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A. M. 3473, A. C. 529; OR; ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 4947. A. C. 454. EZRA 1v. 7—BND, EST. NEH. PART OF HAG, ZECH, MAL. in use among the Jews in the time we are now speaking | distinguished from the proseuche, which were commonly of, we cannot conceive why there should not as frequent in the fields, and open to the heavens. In the midst of a mention have been made of them in the Old Testament, them there is a desk, or pulpit, made very probably in as there is in the New. The common, therefore, and imitation of that, which, as • we read, Ezra made use of, indeed the most probable, opinion is,' that there were from whence the book or roll of the law is read very no such things as synagogues built before the captivity solemnly, and from whence both he that expounds it, or of Babylon and the destruction of the temple ; that the he that preaches to the congregation at any time, always Jews, seeing themselves carried away into a strange delivers himself. At the upper end of the synagogue, country, where they had no teniple for divine service, and over against the door, which ever stands to the west, came to a resolution of building such houses as were there is a chest, or press, wherein the book of the law is afterwards called synagogues, there to be instructed in kept, wrapt in a fine embroidered cloth, and, what is the law, and to worship the God of their fathers, in the uncommon in our churches, during the time of divine best manner they could, on every sabbath day; and service the women are separated from the men, and that, upon their return, finding the great conveniency seated in a gallery inclosed with lattices. of such like buildings, they erected the same in their Every town, wherein there were ten batelnim, that is, own country, as they had done before in the land of their ten persons of full age and free condition, always at captivity, and herein were followed by the Jews of the leisure on week-days, as well as sabbaths, to attend on dispersion, in all parts of the world wherein they lived. divine service, was thought large enough to have a

After Ezra had set forth a correct edition of the law, synagogue built in it: otherwise it was not; because the prophets, and other sacred writings, which were extant the Jewish notion is, that less than such a number could in his time, his next care was to appoint proper persons, not make a congregation, and, without a congregation, namely, the most learned of the Levites, and other 10 part of the synagogue service could be performed. scribes, that were well skilled in these writings, to read | But as their notion was farther, that any person, Gentile and expound them to his people." This, no doubt, thes as well as Jew, might be permitted to erect a synagogue, did at first in the same manner that himself had done, because the holiness of the place, as they thought, conthat is, by gathering the people together in some wide sisted not so much in the fabric, as in its being set apart street, or open place of the city, that was of the fittest and dedicated to holy uses; it thence came to pass, that capacity to receive them. But, in the wet and winter though there were but few at first, yet in process of time seasons of the year, the inconvenience of this came to they became so numerous, that, in our Saviour's time, be felt; so that, in process of time they erected houses there was no town in Judea, but what had one or more and tabernacles, wherein to meet for this purpose : and in it; that, in Tiberias, a city of Galilee, there were no this was the true cause and original « of such edifices in less than twelve, and, if we may credit the Jews, 480 in Judea.

Jerusalem. The buildings were contrived inuch after the Synagogues were public edifices, situate either within same manner as our parish churches; had over their door or without their city, and generally in an elevated place, or entrance this inscription written, This is the gate of They were usually raised above any private house, the Lord, the righteous shall enter into it;

and upon the except when there was an interdiction from the civil walls within, were these, or such like sentences. Remempower, because the Jews have a notion, that it is a dis-ber thy Creator : Keep thy foot when thou goest into the honour to God to have his house inferior, nay, so much house of the Lord: Silence is commendable in the time as equal, to those of men, and in whatever city this hap- of prayer : apd, Prayers without attention, are like a pens, they threaten it with a speedy destruction. They body without a soul, &c. are always roofed, and covered over, and by this are 5 1. In the synagogue service the first office was

prayer. Their prayers at first were but very few, but 1 Jurieu's History of Opinions, part i. c. 17.

have since increased to a very large bulk, which makes 2 Prideaux's Connection. . Basnage's History of the Jews.

