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A. M. 3394. A. C. 610; OK, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 1825. A. C. 586. 1 KINGS viii TO THE END OF 2 CHRON. assurance, that God would at last reward their labours , city, it tore along with it twenty fathoms of the wall with success. In the third engagement Arbaces himself which Sardanapalus concluding to be the accomplishment was wounded, and his army routed, and pursued as far of the oracle, because by this means the river was apparas the mountains of Babylon; so that the chief officers ently become an enemy to the city, he grew quite dispiritwere for dispersing and shifting for themselves, when ed, and gave up all for lost. However, to prevent his Belesis gave them once more assurance, that if they falling into the hands of the enemy, he caused a large pile would but continue together for five days longer, every of wood e to be made in the court of his palace, and there thing in that time would have a different turn.

heaping up together all his gold, silver, and royal apparel, With much entreaty was the army prevailed on not to and having enclosed his eunuchs and concubines in the disperse, when suddenly news was brought that a great midst of it, ordered it to be set on fire, and so burned himenforcement was coming from Bactria to join the king, self and them together. The only action wherein those so that the only game which Arbaces had to play was, to historians, who make no mention of his victories, repremarch against them, and by all means imaginable, present him as a valiant man! Arbaces, being informed of vail with them to revolt; wherein he succeeded beyond this, marched his army through the breach of the wall, all men's hopes and expectations, and so gave another and took the city. After this he rewarded his followers turn to the face of affairs.

according to their merit ; made Belesis governor of Sardanapalus, in the mean time, knowing nothing of Babylonia, Chaldea, and Arabia, according to their this, and being elated with his repeated successes, was compact, and took the rest of the empire to himself; indulging his sloth and luxury, and preparing beasts for which put an end to the Assyrian monarchy, after it had sacrifice, with plenty of wine, and other things necessary governed all Asia ? above thirteen hundred years, and, to feast and entertain his soldiers ; when Arbaces, having according to the vision which Daniel : had of it, in its intelligence by deserters in what condition his army lay, conquests had been as swift as an eagle, but now its fearless of any foe, and overcome already with surfeiting wings were plucked. 6 and drunkenness, broke into their camp by night, and,

1 Justin, b. i. and Athenæus, b. xii. c. 12. 2 Justin, b. i. having made a terrible slaughter of most of them, forced

* Dan, vii. 4. the rest into the city,

a Concerning this pile, Athenæus informs us that it was The king, after this defeat, took upon him the defence four hundred feet high, upon which he placed one hundred and of the place, and committed the charge of the army to fifty golden beds, and as many golden tables; that he had thrown Salamenus, the queen's brother ; but Salamenus was

into it some millions of talents of gold and silver, besides the

richest furniture of purple, and the finest garments; and that worsted in two pitched battles, one in the open field, this pile was fifteen days in burning. To which Diodorus adds, and the other before the walls of Nineveh, where himself that Belesis, by craft, obtained leave of Arbaces to carry off the was slain, and most of his men cut to pieces ; so that all ashes, under pretence of building an altar with them at Babylon,

But all this the resource which Sardanapalus bad, was to sustain the by which means he gained an immense treasure.

looks more like a romance than a true story. - Bedford's Scripsiege as long as he could, until the succours, which he ture Chronology, b. vi. c. 2. in the notes. had sent for out of all his provinces, should come to his 6 The following is Dr Hales's table of this period, confessedly assistance; and this he had some hopes of being able to the most difficult part of sacred chronology, and the account of do, because there was an ancient prophecy, “ that Nine- the principles on which he has harmonized the different reigns,

in his own words: veh never could be taken by force, until the river became its enemny."

From the revolt of the Ten Tribes, to the destruction of

Jerusalem. 404 years. Arbaces, on the other hand, was much encouraged by

KINGS OF JUDAH. his successes, and carried on the siege with the utmost vigour ; but the prodigious strength of the walls, which 1. Rehoboam

17 990 1. Jeroboam

22 990 were an hundred feet high, and so very broad, that three 2. Abijah

3 973 2. Nadab

2 968 chariots might go abreast upon them, and the vast plenty 3. A sa

41 970 3. Baasha (24) 23 966 4. Jehosaphat 25 929 4. Ela

(2) 1 943 of all mamer of stores and provisions, necessary for a

5. Jehoram, or Joram 8 904 5. Zimri & Omri (12) 11 942 long defence, hindered him from making any consider- 6. Ahaziah

1 896 6. Ahab

22 931 able progress.

