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A. M. 3246. A. C. 758; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 4772. A. C. 639. I KINGS viii. TO THE END OF 2 CHRON. land of their captivity, was passed, irrevocably passed ; to obstruct his passage. The Egyptian king hearing of and therefore when Pharaoh Necho a king of Egypt de- this, sent ambassadors desiring him to desist, declaring sired to pass through Judea, in order to go and attack that he came not to invade his territories, but purely to Charchemish, a city belonging to the king of Babylon, do himself justice on the king of Babylon; and assuring and situate upon the Euphrates, Josiah would by no him withal, that what he did in this case was by the ormeans consent to it; but getting together his forces, der and appointment of God. Josiah, however, thought posted himself in the valley of Megiddo, on purpose himself no way concerned to believe him; and therefore
on Necho's marching up to the place where he was postthe corruption of the former part of Manasseh's reign. They ed to receive him, a battle immediately ensued, wherein complied, indeed, with the present reformation; but this was the Egyptian archers, discovering Josiah, though he had only out of fear of incurring the king's displeasure, or of feeling disguised himself before the action began, plied that the severity of his justice. Their hearts were not right towards quarter of the army where he fought so very warmly God, as appears from the writings of the prophets that lived in with their arrows, that at last receiving a morial wound those times; and therefore, seeing no sign of their repentance, God had no reason to reverse his decree.-Calmet's and Le from one of them, he was carried in another chariot a Clerc's Commentaries.
out of the battle to Jerusalem, where after a reign of a Pharaoh signifies no more, in the Egyptian language, than one and thirty years, he died, and was buried in the king; and was therefore given to any one that sat upon that sepulchre of his ancestors. throne: but Necho, according to Herodotus, was his proper name, though some will have it to be an appellative, which signi
e The death of so excellent a prince was deservedly fies lame, because this Pharaoh, as they suppose, had a lameness lamented by all his people ; but by none more sincerely which proceeded from some wound he had received in the wars. than by Jeremiah the prophet; who having a thorough The same historian tells us, that he was the son and successor of sense of the greatness of the loss, as well as full forePsammetichus king of Egypt, and a man of a bold enterprising spirit; that he made an attempt to join the Nile and the Red sight of the sore calamities which were afterwards to Sea, by drawing a canal from one to the other: that though he follow upon the whole kingdom of Judah, while his heart failed in this design, yet, by sending a fleet from the Red Sea was full with a view of both these, wrote a song of through the straits of Babel-Mandeb, he discovered the coasts lamentation s upon this mournful occasion ; but that is of Africa, and, in this his expedition to the Euphrates, resolved to bid fair, by destroying the united force of the Bal onians and Medes, for the whole monarchy of Asia.—Prideaux's Connection, city Magdol, obtained a great victory, and made himself master anno 610, and Marsham's Canon, æg. sæcul. 18. [This of Cadytis, where the author plainly mistakes the Syrians for Pharaoh Necho, king of Egypt, whom Herodotus calls the son of the Jews; Magdolum, a city in the Lower Egypt, for Megiddo; Psammetichus, and represents as an enterprising hero, with and Cadytis, for Kadesh, (in the Upper Galilee, by which he was which representation the Bible perfectly accords, is enumerated to pass in his way to Charchemish;) or rather for the city of by Manetho as the sixth (Nechas II.) of the twenty-sixth Saitic Jerusalem, which, in Herodotus's time might be called by the dynasty. (Jahn's Heb. Commonwealth.) The account of the neighbouring nations Cadyta or Cadyscha, that is, the holy city; war carried on by Pharaoh Necho against the Jews and Baby- since, even to this day, it is called by the eastern people Al-huds, lonians, is confirmed by the recent discoveries of the late enter- which is plaiuly both of the same signification and original. prising traveller Belzoni among the tombs of the Egyptian Calmet's Dictionary under the word Kadesh, and Prideaux's sovereigns. In one