracing Moses: and those and breadth two furlongs; and having put on board all that are esteemned of the best credit and repute, are only that he was directed, went into it, with his wife, children, three; Berosus , who wrote the history of the Chaldeans; and friends. When the flood was come, and began to Sanchoniatho, who compiled that of the Phænicians ; abate, he let out some birds, which finding no food, nor and Manetho who collected the antiquities of Egypt. place to rest on, returned to the ship again. After some

The Chaldeans were certainly a nation of great and days, he let out the birds again, but they came back undoubted antiquity. 2 In all probability they were the with their feet daubed with mud; and when, after some first formed into a national government after the flood, days more, he let them go the third time, they never and therefore were more capable of having such arts and came back again, whereby he understood that the earth sciences flourish among them as might preserve the appeared again above the water, and so, taking down memory of eldest times, to the latest posterity: and yet, some of the planks of the ship, he saw it rested upon a eren among these people, who enjoyed all the advan- mountain. This is the substance of what we have in tages of ease, quiet, and a flourishing empire, we find Berosus, who varies very little from our sacred historian no credible and undoubted records preserved.a Berosus, during this period.6 their historian, was, (as · Josephus assures us) a priest Sanchoniatho is highly recommended both by Porof Belus, and a Babylonian born, but afterwards flour-phyry, the great adversary of Christianity, and by his ished in the isle of Cos, and was the first who brought translator into Greek, Philo Biblius. Theodoret is of the Chaldean astrology into request among the Greeks ; opinion, that his name, in the Phænician tongue, signiin honour of whose name and memory, the Athenians fies Qinannons, a lover of truth; which name, as Bochart (who were great encouragers of novelties) erected a imagines, was given him when he first set himself to write

history: but how faithful he has been in transcribing his * Notes, &c., for the Correction of Dates.

account of things from his records, we cannot determine, Stilingfleet's Sacred Origins, b. 1. c. 3. ' Against Appion, b. 1. unless we had the books of Taautus, and the sacred inthey do this, they relate how Deucalion first instituted this cus- scriptions and records of cities, from whence he pretends tom in memory of that calamity, and his deliverance from it.

to have extracted his history, to compare them together. • The common opinion that they were the descendants of If we may judge by what remains of his writings, which Chised, the nephew of Abraham, is at once unsatisfactory and indefensible, for they were a nation before the call of that patri-is only his first book concerning the Phænician theology arth when he dwelt with his father Terah in Ur of the Chaldzes. extant in Eusebius, we shall hardly think him deserving They are mentioned in the book of Joh, not a very great portion so large a comme ation : but be that as it will, the of time after the call of Abraham, and if the hypotheses of Dr method wherein be proceeds is this.—After having deHales and the astronomical calculations of Dr Brindley be true, the era of Job carries their antiquity still higher, as it is fixed by livered his cosmogony, or generation of the other parts both these gentlemen at upwards of 400 years before the call of of the world, he tells us, that the first pair of human Abraham. lf, with Josephus and some of the rabbinis, we sup- creatures were Protogonus and Æon, (as Philo, his pose, that the Chaldeans are the progeny of Arphaxad, they may have been a nation long hefore the call of Abraham.-Bell's * See Universal History, and Shuckford's Connection, b. 1. edition of Rollin's Ancient llistory, p. 161.

6 Stillingfieet's Sacred Origins, b. 1. c. 2.

s Ibid.

A. M. 1536. A. C. 2468; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 2136. A. C. 3275. GEN. CH. 5. AND 6. TO VER. 13. translator, calls them,) the latter of whom found out the sidering that Egypt was at first divided into three, and food which is gathered from trees: that their issue were afterwards into four sovereignties for some time, so that called Genus and Genea, who were the first that prac- three or four of his kings were many times reigning tised idolatry; for, upon the occasion of great droughts, together: which, if duly considered, will be a means to they made their adorations to the sun, calling him Beel- reduce the Egyptian account to a more reasonable samen, which, in Phænician, is the Lord of heaven; that compass. the children of these were Phos, Pur, and Phlox, that a The substance of the account however (as it stands is, light, fire, and flame, who first found out the way of unexplained in Manetho) is this :—That there were in generating fire, by rubbing pieces of wood against one Egypt thirty dynasties of gods, consisting of 113 geneanother : that these begat sons of vast bulk and stature, rations, and which took up the space of 36,525 years ; whose names were given to mount Cassius Libanus, An- that when this period was out, then there reigned eight tilibanus, and Brathys, whereon they seized: that of these demigods in the space of 217 years ; that after then were begotten Memrumus, and Hypsuranius, the latter succeeded a race of heroes, to the number of fifteen, of whom was the inventor of huts made of reeds and and their reign took up 443 years; that all this was berushes, and had a brother called Usous, the first wor-fore the flood, and then began the reign of their kings, shipper of fire and wind, in whose time women became the first of whom was Menes. very abandoned and debauched: that many years after

