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A. M. 3246. A. C. 758; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 4772. A. C. 639. I KINGS viii, TO THE END OF 2 CHRON. one way or other, that ye shall want no provisions these siderable. For it assured them of the truth and veratwo years; and in the third year there shall be no enemy city of God's promise, and that he would not suffer them to molest you, and therefore 'sow and reap the fruit of to be destroyed, nor the sceptre to depart from Judah, your labours :' for though ye have been brought low with until the Messiah came. It assured them of his almighty losses innumerable and persecutions, yet, in a short time power, in that he could create a new thing in the earth, ye shall be re-established ; for 'the remnant that is by making a virgin to conceive, and thereby show himescaped of Judah shall yet again take root downward, self able to deliver them out of the hands of their most and bear fruit upward.'

potent enemies; and it assured them likewise of his The like may be said of the sign concerning the vir- peculiar favour, in that he had decreed the Messiah gin that was to 'bear a son, and call his name Imman- should descend from their family, so that the people uel;' though it was some hundred years subsequent to the whom he had vouchsafed so high a dignity, might depend deliverance which God promised Judah, yet was it of on his promise, and under the shadow of his wings,' great service to confirm the people in their expectations think themselves secure. of it. To this purpose we may observe, that it is not to Ahaz that the prophet addresses himself, (for he, out of a specious pretence of not being willing to tempt God, rejected all signs,) but to the princes of the blood royal ;

CHAP. III.-On the Dial of Ahaz. and therefore he says, hear ye now, ye house of David, the Lord himself will give you a sign, a virgin shall conceive.' The original word alma (as * several learned men have observed) signifies almost always a Ar the beginning of the world it is certain there was no virgin untainted by a man,—is so rendered by the Sep- distinction of time, but by the light and darkness; and Luagint in this place, and cannot, with any propriety, the whole day was included in the general terms of the denote 3 any indifferent young woman, who should after- evening and morning. The Chaldeans, many ages after wards be married, and have a son. For how can we the flood, were the first who divided the day into hours ; imagine that, after 80 pompous an introduction, the they being the first who applied themselves with any prophet should mean no more at last by a virgin's con- success to astrology. Sun-dials are of ancient use : ceiving,' than that a young woman should be with child ? but as they were of no service in cloudy weather and in What! does Isaiah offer Ahaz a miracle, either in the the night, there was another invention of measuring the depth, or in the height above?' and, when he seems to parts of time by water ; but that not proving sufficiently tell the house of David that God, of his own accord, exact, they laid it aside for another by sand. The use would perform a greater work than they could ask, does of dials was earlier among the Greeks than the Romans. he sink to a sign that nature produces every day? Is It was above three hundred years after the building of that to be called a wonder, (which implies an uncommon, Rome before they knew any thing of them: but yet surprising, and supernatural event,) which happens con- they had divided the day and night into four and twenty stantly by the ordinary laws of generation ? How little hours ; though they did not count the hours numerically, does such a birth answer the solemn apparatus which the but from midnight to midnight, distinguishing them by prophet uses to raise their expectation of some great particular names, as by the cock-crowing, the dawn, the matter? Hear ye, 0 house of Judah,-behold, the Lord mid-day, &c. will give you a sign worthy of himself; and what is that? With respect to the dial of Ahaz, it is said, that the Why, a young married woman shall be with child. How shadow was brought ten degrees backward. Was this ridiculous must such a declaration make the prophet! miracle occasioned by the sun's going ten degrees back And how highly must it enrage the audience, to hear a in the heavens, or by the earth’s turning upon its axis man, at such a juncture as this, begin an idle and imper- from east to west, in a contrary direction to its natural tinent tale, which seems to banter and insult their misery, course. To me it appears that the miracle was effected rather than administer any consolation under it ! by means of refraction. For a ray of light, we know,