of the numerous apartments of the tomb | Connection, anno 610. of Psammethes or Psammis, the son of Pharaoh Necho, he found d It was the custom of war in former times for great officers to a sculptured group describing the march of a military and trium- bave their led horses, that it one failed they might mount another. phal procession, with three different sets of prisoners, who are The kings of Persia, as Quintus Curtius informs us, had horses evidently Jews, Ethiopians, and Persians. The procession begins attending their chariots, which, in case of any accident, they with four red men with white kirtles, followed by a hawk-headed might make to; and, in like manner, we may presume, that divinity; these are Egyptians apparently released from captivity, when it became a mighty fashion to fight in chariots, all great and returning home under the protection of the national deity. captains had an empty one following them, into which they Then follow four white men in striped and fringed kirtles, with might betake themselves if any mischance befell the other. black beards, and with a simple white fillet round their black Bochart's Hieroz, part 1. c. 2 and 9. hair; these are obviously Jews, and might be taken for the por- e The author of the book of Ecclesiasticus has given us his traits of those who, at this day, walk the streets of London. encomium in these words:-" All, except David, and HezeAfter them come three white men with smaller beards and curled kias, and Josias, were defective. They forsook the law of the whiskers, with double-spreading plumes on their heads, tattooed, Most High; even the kings of Judah failed. But the rememand wearing robes or mantles spotted like the skins of wild beasts; brance of Josias, is like the composition of the perfume, that is these are Persians, or Chaldeans. Lastly, come four negroes made by the art of the apothecary: it is as sweet as honey in all with large circular ear-rings and white petticoats, supported by a mouths, and as music at a banquet of wine. He behaved himself bell over the shoulders; these are Ethiopians. ]--Belzoni's Nar- uprightly in the conversion of the people, and took away the rative, 4to, and Atlas of Plates, Nos. 4, 5, and 6.-ED. abomination of iniquity. He directed his heart unto the Lord,
b Geographers make no mention of this city under this name; and in the time of the ungodly, he established the worship of God.' but it is very probably the same with what the Greeks and Latins -Ecclus. xlix. 1, &c. call Cercusium or Cercesium, which was situated on the angle f The Jews were wont to make lamentations, or mournful formed by the conjunction of the Chaboras or Chebar, and the songs, upon the death of great men, princes, and heroes, who Euphrates. Isaiah x. 9, speaks of this place as if Tiglath-Pileser had distinguished themselves in arms, or by any civil arts had had made a conquest of it, and Necho, perhaps, now was going merited well of their country. By an expression in 2 Chron. to retake it, as we find he did; but Jeremiah informs us, (ch. xlvi. xxxv. 25, behold they are written in the Lamentations,' one 1, 2.) that in the fourth year of Jehoiachim king of Judah, it was may infer, that they had certain collections of this kind of comtaken and quite destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon.-position. The author of the book of Samuel has preserved those Calmet's Comment., and Wells' Geog. of the Old Test. vol. iji. which David made upon the death of Saul and Jonathan, of
c Megiddo was a city in the half tribe of Manasseh, not far Abner and Absalom: but this mournful poem, which the disconfrom the Mediterranean Sea, which way Necho was to pass with solate prophet made upon the immature death of good Josiah, his army, in order to go into Syria, and thence to the Euphrates. we nowhere have; which is a loss the more to be deplored beIn the valley adjoining to this place Josiah was slain, 'while he cause, in all probability, it was a master-piece in its kind: since was at the head of his army,' as Josephus tells us, and riding never was there an author more deeply affected with his subject, up and down to give orders from one wing to the other.' This or more capable of carrying it through all the tender sentiments action Herodotus makes mention of when he tells us, that of sorrow and compassion. — Calmet's Commentary, and Preface Nechos king of Egypt having fallen upon the Syrians, near the on the Lamentations of Jeremiah.