7.Q. Athaljah 6 895 7. Ahaziah

2 909 Thus two years were spent, without any prospect of

8. Joash, or Jehoash 40 889 8. Jehoram, or Joram 12 907
9. Amaziah
29 849] 9. Jehu

28 895 relief on the one side, or of taking the town on the other.

Interregnum 11 820 10. Jehoahaz.

17 867 In the third year, a continued fall of rains made the 10. Uzziah, or Azariah 52 809 11. Jehoash, or Joash 16 850 Tygris overflow to such a degree, that coming into the 11. Jotham

16 757 12. Jeroboam II. 41 834 12. Ahaz

16 741 1st Interregnum 22 793 13, Hezekiah

29 725 13. Zechariah & Shallum 1 771 much the same reason that 4714 has been considered as the grand

14. Manasseh
55 696 14. Menahem

10 770 Julian period by the astronomers of modern Europe. Hence the

15. Amon
2 641 15. Pekahjah

2 760 astronomical era of Nabonassar, or annus magnus of the Chal

16. Josiah
31 639 16. Pekah

20 758 deans, commenced on the 28th day of March, B. C. 867, near 1 20 years before the Historic era; and the king and his counsel

17. Jehoahaz, 3 m.

2d Interregnum 10 738

18. Jehoiakim lors were induced to fix on that year and day for the commence

11 608 17, Hoshea

9 728 ment of their grand or astronomical period, because there was a

19. Jehoiachin, 3 m.
20. Zedekiah

11 597

Samaria taken 271 719 synchronism of the new moon and veral equinox on that day, which was likewise the beginning of the Chaldean year. It is, Jerusalem taken 404 586 however, the historical era that was in common use among chronologers; and its freedom from intercalation rendering it pe- This period has been hitherto considered as the Gordian knot of culiarly convenient for astronomical calculations, it was adopted by sacred chronology: the intricacy of which, all the chronologers the early Greek astronomers Timachares and Hipparchus, and by have complained of, but none have been able to unravel. The Ptolemy and others of the Alexandrian school in Egypt.)– Hales's difficulty of harmonizing the reigns of the kings of Judah and Analysis, vol. i. p. 155, second edition.—ED.

Israel together, has principally arisen; 1. from the discordance

KINGS OF ISRAEL.

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A. M. 3394. A. C. 610; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 4825. A. C. 586. I KINGS vii. TO THE END OF 2 CHRON. of some of the correspondences in the years of their respective, until the twenty-seventh year of Jeroboam II. (2 Kings xv. 1; reigns, with the direct lengths of those reigns; and 2. from uot 2 Chron. xxvi. 1;) therefore, from the death of Amaziah to the critically determining the duration of the two interregnums or succession of his son Uzziah, there was an interregnum of 27– vacancies, in the succession of the latter kings, so as to make 16=ll years. 2. Jeroboam II. began to reign in the fifteenth them correspond with the former throughout. The whole is year of Amaziah, king of Judah, and reigned forty-one years, here adjusted and harmonized, and it is hoped, satisfactorily, (2 Kings xiv. 23;) he died, therefore, in the sixteenth year of upon the following principles :- 1. The standard of the reigns of Uzziah, king of Judah; but Zechariah, his son, did not succeed the kings of Judah is considered as correct; for it is verified by him till the thirty-eighth of Uzziah, (2 Kings xv. 8;) conse. the concurrence of the bouks of Kings and Chronicles, the latter quently, the first interregnum in Israel lasted 38–16=22 relating especially to the kings of Judah, and of Josephus, Abul- years. 3. Pekah, king of Israel, began to reign in the fiftyfaragi, and Eutychius. The incorrectness, therefore, complained second of Uzziah, (2 Kings xv. 27; 2 Chron. xxvi. 3;) and of, must be confined to the latter series; and must be remedied, in the twentieth year of his reign was slain by Hosbea, (2 Chron. by reducing it to the former. 2. The two series of reigos agree xv. 30,) in the third year of the reign of Ahaz king of Judali