Now, in order to explain what is meant by this prodithis generation, came Agreus and Halieus, the inventors gious number of years, we must observe, 3 that it was a of the arts of hunting and fishing : that of these were be- very usual and customary thing for ancient writers to gotten two brothers, the first forgers and workers in iron; begin their histories with some account of the origin of the name of one is lost, but Chrysor (who is the same things, and the creation of the world. Moses did so in with Vulcan) found out all fishing tackle, and, in a small his book of Genesis ; Sanchoniatho did so in his Pheboat, was the first that ventured to sea, for which he was nician history; and it appears from Diodorus, that the afterwards deified: that from this generation came two Egyptian antiquities did so too. Their accounts began brothers, Technites and Autochthon, who invented the about the origin of things, and the nature of the gods ; art of making tiles; from these Agrus, and Agrotes, who then follows an account of their demigods, and terresfirst made courts about houses, fences, and cellars; and trial deities; after them came their heroes, or first rank from these Amynus, and Magus, who showed men how of men ; and last of all, their kings. Now, if their kings to constitute villages, and regulate their flocks. This began from the flood; if their heroes and demigods is the substance of what Sanchoniatho relates during reached up to the beginning of the world: then the acthis period; and how far it agrees with the account of count which they give of the reigns of their gods, before Moses, especially in the idolatrous line of Cain, our these, can be only their theological speculations put learned bishop Cumberland has all along made his into such order as they thought most philosophical. observations.

To make this more plain, we must observe farther, Manetho Sebennita was high priest of Heliopolis in that the first and most ancient gods of the Egyptians, the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus, by whose order he and of all other nations, (after they had departed from wrote his history; but that which destroys the credit of the worship of the true God,) were the luminaries of it, (though it gave him an opportunity of invention,) is, heaven; and it is very probable, that what they took to that "he professes to transcribe his Dynasties from in- be the period of time in which any of these deities scriptions on the pillars of Hermes (whom the Egyptians, finished their course, that they might call the time of his out of veneration, call Trismegistus) in the land of reign. Thus a perfect and complete revolution of any Seriad, which land no one knows any thing of, and star which they worshipped, was the reign of that star ; which pillars being engraven before the flood, can hardly be supposed to escape undefaced.

Shuckford's Connection, b. 1. The plain truth is, the LXX translation was, not long

a The accounts of Manetho seem at first sight so extravagant before this time, finished; and when the Jewish antiqui-omit attempting to say any thing concerning them; though other

that many great writers look upon them as mere fictions, and ties came to appear in the world, the Egyptians (who learned men (and more especially our countryman Sir John are mighty pretenders this way) grew jealous of the hon- Marsham, in his Canonical Chronology, p. 1.) not well satisfied our of their nation, and were willing to show, that they with this proceeding, have undertaken an examination of them could trace up their memoirs much higher than Moses the original works from whence they were collected, nor any one

The misfortune is, we have none of had carried those of the Israelites.This was the chief author that properly gives us any sight or knowledge of them. design of Manetho's making his collections. He was the historians Diodorus Siculus and Herodotus, did not examine resolved to make the Egyptian antiquities reach as far these matters to the bottom; and we have no remains of the old backwards as he could ; a and therefore, as many several Egyptian Chronicon, or of the works of Manetho, except some names as he found in their records, so many successive quotations in the works of other writers. The Chronographia of monarchs he determined them to have had; never con- Simeon, and called St Syncellus, as being suffragan of Tarasius

, Syncellus, wrote by one George, an abbot of the mouastery of St

patriarch of Constantinople, is the only work we can have reSee Stilling fleet's Sacred Origins, b. 1. c. 2. No. 11.

course to. From these antiquities Syncellus collected the quaShuckford's Connection, part 1, b. 1.

tations of the old Chronicons of Manetho, and of Eratosthenes, as

he found them in the works of Africanus and Eusebius ; and a Allowing the thirty dynasties, which he described from the works of Africanus and Eusebius being now lost, (for it is memoirs preserved in the archives of the Egyptian temples, to be known that the work which goes under the name of Eusebius? successive, they make up a series of more than 5,300 years to Chronicon is a composition of Scaliger's) we have nothing to be the time of Alexander the Great, which can be nothing but a depended upon but what we find in Syncelins above mentioned. manifest forgery.--Roliin, p. 20.