A. M. 3246. A. C. 758; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 4772. A. C. 639. I KINGS viji. TO THE END OF 2 CHRON. lost; and the other, which goes under his name, and is under his name ; so Raphael, being sent by God in 1 still reinaining, was composed upon the destruction of form and appearance of a young man, was in that ca Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar.
city to act and speak as if he had been such. Nor there any fallacy in his assuming the name of Azari which signifies God's help or assistance, since he 1
manifestly sent for this very purpose, that he might CHAP. II.—Difficulties Obviated, and Objections a guide and assistance to Tobias in his journey ; ; Answered.
therefore very prudently concealed his quality of
angel, that he might more conveniently execute his a That the dung of swallows is of a very hot and caustic mission. So that hitherto there is no incongruity in quality, and when dropt into the eye, must needs be in- whole narration, if we can but have a farther acco jurious to the sight, as being apt to cause an inflamma- why 6 the snioke of the fish's liver and heart should tion, and thereby a concretion of humours, which in pro- of an efficacy to put the evil spirit to flight. cess of time may produce a white film that will obstruct Those who are of opinion, that demons, or i the light from the optic nerves; and that the gall of a angels, were invested with certain material forms, why fish, especially of the fish called Callionymus, is of excel in they snuffed up the perfumes, and feasted thenisel lent use to remove all such specks and obstructions to upon the odours of the incense and sacrifices that the sight, we have the testimony of some of the greatest offered to them, have an easy way of solving this d men, - physicians and naturalists, to produce in confir- culty, by supposing that the smell of the burned heart ination of this part of Tobit's history. That good angels liver of the fish was offensive to Asmodeus, even as are appointed by God to be the guardians of particular pretend, 8 that in some herbs, plants, stones, and of men, and in execution of this their office, do frequently natural things, there is a certain virtue to drive a assume human shapes, to guide them in their journeys, demons, and to hinder them from coming into sud and to deliver them from all dangers, is a doctrine ? as determinate place. The Chaldeans, among whom ancient as the patriarch Jacob's time, embraced by book of Tobit was wrote, and the Israelites, for wh Christians, and believed by the wisest heathens ; and use and instruction it was wrote, might both be of that every man, in like manner, has an evil angel, or opinion :- That demons, as not absolutely divested genius, whereof some preside over one vice, and some all matter, were capable of the same sensations and over another; insomuch that there are demons of avarice, pressions that belonged to corporeal substances ; demons of pride, and demons of impurity, &c., each therefore in accommodation to the vulgar idea and pf endeavouring to ensnare the person he attends with a judice of the people, the author of this history mi complexional temptation, is another position that has express himself, as though the expulsion of this been almost generally received, not only in the Jewish spirit was effected by a natural cause, the smoke of and Christian, but in the Pagan theology likewise; and fish, even though, at the same time, he sufficiently is therefore thus far the history of Tobit can be no novel mates, that it was by a divine power that it came to pa or romance.
because we find the angel thus enjoining Tobias, That good angels have a superior power and control thou shalt come to thy wife Sara, rise up both of y over the bad, and by the divine authority can curb and and pray to God, who is merciful, who will pity restrain their malice, which is all that we need under and save you.' stand by their binding them up,' is evident from a pas- Upon the contrary supposition, namely, that sage in the Revelations very similar to what we read demon was a being incorporeal, and this is the supper here concerning Raphael and Asmodeus : ** I saw an tion concerning the angelical nature which general angel come down from heaven, having the key of the prevails, we may safely conclude, that the smoke of bottomless pit, and a great chain in his hand, and he fish's entrails could have no direct and physical effe laid hold on the dragon, the old serpent, which is the upon him ; that his fleeing away therefore was occasion devil and Satan, and bound him a thousand years, and by a supernatural power, in the exercise of which, cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and angel appointed to attend Tobias, was the principal i set a seal upon him, that he should deceive the nations strument; 10 that he ordered the burning of the fish no more :' and that this good angel, personating an entrails as a sign when the evil spirit, by his superi Israelite, and scalling himself Azarias, the son of power, should be chased away; or in the same seal Ananias,' was not guilty of any lie or prevarication, is that our blessed Saviour spread clay upon the eyes plain from cases of the like nature. For as the picture the man that was born blind, and ordered him to wa is usually called by the person it represents, and he who in the pool of Siloah, namely, not as the cause, but the in tragedy acts the part of Cato, does, for that time, go proof of his cure; and that he sent him away ". into t
uttermost parts of Egypt,' that is, into the deserts of th
| Galen. de Simplic. Medicament. Facult. b. x. c. 12.. Ælian. Upper Egypt, because our Saviour intimates that sur b. xiii. c. 4. Rhasis. b. ix. c. 27. Pliny, b. xxvii, c. 11. Gesner. Hist. Animal. b. iii. Aldrovand. Ornitholog. b. xvii. is the usual habitation of evil spirits, when he represed Vales, de Sacra Philosoph. c. 42.