It is to be observed farther, that, in the beginning of can be raised or refracted from a right line by passing this passage, when God commanded Isaiah to go and through a dense medium; and we know also, by means meet Ahaz, he ordered him to take with him his son of the refracting power of the atmosphere, the sun, when Shear-jashub, who was then but a child. Why the child near rising and setting, seems to be higher above the was to accompany his father, we can hardly suppose any horizon than he really is ; and by horizontal refraction, other reason, but that he was to be of use, some way or we find that the sun appears above the horizon when he other, to enforce the prophecy. It is but supposing is actually below it, and literally out of sight : therefore, then that the prophet, in uttering the words, before by using dense clouds or vapours, the rays of light might this child shall be able to distinguish between good and be refracted from their direct course, ten, or any other evil,”“ pointed at his own son, for there is no necessity number of degrees ; so that the miracle might have been to refer them to Immanuel, who might then either stand wrought by occasioning this extraordinary refraction, by him, or be held in his arms, and all the difficulty is rather than by disturbing the course of the earth. solved: but then the comfort which accrued to the house It is owing to refraction that we have any morning or of David from this seasonable prophecy, was very con- evening twilight : without this power in the atmosphere,

the heavens would be as black as ebony in the absence · Is. vii, 13, 14, * See Kidder's Demonstration, part 2. of the sun; and at his rising we should pass in a mo* See Grounds and Reasons of the Christian Religion, * Usher's Annal. A. M. 3263,

• See Kidder's Demonstration, part 2.


A. M. 3246. A. C. 758; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 4772. A. C. 639. I KINGS viii. TO THE END OF 2 CHRON. ment from the deepest darkness into the brightest light; and at his setting, from the most intense light to the CHAP. IV.-Of the Transportation of the Ten wuost profound darkness, which in a few days would be

Tribes, and their Return. sufficient to destroy the visual organs of all animals.

That the rays of light can be supernatually refracted, Nothing > in history is more common, than to see whole and the sun appear to be where he actually is not, we nations so changed in their manners, their religion, their have a most remarkable instance in Kepler. Some language, and the very places of their abode, as that it Hollanders who wintered in Nova Zembla in the year becomes a matter of some difficulty to find out their first 1596, were surprised to find that, after a continual night original. Large empires swallow up lesser states ; and, of three months, the sun began to rise seventeen days in the course of their conquests, sweeping every thing sooner than (according to computation deduced from before them like a torrent, they compel the vanquished the altitude of the pole, observed to be seventy-six de to follow the fate of their conquerors, and to inhabit grees) he should have done ; which can only be account- such countries as were unknown to them before. ed for by an extraordinary refraction of the sun's rays Never was there a people that had a more ample expassing through the cold dense air in the climate. At perience of these unhappy revolutions than the kingdom that time, the sun, as Kepler computes, was almost five of Israel, which, upon the revolt of Rehoboam, came to degrees below the horizon when he appeared, and con- be called the kingdom of the ten tribes.' God, by the sequently the refraction of his rays was about nine times mouth of his servant Moses, had denounced this judgstronger than it is with us.

ment upon them, in case of their obstinate disobedience Now, this might be all purely natural though it was to his law: • the Lord shall scatter thee among all extraordinary, and it proves the possibility of what 1 people, from the one end of the earth to the other ; have conjectured, even on natural principles ; but the among all these nations, thou shalt find no ease, neither foretelling of this, and leaving the going back or for- shall the sole of thy foot have rest.' And accordingly, ward to the choice of the king, and the thing occurring when by their idolatry, and other grievous impieties