-Shuckford's Connection.

3

Began his year of the

world

Had his son

in the

Lived in all,

Lived after

hissa's birth, years

Died in the year of the

world

year of his

years

life

A. M. 1536. A. C. 2468; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 2136. A. C. 3275. GEN. CH. 5. AND 6. TO VER. 13. and as a period of 36,525 years is what they call an entire mundane revolution, that is, when the several

3. According to life in the

the Septuagint. beavenly bodies come round to the same point, from which all their courses began; so is it very remarkable, Adam

1 230 700 930 930 that they made the sum total of the reigns of all their

Seth

230 several gods, to amount to the self-same space of time.

205 707

912 1042 This I take to be a true state of the Egyptian dynasties :

Enos...

435 190 715 905 1340 and if so, it makes their history not near so extravagant as has been imagined, and sinks their account of time

Cainan......... 625 170 740 910 1535 some hundred years short of the Jewish computation. The Jewish computation indeed is not a little ambi- Mahalaleel.... 795 165 730

895

1690 grous, by reason of the different methods, which men

Jared....... 960 162 800 962 1922 find themselves inclined to pursue. The three common ways of computing the time from the creation to the

Enoch

1122 165 200 365 1487 flood, are, that which arises from the Hebrew text, from the Samaritan copies, and from the LXX. inter- Methuselah ... 1287 187 782 969 2256 pretation,

1474 188 565 753 2227

35

Lamech.........

THE COMPUTATION OF MOSES.

Noah

1662

500

.........

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The difference between the Hebrew and Samaritan computation is easily perceived, by comparing the two former tables together; nor will it be any hard matter to reconcile them, if we consider what "St Jerome informs us of, namely, that there were Samaritan copies which made Methuselab 187 years old at the birth of Lamech; and Lamech 182 at the birth of Noah. Now, if this be true, it is easy to suppose 62 (the age of Jared at the birth of Enoch) to be a mistake of the transcriber, who might drop a letter, and write 62 instead of 162; and thus all the difference between the Hebrew and Samaritan copies will entirely vanish.

But it is not so between the Hebrew and the Septuagint. The Hebrew, according to the highest calculation, makes no more than 1656 years before the flood, but the Septuagint raises it to no less than 2262 ; so that in this one period (without saying any thing of the wide difference between them in subsequent times) there is an addition of above 600 years, which can a hardly be accounted for by any mistake of transcribers, because all the ancient and authentic copies, both of the Hebrew and Septuagint, agree exactly in their computation, And therefore the generality of learned men, despairing

460

162

800

962

1422

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' In his Inquiries on Genesis. a Lud. Capellus, in his Sacred Chronology prepared by Walton for the Polyglot Bible, attempts to reconcile this difference by telling us from St Austin, On the Government of God, c. 13, that this edition was not made by the LXX. themselves, but by some early transcriber from them, and probably for one or other of these two reasons. 1st, Perhaps, thinking the years of the antediluvians to be but lunar, and computing, that at this rate the six fathers (whose lives are thus altered) must have had their children at five, six, seven, or eight years old (which could not but look incredible ;) the transcriber, I say, finding this, might be induced to add one hundred years to each in order to make them of a more probable age of manhood at the birth of their respective children: or, 2ndly, If he thought the years of their lives to be solar, yet still he might imagine, that infancy and childhood were proportionably longer in men who were to live seven, eight, or nine hundred years, than they are in us; and that it was too early in their lives for them to be fathers at sixty, seventy, or ninety years of age; and for this reason, might add one hundred years, to make their advance to manhood (which is commonly not till one-fourth part of life is over) proportionable to what was to be the term of their duration.—Shuckford's Connection, c. 1.