, in three points of time : 1. The reigns of Rehoboam and Jero- (2 Kings xvi. 1;) but Hoshea did not begin to reign till the boam began together, or in the same year, (1 Kings xii. 1-20; twelfth year of Ahaz, (2 Kings xvii. 1.) or the thirteenth cur2 Chron. x. 1-19;) as did also, 2. The reigns of queen Atha- rent, (2 Kings xviii. 10;) consequently, the second interregnum liah and of Jehu, who slew the two kings of Judah and Israel, in Israel lasted 13—3=10 years. 6. A curious and satisfactory Abaziah and Jehoram, the same day, (2 Kings ix. 24—27:) confirmation of this adjustment of the reigns of the kings of and, 3. Samaria was taken by the Assyrians in the ninth year of Israel, is furnished by Josephus, who reckons their amount, from Hoshea king of Israel, and in the sixth year of Hezekiah kiog of the revolt of the ten tribes, to the extinction of that kingdom, Judah, (2 Kings xviii. 10.) 3. Hence it necessarily follows, 240 years, (Ant. ix. 14, 1;) and if, from the whole corrected 1. That the first six reigns in Judah must be equal in length to amount, 271 years, we deduct the two interregnums, 32 years, the first eight in Israel; and also, 2. That the next seven in the remainder, 239 years, complete, or 240 current, gives the Judah, to the sixth of Hezekiah, including one interregnum, must lengths of the reigns alone. This furnishes a decisive proof of be equal to the remainder in Israel, including two interregnums. his great skill as a chronologer, in developing the length of this 4. But upon comparing the former together, it appears that the intricate and perplexed period. That he was no stranger to the first six of Judah amount to ninety-five years; whereas, the first chasm of thirty-two years in Israel, we may inser from his taking eight of Israel amount to ninety-eight years, according to the into account the eleven years of interregnum in Judah, necessary table of reigns in Scripture. Consequently, three years must be to complete his amount of the whole period, from the foundation retrenched from the latter, to reduce them to an equality with to the destruction of the temple, 411 years. 7. We are now the former. Accordingly, one year is here subtracted from each competent to detect some errors that have crept into the corres. of the reigns of Baasha, Ela, and Zimri, which are thereby re-pondences of reigns; and which have hitherto puzzled and perduced from current, * to complete years. And this reduction is plexed chronologers, and prevented them from critically harmonwarranted by the correspondences : for Baasha began to reign in izing the two series; not being able to distinguish the genuine the third year of Asa king of Judah, (1 Kings xv. 33;) and his from the spurious numbers. son Ela, in the twenty-sixth of Asa, (1 Kings xvi. 8,) which 1. ^ Jehoshaphat began to reign over Judah in the fourth year gives the reign of Baasha, 26_3=23 years complete. Ela was of Ahab,' (1 Kings xxi. 41.) It should be the second. slain in the twenty-seventh of Asa, (1 Kings xvi, 10:) he reigned, 2. • Ahaziah, the son of Ahab, began to reign over Israel in therefore, only 27-26=1 year complete. And Zimri and Omri the seventeenth of Jehoshaphat,” (1 Kings xxii. 51.) It should reigned in succession, from the twenty-seventh to the thirty-eighth be the twentieth of Jehoshaphat. of Asa, (1 Kings xvi. 29;) or only 38--27=ll years complete. 3. • Jehoram, the son of Ahaziah, began to reigo over Israel And as their reigns were all included in the one reign of Asa, in the second year of Jehoram, son of Jehoshaphat,' (2 Kings i. and therefore more likely to be correctly referred thereto, this is 17.) It should be in the twenty-second year of Jehoshaphat; as a reason why these three reigns should be selected for reduction, also, where it is again incorrectly stated, in the eighteenth, (* rather than the succeeding or the preceding. 5. Upon compar. Kings iii. 1.) ing the latter together, it appears that there was one interregnum 4. • Jehoram, the son of Jehoshaphat, began to reign over in the kingdom of Judah, of eleven years, and two in Israel of Judah, in the fifth year of the reign of Joram, the grand) son twenty-two years, and of ten years; which are requisite in both, of Ahab,' (2 Kings viii, 16.) It should be the fifth year from the to equalize the two periods together, of one hundred and seventy- death of Ahab; or the third year of Joram's reign. Jehoshaphat six years each: counting them from the joint accession of queen being then king of Judah,' is an anachronism, and an interpolaAthaliah and Jehu, to the sixth of Hezekiah, and capture of tion in the Masorite text. Samaria, in the same year. That the lengths of these interreg- 5. • Jehoash began to reign over Israel in the thirty-seventh nums are rightly assigned, will appear from the correspondeuces year of Joash, king of Judah,

' (2 Kings xiii. 10.) It should be of reigns. i. Á maziah king of Judah, survived the death of the thirty-ninth year; as in the accurate Aldine edition of the Jehoash king of Israel, fifteen years; he died, therefore, about Greek Septuagint.. the sixteenth year of his son Jeroboam II, (2 Kings xiv. 17; 2

6. The correspondences by which the interregnum in Judah Chron. xxv. 25;) but Azariah, or Uzziah, did not begin to reign was collected, are incorrect; they should be 25–14=ll years.