, in the place and time when and where it was predicted, they had 'provoked God to wrath, and filled up the shows that it was supernatural and miraculous. But measure of their iniquity;' in the reign of Pekah king of why maintain, it may be asked, that the event alluded to Israel, he sent Tiglath-Pileser king of Assyria, who was effected by refraction ? Could not God as easily have invaded his country, and having overrun great part of it, caused the sun, or rather the earth, to turn back, as to carried away captive the tribes of Naphtali, Reuben, Gad, have produced this extraordinary and miraculous refrac- and the half tribe of Manasseh, from the east side of the tion? This is most certain : but, according to our limit- river Jordan; and about twenty years after this, in the ed apprehensions, it seems more consistent with the reign of Hoshea, sent his son Salmaneser against Samawisdom of God to attain an end by simple means than ria, who, after a siege of three years, took it, and carried by those that are complex: and had it been done in the away all the remainder of that miserable people accordother way, it would have required a miracle to inverting to what the prophet Hosea had foretold : 6 Ephraim and a miracle to restore ; and a strong convulsion on is smitten, their root is dried up, they shall bear no the earth's surface to bring it ten degrees suddenly back, fruit. My God shall cast them away, because they did and to take it the same suddenly forward. The miracle, not hearken unto him, and they shall be wanderers according to my supposition, was accomplished on the among the nations.' atmosphere, and without in the least disturbing even that; Such, with very small exception, has been the case of whereas, on the other supposition, it could not have been this unhappy people, ever since the time of the Assyrian done without suspending or interrupting the laws of the captivity; and yet, such is their pride and arrogance, solar system. The point to be gained was the bringing that instead of owning the truth, they have devised fables back the shadow on the dial ten degrees : this might of their living all along in great prosperity and grandeur have been accomplished by the means which I have in some unknown land, as a national and united body, described, as well as by the other; and these means in an independent state, and under monarchies or being much more simple, were more worthy the divine republics of their own. So, that before we begin to choice than those which are more complex, and could inquire into the real places of their transportation, and not have been used without producing the necessity of some other circumstances thereunto belonging, it may working at least double or treble miracles.

not be amiss to examine a little the merit of these preIt is objected, however, to this view, that Isaiah' tensions, and what foundation they have for such mighty expressly asserts that 'the sun returned,' and not merely boasts. that that the shadow went backward.' It becomes The author of the second book of Esdras informs us, not erring man even to seem to contradict this asser- ? that the ten tribes, being taken prisoners by Salmanetion. I would only venture tv say, with all humility, ser, and carried beyond the Euphrates, entered into a that as the very same end might have been attained resolution of quitting the Gentiles, and retiring into a by means of refraction as would have been accom-country never inhabited before, that they might there plished by the retrograde motion of the sun ; and as religiously observe the law, which they had too much the event was unquestionably miraculous on either sup- neglected in their own land ; that to this purpose they position, I do not see that the adoption of the view of crossed the Euphrates, where God wrought a miracle for this subject which I have suggested is in any way dero- their sakes, by stopping the sources of that great river, gatory to the authority of divine revelation.”

• Calmet's Dissert, on the Ten Tribes, &c. " Chap. xxxviii. 8.

* Deut. xxviii, 64, 65.

52 Kings xv. 29. 2 See Dr Clarke's Commentary on the place.

Hosca ix, 16, 17.

72 Esdras xvi. 40, &c.


A. M. 3246. A. C. 758; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 4772. A. C. 639. I KINGS viii. TO THE END OF 2 CHRON. and drying up its channel for them to pass over ; that of these, as he tell us, was Annas, who, besides his capihaving thus wonderfully passed this river, they proceed- tal Thema, had many other cities, castles, and fortresses, ed in their journey for a year and a half, till they arrived and an extent of ground which could not be travelled at last at a country called Arsareth, where they settled over under sixteen days. The other, whose name was themselves, and were to continue until the latter days, Salman, had in his dominions forty cities, two hundred when God would appoint their return, and work the same boroughs, and an hundred castles. His subjects, who miracle in passing the Euphrates that he had done for were all Jews, were three hundred thousand ; Tanai, them before.'

which was his capital, containing an hundred thousand ; This is the substance of our author's account: but and Tilimosa, a strong city situate between two mounnow, who can believe, that a people so fond of idolatry tains, where he usually resided, as many inhabitants. in their own country, should, in their state of captivity, Here we have a spacious country of nothing but Jews: be so zealous for the observation of the law? Arsareth, but the author, who pretends to have been there, has so we are told, is a city in Media, situate beyond the river mistaken the situation of several places that he mentions, Araxes; but if this was the place they betook themselves and gives us such fabulous accounts of the manner of the to for the freer exercise of their religion, what need was Persians fishing for pearls ; of the virtue of the prophet there for so very long a peregrination? Or who can Daniel's tomb; and of some Turks, who had two holes suppose that their imperious masters would suffer cap- in the midst of their face, instead of a nose; that a tives, upon any pretence whatever, to retreat in a body, man must be very fond of romances, who can give credit out of their country, and set up a distinct kingdom in to what seems to be calculated on purpose to flatter the another place ? 'In short, this counterfeit Esdras, who pride of a people, who are still foolishly vain, though seems to have been a Christian, and to have lived about under the rejection of Almighty God. the end of the first, or the beginning of the second cen. Another Jewish author 3, in his description of the tury, is not only so inconsistent in his account of this, and world, has found out very commodious habitations for several other transactions, but so fond of uncertain tra- the ten tribes, and in many places has given them a ditions, and so romantic and fabulous about the divine glorious establishment. In a country which he calls inspiration which he boasts of, that there is no credit to Perricha, inclosed by unknown mountains, and bounded be given to what he says,a concerning the retreat of the by Assyria, he has settled some, and made them a flourishten tribes into an unknown land.