A. M. 1636. A. C. 2468 ; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 2136. A. C. 3275. GEN. CH. 5. AND 6. To ver. 13. of a reconciliation, have fairly entered the lists, and Those who maintain the authority of the Hebrew text, taken the side which they thought most tenable. as the standard and rule of reckoning the years of the

Those who espouse the cause of the Greek version, patriarchs, oppose their adversaries in this manner. draw up their arguments in this rank and order. They They tell us * that the Hebrew text is the original, in tell us, that the alteration in the Septuagint computation which the Spirit of God indicted the Scriptures of the must have been purposely made; because, where letters Old Testament, and being, consequently, authentic, is must necessarily have been added, and where sometimes better to be trusted than any translation made by men both parts of a verse, and sometimes two verses together liable to error, as the Seventy interpreters were; and are altered, and so altered, as still to keep them con- that the Jews, to whom were committed these oracles sistent with one another; this, whenever done, must be of God, used the greatest diligence to preserve them done designedly, and for no other reason that they can pure and entire, insomuch, that in the course of so many imagine, but rarely a detection of errors in the Hebrew years (as 6 Josephus testifies in his time) no person durst copies.

add, take away, or misplace any thing therein. They tell us, that, though they have no positive proof They tell us, that no reason can be assigned, why the of such errors in the present Hebrew copies, yet they Hebrew text should be corrupted, but many very probahave good grounds to suspect there are such, because ble ones, why the Septuagint might; since, either to that, before the time of Antiochus, the Jews, while in exalt the antiquity of their own nation, or to conform to peace, were so very careless about their sacred writings, the dynasties of the Egyptians, the Jewish interpreters that they suffered several variations to creep into their at Alexandria might falsify their chronology; since, in copies; that when Antiochus fell upon them, he seized this very point, there are so many different readings in and burnt all the copies he could come at, so that none, the Septuagint, and so many errors and mistranslations but such as were in private hands, escaped his fury; in it, that 'the learned Dr Lightfoot (to whom, as yet, that, as soon as that calamity was over, those copies no sufficient reply has been made) has proved it a very which were left, in private hands, the Jews got together, corrupt and imperfect version. in order to transcribe others from them; and that, from They tell us that the Hebrew computations are supthese transcriptions, came all the copies now in use. ported by a perfect concurrence and agreement of all Now

suppose, say they, that these private copies which Hebrew copies now in being; that there have been no escaped the fury of Antiochus, but were made in an age various readings in these places, since the Talmuds were confessedly inaccurate, had any of them dropped some composed; that, even in our Saviour's time, this was the numerical letters, this might occasion the present He- current way of calculation, since the paraphrase of brew text’s falling short in its computations: and, to Onkelos (which on all hands agreed to be about that confirm this,

age) is the same exactly with the Hebrew in this matter; They tell us, that Josephus, who expressly declares, that St Jerome and St Austin (who were the best skilled that he wrote his history from the sacred pages, ? in in the Hebrew tongue of any fathers in their age) folhis account of the lives of the antediluvian patriarchs, lowed it in their writings, and the vulgar Latin, which i agrees with the Septuagint; and that the Greek histori- has been in use in the church above 100 years, entirely ans before Josephus, such as Demetrius Phalerius, agrees with it. Philo the elder, Eupolemus, &c., very accurate writers, They tell us, that Demetrius, the real historian, (for and highly commended by Clemens Alexandrinus, and a Phalerius was none,) lived not before the reign of Eusebius, in their calculation, differ very much from Ptolemy Philopater, the grandson of Philadelphus, near the common Hebrew: so that not only Josephus, but seventy years after the Septuagint translation was these elder historians likewise must have either seen, or made: that Philo was contemporary with our Saviour, been informed of certain Hebrew copies which agreed wrote almost 300 years after the said translation, and, with the Septuagint, and differed from what have de- living constantly at Alexandria, might very well be supscended to us. In short,

posed to copy from it; that Josephus, though a Jew, They tell us, 8 that the whole Christian church, Eastern and perfectly skilled in the Hebrew language, in many and Western, and all the celebrated writers of the instances, (which learned 8 men have pointed out,) church, are on their side; that all the ancient manuscripts have exactly the same computations with the com

Millar's Church History.