them, " . as walking through dry places, seeking red * Gen. xlviii. 16. Ps. xxxiv. 7. Mat. xviii. 10. Acts xii. and finding none.' 15. Hesiod. Oper, et Dies. b. i. Plato, de Legibus, b. x, and Apuleius, de Deo Socratis. ': See Buxtorf. Synag. Jud. c. 10. Basnag. Hist. des Juif. b. 6 Tobit viii, 2.
Porphyr, de Abstin. h 1 mi. c. 19. Orphei Hymn. ad. Musas. Plutarch in Bruto. * Origen, cont. Cels, b. viii. 9 Tobit vi. 17. 1 Pet. v. 8. Mat. vii. 32, 33. Luke xiij. 11, 16.
10 Saurin's Dissert, sur le Demon Asmodée. * Rev. xx. 1. &c.
5 Tobit v. 12.
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A. M. 3246. A. C. 758: OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 4772. A. C. 639. I KINGS viii. TO THE END OF 2 CHRON. However this be, we cannot hold ourselves concerned Whether the book of the law, which Hilkiah the high for the vindication of every expression in a book, which priest found in the house of the Lord, in the time of our church has not thought fit to receive into her canon Josiah king of Judah, consisted of the whole Pentateuch, of Scripture. It is sufficient for our present purpose, or only of that part of it which is called Deuteronomy; that the historical ground-plot of it be true, whatever and whether it was the authentic copy which Moses commay be said as to some particular passage in it; and mitted to the priest's custody, or only some ancient though its figurative and poetical style, as well as near manuscript kept in the temple for the public use, namely, conformity to the theology then in vogue, may give for the king to read to the people once every seven some umbrage to a reader, that will not be so candid as years, or for the priests to consult upon any emergent to think with St Jerome,' 'Many things are spoken in difficulty, is a matter of some debate among the learned. the sacred writings according to the opinion of that time, The testimony of the author of the book of Chronicles and not according to what was the real truth of the seems however to determine the matter, when he assures matter, 'a
us, that the book of the law which Hilkiah found, was
that ? " which was given by the hand of Moses,' and conI Jerome on Jeremiah xxviii. 28.
sequently the whole Pentateuch, which, by his command, a By much the greater part of this disquisition on the book of was reposited ' in the side of the ark of the covenant.' Tobit might have been well omitted. That book was never admitled into the canon of the Hebrew Scriptures by the Jews; nor is
It is presumed, indeed, that Josiah's three predecesit to be found in the earliest and most authentic canons of the sor's, Ahaz, Manasseh, and Amon, as not content to Christian church. That there was such a man as Tobit, carried be impious themselves, and to instigate their subjects to captive with the rest of the tribe of Naphtali by Salmaneser ; that idolatry, had made it their business to burn and destroy he was eminent for his piety and charity; that his wife, though all the copies of the law that they could anywhere meet a good woman, was not always obedient to her husband; that he became blind in the manner which is recorded, and had his sight with, so that there was not so much as one left for the restored by the means which are said to have been used for that king's use; and that this was the reason of his discoverpurpose ; and that his son married the daughter of Raguel of ing so great a surprise at his hearing the comminations Ecbatana, after she had been betrothed to seven husbands, there read, because he had never perhaps seen any such is no reason to doubt; for not one of these events is contrary to volume before. It must be acknowledged, indeed, that the common course of nature. It is indeed very singular that seven young men should have successively perished on their disuse often cancels the most excellent laws; and from attempting each to consummate his marriage; but such events Josiah's surprise, we have room to suspect, that he had were not, in themselves, impossible, and perhaps we may even not as yet transcribed a copy of the law with his own conceive the cause by which they were effected. The whole story of Asmodeus and Raphael is certainly a piece of poetical hand, and had probably for some time neglected the machinery, invented for a similar purpose with that for which Homer introduces his gods and goddesses as taking opposite sides
? 2 Chron. xxxiv, 14.