ing and populous kingdom. Others he places in the desert A famous Jewish traveller ? of the twelfth century, of Chabor, which, according to him, lies upon the Indian and who seems to have undertaken his travels solely to sea, where they live in the manner of the ancient Rechadiscover the state of his dispersed brethren, assigns bites, without houses, sowing, or the use of wine. Nay, them a large and spacious country, wherein reigned two he enters the Indies likewise, and peoples the banks of brothers, descendants of the house of David. The elder the Ganges, the isles of Bengala, the Philippines, and

several other places, with the Jews, to whom he assigns Basnag. Hist. of the Jews, b. 6. c. 2.

a powerful king, called Daniel, who had three other Benjamin de Tudela's Itiner. page 89.

But this is all a There is an unfounded opinion, though very ancient, that the kings tributary, and dependent on him. majority of the ten tribes emigrated to an unknown country of the same piece, a forged account to aggrandize their The spurious Ezra asserts, “that Salmaneser carried them be- nation, and to make it be believed, that * the sceptre is yond the river, and they resolved to separate from the heathen and not departed from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between to seek a spot where they might religiously observe the law, for his feet,' and that Shiloh consequently is not yet come. the violation of which they had been so severely punished.” Ezra characterizes the country whither they retired as follows:

Manasseh, one of the most famous Rabbins of the last 1. It was uninhabited. (Then they must have sought an unex- age, has asserted the transmigration of the ten tribes plored country.) 2. Its distance was such, that their journey into Tartary, where he assigns them a great province, lasted a year and a half. 3. To reach it they crossed the called Thabor, which in the Hebrew tongue signifies a Euphrates, which God miraculously divided for the passage the Jews ; and Ezra adds, that on their return to Judea God navel, because this Thabor, as he says, is one of the will again perform the same miracle. 4. This country is called middle provinces of Tartary. Ortelius, in his GeograArsareth. But we ask, how could a people completely subdued, phy, is not only of the same opinion, but in confirmation rise in a body and march unresisted through the territory of their of it adds that the ten tribes succeeded the Scythians, proud masters, to establish a kingdom elsewhere? This event happened, if ever, in the thirty-first year of the captivity; but its ancient inkabitants, and took upon them the name of Ezra informs us that they were then in the countries whither Gauthei, because they were zealous for the glory of Salmaneser had carried them captive. Their desire to keep God; that Totaces, the true name of the Tartars, is the law strictly is said to have been their motive; but the Jews Hebrew, and signifies remains, as the tribes dispersed in their dispersions reverenced the law so little, that they adopted the pagan customs and worship. There is a city called in the north were the remains of ancient Israel; that Arsareth beyond the river Araxes, and the Jews are supposed among these people there are several plain footsteps of to have given it this name. But the country whither the ten the Jewish religion, besides circumcision ; and from tribes retired, being at a great distance from Media, this cannot them, in all probability, have descended the Jews, that be the Arsareth of Ezra. The route they took is as little known in Poland and Muscovy are found so numerous. as the country to which they emigrated ; and hence it is that so many authors severally mention China, Tartary, India, and a • It cannot be denied, indeed, but that several of the second river Sabbatius, as the retreat of the ten tribes ; while Israelites might pass into Tartary, because Armenia is they all appeal to Ezra as their authority. But the account of the only country that parts it from Assyria, whereunto Ezra is suspicious for it does not appear from the book of Tobit, they were primarily carried : but there is no reason for that the journey of the tribes was long, or that there was any separation from the heathen, for the more strict observance of the law. On the contrary, Jews were to be found in Susa, Eclatana, Rages, and in the other cities of Media and Assyria, 3 R. Abi Ben Merodoche Peritsful, of Ferrara. and also on the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates.