* That the reigns in these lists are all computed, in current time, ae- 7. 'Hoshea slew Pekah king of Israel, in the twentieth year cording

to the popular mode of computation in the east, and every whero, of Jotham,' (2 Kings xv. 30.) But Jotham reigned only sixteen actually was only ten years, four months, and eight days, supposing the years, (2 Kings xv. 33) It should be in the third year of Abas, first year to have been complete. Compare 2 Kings xxiv. 18, with xxv. as collected from 2 Kings xvi. 1.-ED.

THE

HISTORY

OF THE BIBLE.

BOOK VII.

CUNTAINING AN ACCOUNT OF THINGS FROM THE BABYLONISH CAPTIVITY TO THE BIRTH OF CHRIST,

IN ALL 588 YEARS,-ACCORDING TO DR HALES 586.

3

PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. come, and I will fill this house with glory, saith the

Lord of hosts.' These mighty empires were suffered The two methods by which Scripture gives an account thus to overthrow and destroy one another, to show the of the events by which the great plan of redeeming instability and vanity of all earthly power and greatness; mercy has been carried on, are history and prophecy. which served as a foil to set forth the glory of Messiah’s Where Scripture history fails, prophecy takes place; so kingdom, which shall never be destroyed. This was that the account is carried on, and the chain is not | the kingdom which the God of heaven was to set up ;broken, till we come to the very last link of it in the a kingdom that shall not be left to other people, but consummation of all things.

which shall break in pieces and consume all these kingThe period, accordingly, on which we are now enter-doms, and shall stand for ever. ing, though less the subject of Scripture history than How remarkable was the preservation of the church most of the preceding, is more the subject of prophecy amid those overturnings of the kingdoms of the world! than the events of the former periods. It was the will It is indeed wonderful that the chosen people should of God that the spirit of prophecy should cease ; but have been preserved for five or six hundred years,

while before that took place, an outline of the history of events the earth was, as it were, rent in pieces; especially till the coming of Christ was given in the prophecies considering that the land of Judea, the chief place of which were recorded in Scripture. It is also deserving the church's residence, lay in the midst of the contending of notice, that, whereas the historical notices of the pre- nations, and was rery much the object of the envy and ceding periods in profane history are scanty and im- hatred of all the heathen nations. perfect, they are, in regard to this period, authentic The first thing that offers itself to our observation in and full,

the history of this period, is the captivity of the Jews in Nor can we fail to notice the number and magnitude Babylon. They were often, in the time of the judges, of the revolutions which, from this era, took place among brought under the dominion of their enemies ; but there the nations of the earth, preparatory to the coming of had never been any such thing as destroying the sancChrist. The king of Babylon is represented in Scrip- tuary and city of Jerusalem, and all the towns and ture as overturning the world ; but the Babylonish em- villages of the land, and carrying the whole body of the pire was overthrown by Cyrus, who founded the Persian people into a distant country. Yet, the great plan of empire in its room, and which greatly surpassed it in redeeming love and mercy was promoted by this disextent and glory. But this also was overthrown by pensation; for it had the effect of curing the nation of Alexander, who established the Grecian empire on its their tendency to idolatry. This was a remarkable and ruins ; and this in its turn was destined to be subverted wonderful change in that people, and what directly by the Romans, whose empire surpassed all that had promoted the work of redemption. It also tended to preceded it in extent and dominion. These mighty re- prepare the way for the coming of the Redeemer, by volutions were designed by the sovereign Ruler of the diminishing the glory of the Jewish dispensation. In universe, to prepare the world for the coming of Christ. the language of prophecy 2 it removed the crown and 1. I will overturn, overturn, overturn it, until he come diadem, that it might be no more, till he should come, whose right it is, and I will give it him.' ? For thus whose right it was. The Jews henceforward were always saith the Lord of hosts, I will shake the heavens and dependent on the governing power of other nations, the earth, and the sea, and the dry land; and I will that is, during the space of near six hundred years, with shake all nations, and the desire of all nations shall the exception of a short interval. They were, besides,

• Ezek. xxi. 27.