> Deut, xxxi. 26. in the Trojan war, or for which the Persian poets introduce the moral lessons with which it abounds, and affect to despise the agency of good and evil genii, in their beautiful moral allegories. beautiful simplicity of the tale? As a moral tale founded in fact, It was to adapt the story to the taste of those for whose amuse- it ought undoubtedly to be received; as such, it appears to have ment and instruction it was written, who delighted in the mar- been alluded to by Polycarp early in the second century; and vellous, and on whose memory and imagination a philosophical there is not the smallest reason to believe that its author ever account of a singular event would have made no deep or lasting expected it to be received as work of a higher order.-Bishop impression. To understand the story of Raphael and Asmodeus Gleig.–ED. literally, as Calmet seems to have done, would be to prefer the 6 The rabbins say that Ahaz, Manasseh, and Amon endeavourauthority of this beautiful oriental tale to that of the whole Hebrew ed to destroy all the copies of the law, and this only was sacred Scriptures, in which I heartily agree with Bishop Horsley, that no by having been buried under a paving-stone. It is scarcely countenance whatever is given to the popular doctrine of guardian reasonable to suppose that this was the only copy of the law that angels. “ This interpretation ” says the bishop, “ introduces a was found in Judea; for even if we grant that Ahaz, Manasseh, system, which is in truth nothing better than the pagan poly- and Amon had endeavoured to destroy all the books of the law, theism, somewhat disguised and qualified; for in the pagan yet they could not have succeeded so as to destroy the whole. system every nation had its tutelary deity, all subordinate to Besides, Manasseh endeavoured, after his conversion, to restore Jupiter, the sire of gods and men. Some of those prodigies of every part of the divine worship, and in this he could have done ignorance and folly, the rabbins of the Jews, who lived since the nothing without the Pentateuch; and the succeeding reign of dispersion of the nation, thought all would be well if for tutelar Amon was too short to give him opportunity to undo every deities, they substituted tutelar angels. From this substitution, thing that his penitent father had reformed. Add to all the the system of guardian angels, which I have described, arose; considerations, that in the time of Jehoshaphat, teaching from the and from the Jews the Christians adopted it with other foolerjes." law was universal in the land, for he set on foot an itinerant But though the story of Raphael and Asmodeus must be consider- ministry, in order to instruct the people fully: for he sent his ed as mere machinery, it does not by any means follow that the princes to teach in the cities of Judah; and with them he sent history itself—the detail of facts, is not entitled to great credit. Levites and priests; and they went about through all the cities No man of real learning, Mr Bryant alone excepted, has ever of Judah, and taught the people, having the book of the Lord called in question, I believe, the great outlines of the Trojan war with them.' (2 Chron. xvii. 7-9.) And if there be any thing as drawn by Homer; though surely no man in this age hath be- wanting to show the improbability of the thing, it must be this, lieved that the pestilence was sent among the Grecian troops that the transactions mentioned here took place in the eighteenth by Apollo, for Agamemnon's cruelty to his injured priest, or that year of the reign of Josiah, who had, from the time he came to Diomede literally wounded the god of war, and sent him bellowing the throne, employed himself in the restoration of the pure with pain to heaven! That there were such men, however, as worship of God; and it is not likely that, during these eighteen A gamemtion and Diomede ; that the former was the commander years, he was without a copy of the Pentateuch. The simple of the confederate Greeks, and the latter one of their most ac- fact seems to be this, that this was the original covenant renewed complished heroes; and that, in the tenth year of the war, great by Moses with the people in the plains of Moab, and which he numbers of the army were cut off by some pestilential disease, ordered to be laid up beside the ark; (Deut. xxxi. 26.) and being which the medical knowledge of Machaon did not enable him to now unexpectedly found, its antiquity, the occasion of its being cure, it would be unreasonable to doubt. And would it not be made, the present circumstances of the people, the imperfect equally umreasonable to doubt the historical facts related in the state in which the reformation was as yet, after all that had been book of Tobit, though we do not interpret literally his oriental done, would all concur to produce the effect here mentioned on machinery? or on account of that machinery, to neglect the the mind of the pious Josiah.-Dr A. Clarke.—ED.