* Gen, xlix, 10. 5 Basnag. History of the Jews, b. 6. c 3.


A. M. 3246. A. C. 758: OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 4772. A. C. 639. I KINGS viii. TO THE END OF 2 CHRON. their penetrating Scythia, and thence dispersing them- | concise, and full of energy, in which it much resembles selves in the kingdoms of Poland and Muscovy; because the Hebrew.” the tranquillity and privileges which the princes of these Other historians have observed that some of the Americountries have granted the Jews, are the true cause and cans have a notion of the deluge, though they relate motive of their resorting thither in such numbers. In it in a different manner ; that they celebrate a jubilee confutation therefore of what has been said above,' the every fifth year, and a sabbath every seventh day; that Jewish historian has well observed, that the ancient others observe circumcision, abstain from swine's flesh, Scythians were a people too fierce by nature, and too and purify themselves by bathing, whenever they have expert in war, for a handful of fugitives, such as the touched a dead carcase; that marriages, among others, Israelites were, ever to conquer or expel; that the are performed in a manner not unlike what Moses prepeople of this country were all along idolaters, until scribes; and that they generally believe a resurrection ; they were converted to the religion of Mahomet, from for which reason they cause their wives and slaves to whence they received the rite of circumcision, and some be buried with them, that, when they arise from their other ceremonies conformable to the law of Moses ; that graves, they may appear with an attendance suitable to the etymology of names is, of all others, the weakest their quality. and most precarious argument; and that it is ridiculous ? This conformity of customs, and looks, and sentito seek for the glory of God among the Tartars before ments, have induced several to think, that the captive the introduction of Mahometanism, since, according to Israelites we are here in quest of, went into America, the account of their ? historian, “some of them lived either by way of China or Tartary, and there settled like beasts, without any sense of God; others worship themselves. But, how specious soever these arguments ped the sun, moon, and stars ; and others again made may appear, there is no manner of solidity in them. To gods of the oxen that ploughed their land, or prostrated prove a point of this kind, we should produce a whole themselves before every great tree.”

nation or province in America, distinct from all others Manasseh, the famous Rabbin we lately mentioned, in their ceremonies and way of worshipping God, in a published a book,' entitled, “ The Hopes of Israel,' found manner exactly agreeing with the Hebrews : but to say, ed upon the number and power of the Jews in America ; that because in one place the people abstain from but in this he was imposed upon by the fabulous relation swine's flesh, and in another they observe the seventh of Montesini, who reported, “ that he found a great day; in one, they offer sacrifices, and in another use number of Jews concealed behind the mountains of Cor- baths, when they think themselves polluted, the Americans dilleras, which run along Chili in America ; that continu- were originally Israelites, is carrying the consequence ing his journey in that country, he came at length to the a great deal too far, and what indeed we may prove in banks of a river, where, upon his giving a signal, there any other nation under heaven, if we may be allowed appeared a people, who pronounced in Hebrew these to argue in this manner from particulars to generals. words out of Deuteronomy, 'Hear, O Israel, the Lord The truth is, the devil, in all his idolatrous countries, our God is one Lord,' that they looked upon Abraham, has made it his business to mimic God in the rites of his Isaac, and Jacob as their great progenitors, and had religious worship; or, if this were not, there is naturally been conducted into that country by incredible miracles; so great a conformity in men's sentiments concerning that the Indians had treated them with great cruelty, these matters, that the Americans might agree with the and thrice declared war against them; but that, by God's Jews in the oblation of their first-fruits, their computaprotecting his people against idolaters, they had been tions by moons, &c., without having any commerce or as often defeated, and were now totally destroyed; and affinity with them; and though there be something more that some of their Magi, who made use of enchantments, characteristic in circumcision, yet as several other had openly declared that the God of Israel was the only nations used it, the Americans, upon this account, cannot true God, and that, at the consummation of ages, their be Jews, a because, if we may believe Acosta, who had nation should become the mistress of the whole universe." Deluded with this aceount, Manasseh endeavoured to