* Haggai ii, 6,7.

i Dan. ii. 44.

* Ezek, xxi. 26.

THE HISTORY.

A. M. 3417, A. C. 587; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 4825. A. C. 586. JER. xl. 7.-10.-DANJE AND EZRA i.-F. by the captivity into Babylon dispersed over the world representation of his offices, and to the arrival of the before the coming of Messiah,-a circumstance which period suitable for the accomplishment of his work. tended greatly to promote the kingdom of Christ. The prophets who were successively raised up bore Though Cyrus gave them liberty to return to their own testimony concerning him; and their power of eloquent land, many of them never returned, but were scattered and of sublime description never rose so high, as when abroad, and continued to dwell among the nations. The setting forth the dignity of his person, the eficacy of his effect of this dispersion was the raising of a general / work, and the glories of his kingdom. At length the expectation of the Messiah—the birth of a glorious Divine Redeemer, for whom this preparation had been person in Judea, who should reign over the world in made, appeared, and justified by the works which he peace and righteousness. It is unnecessary to say, how performed, and the redemption which he wrought out, much this general dispersion of the Jews contributed to the light in which poetry, history, and prophecy, had the general and rapid promulgation of the gospel. held him forth. His glory was beheld as the glory of

It was during the captivity that Ezekiel and Daniel the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth. greatly enlarged the canon of Scripture. To each of these prophets Christ appeared in the form of that nature which he was afterwards to assume. These two prophets, in many respects, were more particular concerning the

SECT. I. coming of Christ, and his glorious kingdom, than any of the prophets had been before. Daniel mentions the CHAP. I.- From the Captivity to the Death of Cyrus. time in which Messiah should come. Thus does gospel light increase the nearer we approach to the dawn of the Sun of righteousness.

But Babylon itself, into which the Jews had been car- After the return of Nebuchadnezzar and his victorious ried captive, was overthrown by Cyrus. Its destruction army to Babylon, all those Jews who, for fear of him, was brought about in such a manner, as wonderfully to had taken refuge among neighbouring nations, or had show the hand of God, and to fulfil his word by his pro-hid themselves in the fields and deserts of their own phets. That great city was destroyed after it had stood country, hearing that Gedaliah was made governor of the about seventeen hundred years. The Jews were in con- land, resorted to him at Mizpah, “ where he set up his sequence permitted to return to their own land, and to residence. Among these were Johanan and Jonathan, rebuild Jerusalem and the temple. This return of the the sons of Kereah, and Ishmael, the son of Nethaniah, Jews from Babylonish captivity is, next to the redemp- with divers others : but Ishmael came to him out of a tion out of Egypt, the most remarkable of all the old treacherous intent only; for being of the blood-royal, Testament redemptions, and most insisted on in Scrip- he reckoned to make himself king of Judea, now that ture, as a type of the redemption of man from the the Chaldeans were gone, and to that purpose had formdominion of sin and Satan. Their return was a remark- ed a conspiracy to kill Gedaliah, and seize on the able dispensation of providence, inasmuch as Cyrus, the government, wherein Baalis, king of the Ammonites, main instrument by whom it was effected, was a heathen was confederate with him. prince, who gave them liberty not only to rebuild the city and the temple, but to receive the silver and gold years at Haran, making his escape from thence, he was overtaken

a In the history of Jacob we read, that after a stay of several which were requisite for their undertaking. Afterwards by Laban, his father-in-law, in a mountainous tract, which was God inclined the heart of Darius to further the building afterwards called Gilead, that is, an heap of stones, as also of the temple with his own tribute money, and by com- Mispah, that is, a watch tower, because, at the covenant which manding the Samaritans, who had been striving to was made between Laban and him, an heap of stones was gather

ed to remain a monument of it, and upon that occasion Laban's hinder them, to help without fail, by furnishing them expressions are these:-“The Lord watch between me and thee, with all that they needed in order to it.' God inclined when we are absent one from another. If thou wilt afilict my the heart of Artaxerxes, another king of Persia, to pro- daughters, or if thou wilt take other wives besides my daughters

, mote the work of preserving the state of the Jews, by (Gen, xxxi, 49, 50.