5 Rom. ij. 2. mon Septuagint, except here and there a variation or

Against Appion, b. 1. two, not worth regarding; and therefore they conclude, See his Works, vol. 2. p. 932. edit. Utrecht, 1699. that, as there is a maniseșt disagreement between the

* See Care's History; Litt. p. 2. in Joseph; and Well's Dis

sertation the Chronicles of Josephus, pp. 19–21. Greek and Hebrew copies in this respect, the mistake should rather be charged upon the Hebrew, than the of Alexandria, to which the library belonged, where the original

a Demetrius Phalerius was the first president of the college Septuagint; because, as the Hebrew is thought by some manuscripts of the Septuagint were reposited. He was a great to fall short, and the Septuagint to exceed, in its account scholar as well as an able statesman and politician; but I doubt of the lives of the patriarchs, it is obvious to conceive, Bishop Walton is mistaken, when (in his ninth Preface to the that a fault of this kind may be incurred by way of omis- whose works might prove the Septuagint computation to be more

Polyglot Bible) he quotes him as one of those Greek historians sion rather than addition.

probable than the Hebrew. The Phalerian Demetrius lived a busy, active life, was a great officer of state, both at home and

abroad, and I do not find that ever he wrote any history. It was Against Appion. Antiquities, b. 1. c. 3. Demetrius the historian therefore, that the Bishop should have Shuckfurd's Connection; and Heidegger's History of the quoted; but he, living in the time that I mentioned, does not Patriarchs.

mako much to this purpose.—Shuckford's Connection, b. 1.

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A. M. 1536. A. C. 2468; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 2136. A. C. 3275. GEN. CH. 5. AND 6. TO VER. 13. adheres to the Greek in opposition to the Hebrew; and It might be some entertainment to the reader, could that the fathers of the first ages of the church, though we but give him any tolerable view of the religion, they were very good men, had no great extent of learning; understood the Greek tongue better than the Hea of the book of Genesis, that the world would last 6000 years, brew; and for that reason gave the preference to the because the letter Aleph,

which stands for 1000, occurs six times Septuagint computation.

in the first verse; because God was six days about the creation; In this manner do the advocates for the Hebrew text and because with him 'a thousand years are but as one day! defend its authority: and, since it is confessed, there after this, they taught that there was to be “a seventh day, or a has been a transmutation somewhere, if that transmuta- the Messiah should be sent in the last times, it appears that the

millenary sabbath of rest." Now it being certainly foretold that tion was designedly and on purpose done, (as the ad- Rabbis inferred his advent to be about the middle of the sixth verse party agrees,) it is indifferent · whether it was done millenary, or the 5500th year of the world; and to find a preby way of addition or subtraction; only as it is evident, tence for rejecting Jesus as the Messiah, it occurred to them to that the Greeks did compute by numerical letters, world might be known, by subtracting a century from Adam's

alter the generations of the patriarchs, by which the age of the whereas it is much questioned, that the Hebrews ever age until the birth of Seth, and adding the same to the residue did, the mistake or falsification rather seems to lie on of his life, and doing the same thing with respect to the generathe side of the Greek translators, the very form of whose tion of many others of Adam's descendants down to Abraham.

By this device their computation showed that Jesus Christ was letters was more susceptible of it.

manifested near the middle of the fifth, instead of the sixth, This is a true state of the controversy, wherein the millenary of the world, which according to them was to last 7000 arguments for the Hebrew computation do certainly years; and they said, We are still in the middle of the time, and preponderate; though the names, the venerable a names, the time appointed for the Messiah's advent is not yet come

Those Rabbis, however, were obliged to leave the ages at ou the contrary side, have hitherto been more numerous, which Jared, Methuselah, and Lamech had their several sons,

as they found them. “Had these been curtailed, like the rest,

and the century taken from each added to the subsequent life of Heidegger's History of the Patriarchs.

the patriarch as is done in other cases, Jared would have sur& The names for the Septuagint computation, which the leamed vived the deluge 66 years; Methuselah 200 years; and Lamech Heidegger, in his History of the Patriarchs, (as he takes them 95 years. Not daring, therefore, to shorten the lives of these frora Baronius,) has reckoned up, are such as these: Theophi. three patriarchs, the Jews were forced to let the original amounts he, bishop of Antioch, St Cyprian, Clemens Alexandrinus, of their generations remain unaltered.” Hippolytus, Origen. Lactantius, Epiphanius, Philastrius, Orosius, “ The tradition of the Jews respecting the age of the world Cyril