* See Acostan, and other Writers on American Affairs. find out the road which might possibly lead the Israelites

5 Deut. xxv. 9. into the West Indies; and, to this purpose, supposing

• Zaaret's History of the Discovery of Peru, b. I. c. 12. that Asia and America were formerly one continent be

? Saurin's Dissertation on the Country, &e. fore they were divided by the straits of Anian, he asserted because their religious rites resemble in some respects those of

a We are not to believe that these savages are Jews, merely

, that the Israelites might travel to America, by land, be- Judaism. The religious worship of other idolaters has much in fore the separation happened.

common with Judaism; and can we infer that they too are Sir William Penn, in his · Present State of the Lands the posterity of Jews ? There are those who attribute this of the English in America,' tells us, that the faces of similarity in forms of worship to the machinations of the devi,

who seeks to rival the glory of God hy receiving the same kind the inhabitants, especially of their children, are so very of adoration. But without allowing to the arch fiend more power like the Jews, that when you look upon them, you would than he really possesses, this resemblance may be explained from think yourself in the Jews' quarter in London ; that their the similar dispositions of men. Idolatry does not necessarily eyes are little and black, like the Jews, that they reckon derive its ceremonies from the true church. Nations which have by moons ; offer their first fruits ; have a kind of feast of of a God, and frequently worship him in the same manner. The

never had any intercourse with each other, have the same ideas tabernacles; and that their language is masculine, short, aborigines of America have been taught neither by the Maxi

cheans nor Egyptians, the belief in two first principles. Yet the

inhabitants of Peru relate that man was created by a powerful Basnage's History of the Jews, b, xi. c. 3.

being named Con; but the sun and moon begat an evil being ? Haitho Armenius, b. on the Tartars, c. I.

called Pachachauna, who was more powerful than Con. He Amsterdam, 1650.

transformed men into apes, parrots, and bears, and was the



A. M. 3246. A. C. 758; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 4772. A. C. 639. I KINGS viii. TO THE END OF 2 CHRON. made their customs a good part of his study, they never I will believe • Strabo, was supplied by strangers and did circumcise their children, and therefore are thus far colonies from abroad. excluded from being descendants of that race.

The truth is, the ancients have extolled Media as a Thus we have endeavoured to find out the situation very happy country. Ecbatana, where the king kept his of the ten tribes of Israel, and yet can meet with nothing, residence in summer, was one of the finest and largest but either the fabulous accounts of the Talmudists, or the cities in the world. Susa, where he spent the winter, uncertain conjectures of modern critics ; let us now have was a very considerable place likewise : but, on the north recourse to the Scriptures, and know what the information side, there were high mountains, where nevertheless is that they can supply us with, in this our inquiry. there was good pasturage, so that what the country

The sacred history thus expresses it the king of wanted was good husbandmen, and such as were used Assyria took Samaria, and carried Israel away into to tillage ; for which purpose the Israelites, who had Assyria, and placed them in Halah and in Habor, by the made that their principal business in the Holy Land, river Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes ;' only we were, of all other people, the fittest inhabitants. must note, that there is some ambiguity in the translation: In these two provinces were the ten tribes seated at for, whereas it looks as if Gozan were the river and not first; and it is not improbable that, in a short time, those Habor, there is plainly no river to be found of the name of Assyria "

might extend themselves into several other of Gozan, and therefore the emendation should be 'he parts of the empire; for, in Alexander's time, we meet placed them in Halah, and by the river Habor in Gozan, with 6 a great body of them in Babylon; and that those and in the cities of the Medes.'

of Media might stretch upon the right into the provinces The holy penman, we may observe, distinguishes two bordering upon the Caspian sea, or, as some imagine, places into which the Israelites were carried, as indeed even beyond that sea, as far as the river Araxes; but they were numerous enough to make two different colo- that they ever became so powerful as c to change the nies, Assyria and Media. In Assyria we see the river ancient names of places into those of their own language, Habor, or Chaboras, a which rises from mount Masius, we can hardly believe; because they fell under so many and, running through Mesopotamia, falls into the Eu- bitter persecutions, were subject to so many revolutions phrates. Halah, which in Ptolemy is called Chalcitis, is of the kingdoms where they lived, and, from different a city and province situate on one side of its banks, and princes, underwent such a variety of transmigrations, Gozan, which is likewise a city and province, is found that, before they could gain any such weight and authoon the other; so that the ten tribes were seated in two rity in the world, we find them here and there scattered, provinces, which stretched along both sides of this river. in lesser bodies, as it were, over the whole face of it. A happy situation for them, since they were only Not only some of the Greek fathers, but some of our separated by a river which watered all the cities that modern critics likewise, have maintained, that the ten were assigned for their habitation!