) From that time, the place where this colle

no man is with us; see, God is witness between me and ther.' his ample commission to Ezra ; helping them abundantly nant was made, and where, probably in memory of it, a city in with silver and gold of his own bounty, and offering after-ages was built, was called Mizpah. It was situate on the more as should be needful, out of the king's treasure-east side of the river Jordan, and in the division of the land, house. In the prophecy of Daniel, this is called the fell to the tribe of Dan; and here it was that Gedaliah chose to decree for restoring and building Jerusalem; hence the it lay nearest of any to Babylon, from whence he was to receire

fix his habitation, or perhaps was ordered to fix it here, because seventy weeks are dated.

his instructions as to the administration of the governmentIt was during this period that Ezra added to the Wells' Geography of the Old Testament, vol. i. canon of Scripture, and that the canon of the Old Testa

6 That Ishmael, who was of the blood-royal of Judah, should ment was completed and sealed by Malachi. Soon after His envy of the other's promotion, and his ambition to make

attempt to take away the life of Gedaliah, is no wonder at al this, the spirit of prophecy ceased till the appearing of himself a king, might be strong incitements to what he did : beste the great Prophet, who came a light to lighten the why Baalis should have any hand in so black a design, we can Gentiles, and to be the glory of his people Israel.

hardly imagine any other reason than the ancient and inveterate The events, characters, and dispensations, which the and therefore this king of theirs, seeing that the Jewish nation

hatred which the Ammonites always had against the Hebrews: history of the patriarchal ånd Mosaic economies re-was at this time, in a manner, brought to nothing, was minded cords, were made subservient to the Redeemer,-to the to take revenge for all the injuries that his ancestors had received

from them, and to give the finishing stroke to their ruin by cut

ting off their governor, and so dispersing all the remains of that "Ezra vi.

unhappy people, which was now gathered together at Mizpad.

A. M. 3417. A. C. 587; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 4825. A. C. 586. JER. xl. 7–xlv. DANIEL, AND EZRA i.-V. His design, however, was not carried on so secretly, to Chimham, C not far from Bethlehem, that in case they but that Johanan, the son of Kereah, got notice of it, were called to an account, they might more readily and acquainted the governor with it; but he being a man make their escape into Egypt. of a generous temper, and not apt to entertain jealousies Jeremiah, from the time that he parted with Nebuzara. of others, took no notice of Johanan's information, but dan, had taken up his abode with Gedaliah the governor ; continued the same friendly correspondence with Ishmael but after his death, among the rest of the captives, was that he had ever done. This gave the traitor an advan-carried from thence by Ishmael the conspirator, and tage against him; for pretending to pay hin a visit one now, upon his defeat, accompanied Johanan, and the day, he and his confederates, at a time when the people rest of his countrymen, to their new habitation at Chinwere gone out to harvest work, fell upon him, and slew ham. Here they bad not been long before Johanan, him, even while he was entertaining them at his table. and the other princes of the people came to request of With him he murdered all the Jews and Chaldeans that him that he would consult the Lord concerning their were at Mizpah, except some few, whom he made cap- intended journey into Egypt, with warm professions, tives; and having kept the matter private, the next day however, of a ready compliance with whatever he should but one, he destroyed fourscore Israelites, who were think fit to enjoin them. The prophet did so: and in coming in a mournful manner, a with their oblations, into ten days' time returned them this answer from God:the town, and there put them all to the sword, except“ That if they would tarry in Judea, and live peaceably ten, who, for the redemption of their lives, oftered him under the king of Babylon, he would screen them from all the treasures they had in the field.

their present danger, and incline the heart of their conAfter this massacre, Ishmael not thinking himself safe queror to be favourable to them ; but that if they persisted in Mizpah, took the captives with him, among whom in their intention of going into Egypt, he would infallibly were king Zedekial's daughters, and was making the cause every thing they dreaded, the sword, the famine, best of his way to the king of the Ammonites, when and the pestilence, to pursue them.” But notwithstandJohanan and the rest of the captains of Judah, hearing ing both their own professions, and the prophet's deof this detestable deed, made after him with what forces clarations, wherein they d blamed Baruch, as being they could get together : but when he perceived them accessary, they were resolutely bent upon going into coning, he left all his train behind him, and with only Egypt; and accordingly taking all the remnant of Judah, eight men, made his escape into the land of Aimon.