, the two Anastasii, Nicephorus, and Suada ; to whom he was found also in the Sybilline Oracles; in Hesiod; in the writmigst add several more, as Heidegger suggests, while those ings of Darius Hystaspes, the old king of the Medes, derived among the ancients who contended for the Hebrew calculation, probably from the Magi; and in Hermes Trismegistus, and was were only St Austin and St Jerome, but men of great skill and adopted by the early Christian fathers. Its prevalence therefore proficiency in the Hebrew language. On the Age of the Patri- throughout the Pagan, Jewish, and Christian world, whether wellarchs, Essay 10.

founded, or otherwise, was a sufficient reason for the Jews to invali& Such may have been the case 100 years ago: "but it certainly date it, by shortening their chronology.” This probability is heightis not so now. Dr Hales has proved, with the force of demon- ened by the testimony of Justin Martyr and Irenæus, who were stration, that there was originally no difference between the both eminent Christian writers of the second century, the former Hebrew genealogies and those of the Greek version; that the a Samaritan by birth, and well skilled in the Hebrew tongue, as computation of Josephus was, in his own time, conformable to well as in the Hebrew and Greek Scriptures. Now, in his celeboth; and consequently that the chronology either of the original brated conference with Trypho the Jew, Justin expressly charges Hebrew, or of the Greek version of the Scriptures, as well as of the Rabbis with having expunged many passages out of the the writings of Josephus, has been since adulterated. That the Septuagint version; whilst Irenæus affirms of the same Rabbis, miful adulteration took place in the Hebrew rather than in the that if they had known the use that was to be made of their Greek copies, is rendered highly probable by the reasons which Scriptures, they would not have hesitated to burn these Scripfollow. According to Dr Hales, who has bestowed much tures? The Septuagint version was indeed their abhorrence, gains ca the question, the Masorites, who published the edition because it was generally referred to by the Christian writers; & the Hebrew Bible which is now in use, deducted a century and, in order to bring it as much as possible into disrepute, they frotn the age at which cach of the patriarchs Adam, Seth, instituted, in the beginning of the second century, a solemn fast Eers, Cainan, Mahaleel, and Enoch-had their respective sons on the 8th of Tebeth (December) to curse the memory of its whose genealogy is decided by Moses. Their motive for this having been made! Had it been in their power, there cannot conduct he states from Ephrem Syrus, who lived about the period be a doubt, but that, with these dispositions, they would have ** which the change was made, and of whom the learned Cave destroyed that version entirely; but this was not in their power, says (Hist. Lit.) "From his earliest years he exercised him whilst it was easy to alter the chronology of the Hebrew text, so seli in monastic philosophy, and with all his energy so perfected as to make it suit their own purposes. himself in the studies of the more learned sciences, that with “In the course of the Jewish war," says Dr Hales, "until ease he could understand the most difficult theorems." Such a the final destruction of Jerusalem, and expulsion of the Jews man was not likely to write at random of a fact, of which he had from Judea in the reign of Adrian, vast numbers of the Hebrew the best possible opportunity of ascertaining either the truth or copies must have been lost or destroyed, besides those that were the falsehood. That Ephrem had such an opportunity is unques- taken away by the conquerors among other spoils; and the few, tionable ; for he died A. D. 378; and the corruption of the He- that were left, were confined in a great measure to the Jews brew chronology, though it began as early as A.D. 130, appears themselves, as the Hebrew language was not generally undernot to have made any considerable progress for two centuries, stood like the Greek. Whereas, of the Greek copies, even if Ensebins having found, in the Hebrew copies which he con- all, that were possessed by the Hellenistic Jews, not only in sulted, different accounts of the same times, some following the Palestine, but throughout the world, had been destroyed, which kinger, and others the shorter computations. Now Ephrem was far from being the case, yet the copies of the Septuagint, in afirms, that the Jews "subtracted 600 years from the genera- | the possession of the Christians everywhere, rendered any matetims of Adam, Seth, &c., in order that their own books might rial adulteration of the Greek text, at least in so important a case but convict them concerning the coming of Christ: he having as that of the genealogies, well nigh impossible.” The Jews did been predicted to appear for the deliverance of mankind after however all that they could to deprive the Christians of the argu

ments with which it furnished them in proof of Jesus of Nazareth The reader will look in rain for this prediction in the books of being the Messiah promised in the Old Testament. They set the Old Testament; but the Cabbalists found in the first chapter I up tluee other Greek versions in opposition to the Septuagini,

5500 years.

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