tribes were restored, with those of Judah and Benjamin, * As to the cities of the Medes we are more in the dark, under the conduct of Zorobabel and Nehemiah, when because the Scripture does not specify any; but we may Cyrus and his successors were so kind as to give the presume that this colony was placed in the mountainous Jews in general full permission to return into their part of Media, because it was less peopled than the native land." To this purpose they have observed, that lower country. It wanted indeed inhabitants, and if we several of the prophets who foretold their captivity, with

the same breath, as it were, have predicted their return; '2 Kings xvii. 6. 2 Basnage's History of the Jews, b. iv. c. 4. that, in token of such their return, 6 *twelve goats,' for creator of the Indians. They worship both these beings but

every tribe


were offered at the dedication of the especially the evil being, because they fear that he may again change men into brutes. They may, in the same manner, have new temple, which would scarce have been done, had instituted rites resembling those of Judaism, without borrowing them from the Jews. They form their altars of twelve stones,

3 Basnage's History of the Jews, b. vi. c, 4. they offer to God the first-fruits, and divide the year by moons ;

* Fuller's Miscell. Sacr. b. ii. c. 5. but these are customs which might have arisen from peculiar cir

5 Calmet's Dissert, on the Ten Tribes, &c. 61 Esdras vii. 8. cumstances in any country. It is by no means certain that the 6 Besides those that were carried thither at the captivity, lodjans practised circumcision. Peter Martyr asserts that they Artaxerxes sent a new colony of that nation thither, who, when “ sacrificed their infants to idols, and circumcised themselves;" Alexander the Great was for rebuilding the temple of Belus, had but Gomara says that the rite was not universal among them. the courage to resist him. For, whereas other people were eager Acosta, who was well acquainted with the customs of the Ameri- to furnish materials for the building, they refused to do it, as cans, observes, "that they never circumcised their children, and thinking it had some stain of idolatry.–Basnage's Hist. of the therefore could not be the posterity of the ten tribes." If they Jers. were uniformly circumcised, it would not prove their descent c We read of the Cadusians, the Geles, and of Arsareth beyond from the Jews, because there are other nations besides the Jews the Caspian sea; for which reason the learned Fuller supposes, who practise this rite. We cannot then inser the origin of the that the Jews spread themselves thus: “For the name of Geles, Indians from an apparent resemblance in their forms of worship says he, " is Chaldaic, and signifies strangers or fugitives, which to those of Judaism.-Jahn's Heb. Com. pp. 316, 317. title suited with the Jews, whom God had expelled from their

a Ezekiel addresses his prophecies from the river Chebar, or country for their sins. The Cadusians have a little altered the Habor. Our translation takes Habor for a city situated by the word Chadoschim, which signifies saints, which was a title the river of Gozan,' and major Rennell says there is found in the Jews, who called themselves a holy nation, much affected; and, country anciently named Media, in the remote northern quarter lastly, Arsareth, the most famous of all the cities built upon the towards the Caspian sea, and Ghilan, a considerable river named Araxes, had a Hebrew name, signifying the city of relics, ur Ozan, or Hozal-Ozan. There is also fonnd a city named Abhar the remains of Israel.” But the author of the History of the or Habor, situated on a branch of the Ozan ; and it has the Jews, so often cited upon this subject, has confuted the argument reputation of being exceedingly ancient. Here Mr Morner drawn from the etymology of the words; and, in particular, found ruins composed of large mud bricks, made with straw, and shown that the Cadusians were a people much ancienter in the baked in the sun, like some of those found at Babylon. This is country than the Israelites, since Ninus reckoned them among probably the place mentioned in Scripture.-ED.

his subjects.--B. vi. c. 4.

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