men, women, and children, the king's daughters, JereJohanan, and the rest of the captains, being thus left miah the prophet, and Baruch his scribe, with them, they with all the people, and now reflecting on what Ishmael | went and settled in the country, until the judgments had done to Gedaliah, began to be apprehensive, that wherewith God had threatened their disobedience came the Chaldeans might possibly revenge his death upon upon them. them; and, therefore, for fear of the worst, they retired The Jews e were no sooner settled in Egypt, than

But whatever their views might be, it is certain that they put c This place may be supposed, from 2 Sam. xix. 38, to have their design in speedy execution; for the murder of Gedaliah been anciently given by king David to Chimbam, the son of happened but two months after the destruction of the city and old Barzillai the Gileadite, and which, at this time, bore his name, temple of Jerusalem, namely, in the seventh month (which is though near five hundred years after the first donation. It was Tisri

, and answers in part to our September and October), and in the neighbourhood of Bethlehem, about two leagues from on the thirtieth day of the month: for that day the Jews have Jerusalem, and hither the poor people betook themselves; because hept as a fast, in commemoration of this calamity (which indeed it was at a much farther distance from Babylon than Mizpah, and was the completion of their ruin) ever since.—Calmet's Com- in their straight way to Egypt, in case they should determine to mentary on Jer. xl. 14; and Prideaux's Connection, anno 588. go thither, as they seemed inclivable to do, because there they

a 'The Hebrews, at the death of their friends and relations, supposed they should have no war, nor hear the sound of the gave all possible demonstrations of grief and mourning. The trumpet, nor have hunger of bread.' Jer. xlii. 14. curation of which was commonly seven days; but it was length- d The words in the text are,-• The Lord our God hath not ened or shortened according to circumstances. That for Moses sent thee to say, go not into Egypt tu sojourn there; but Baruch, and Aaron was prolonged for thirty days, which, Josephus says, the son of Neriah, setteth thee on against us, to deliver us onight to be sufficient for any wise man, on the loss of lijs nearest into the hands of the Chaldeans, that they may put us to death, relation, or his dearest friend. The mourning habit among the and carry us away captive into Babylon, Jer. xliii. 2, 3. But Hibrews was not fixed either by law or custom. We only find in what foundation the people should have for this their accusation Seripture, that they used to tear their garments. Though it was against Baruch, it is no easy matter to conceive; only we may an express prohibition in the law, 'ye shall not make any cuttings suppose, that as Baruch was preserved, and taken care of by the in your flesh for the dead, nor print any marks upon you,' (Lev. Chaldeans, as well as his master, and was equally against mainxix. 28 ;) yet this seems to relate only to such practices, when taining the siege of Jerusalem, when Nebuchadnezzar came hethey became superstitious, and were done in honour to false gods; fore it; and that as he had been some time at Babylon himself, for in cases of ordinary mourning for the dead, or for any other (see Baruch i. 1, 3,) and was probably not so virulent in his grievous disaster, the words of the prophet seem to imply, as if speeches against the Chaldeans as the other Jews were; this, to they had been permitted in common use: both the great and a blind and mutinous mob, was reason enough to suspect him of the small shall die in the land; they shall not be buried, neither being engaged in the enemy's party.–Calmet's Commentary. shall men lament for them, nor cut themselves, nor make them- e The places in which the Jews are said to have settled themselves bald for them, neither shall men tear themselves in mour- selves in Egypt, were Migdol, Tahpanhes, Noph, and the couning to comfort them for the dead.' Jer. xvi. 6, 7.

try of Pathros, (Jer. xliv. 1.) Migdol is the same place in Egypt, 6 Treasures, according to the common phrase of Scripture, which Moses makes mention of, (Exod. xiv. 2,) over against signify any thing that is hid or kept in reserve, whether it be Baal-zephon, not far from the Red Sea. Tahpanhes is Daphne, gold, silver, com, wine, oil, apparel, or any other thing; and not far from Pelusium, the first city in Egypt, in the road from among the people of the east, it was a usual thing to bury their Judea, and, as it were, its key. Noph is Memphis, situate corn, and other provisions, in deep holes, and caverns, which above the parting of the Nile, or where the Delta begins, and they dog and filled up so very dexterously, that no one could not a little famous for its pyramids; and the country of Pathros perceive that the earth had been moved, nor could any find them is the same with Thebais, or the Upper Egypt, so called from out, but those who made them.---Calmet's Commentary. the city Thebes, which was the first capital of it.

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