the

synagogue service very long and tedious. What they a Mr Basnage, in his history of the Jews, is of opinion, that reckon the most solenın part of their prayers are those, the origin of synagogues was not until the reign of the Asmonæans, which they call Shemoneh Eshreth, that is, the eighteen some few ages before Christ, and he imputes it to this occasion: prayers, which, according to them, were composed, and -The zealous traditionists, who made long commentaries upon the law, thought it a crime to keep the people, whose applause they mightily desired, in ignorance of them; and instead of con

Prideaux's Connection. fining their explications to Jerusalem, where they found them- b These prayers were originally no more than eighteen, but selves too much slighted and confined, they carried them into R. Gamaliel, a little before the destruction of Jerusalem, added every city, where there were oratories, and public places of the nineteenth, which is the 12th in the subsequent order, assembly. Before this, private persons made their prayers to against Christians, who are therein meant by the names of God in their houses, where they had a place set apart for that apostates and heretics; and that we may judge of the merits of holy exercise. It was generally upon the top of the house, for these prayers, a very learned hand has given us the following their houses were flat-roofed, that the family and their friends translation of them, in the same order as they are in the Jewish met together, to read some portion of the law on the sabbath liturgies. day; and when there was any prophet in the city, the devout 1. “ Blessed be thou, O Lord, our God, the God of our fathers, people assembled at his house. But after that the doctors had the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, added their traditions and commentaries to the law, the business the great God, powerful and tremendous ; the high God, of interpreters became so much the more necessary, because bountifully dispensing benefits; the Creator and Possessor those traditions were not written; so that the number of inter- of the universe, who rememberest the good deeds of our fathers, preters and interpretations increased daily. For this reason, con- and in thy love sendest a redeemer to those who are descended venient places were made choice of, that the people might the from them, for thy name's sake, O King, our helper, our Saviour, better meet together to be instructed; and from hence, in all and our shield. 'Blessed art thou, our Lord, who art the shield probability, it is that they derive their synagogues.-B. v. c. 4. of Abraham,

* Neh. viii. 4.

4. M. 3475. A. C. 529; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A, M. 4947. A. Ç. 464. EZRA iv. 7-END, EST. NEH. PART OF HAG. ZECH. MAL. instituted by Ezra, and the great synagogue ; and there-, ter of Deuteronomy, to the end of the 9th verse: the fore they enjoin all that are at age, of what sex or con- second, from the beginning of the 13th verse of the dition soever, either in private or public, to repeat them eleventh chapter of Deuteronomy, to the end of the 21st three times a day, and on every synagogue-day, they verse : and the third, from the beginning of the 37th offered thein up, with the greatest solemnity, in their verse of the fifteenth chapter of Numbers, to the end of public assemblies. These prayers, however, are but of the chapter : and because the first of these portions, in the same nature that the Lord's prayer is in our public the Hebrew bible, begins with the word Shema, that is, service, that is, the fundamental and principal part ; for hear, therefore the reading of the whole is called the besides these, they have some prayers going before, reading of the Shema, which, next to their saying of the some following after, and others interspersed between Shemonech Eshreth, or the famous eighteen prayera, is them, which make the liturgies very tedious, and justify reckoned the most solemn part of their religious service. our Saviour's finding fault with their long prayers.

The five books of the law were divided, as some say, 2. In the synagogue-service there are three things that by Moses hiniself, but not improbably by Ezra, into fiftyare read, the Shema, the Law, and the Prophets. The four sections, because in their intercalated years, (when Shema consists of three portions of Scripture ; the first a month was added to the year,) there were fifty-four is, from the beginning of the 4th verse of the sixth chap- sabbaths, and so a section, being read every sabbath

day, completed the whole in the space of a year ; but II. “Thou, O Lord, art powerful for ever. Thou raisest the

when the year was not thus intercalated, those who had dead to life, and art mighty to save. Thou sendest down the the direction of the synagogue-worship, reduced the dew, stillest the winds, and makest the rain to come down upon sections to the number of sabbaths, by joining two short the earth, and sustainest with thy beneficence all that live there ones several times into one, because they held themselves in; and of thy abundant mercy, makest the dead again to live. obliged to have the whole law, from the beginning of Thou helpest up those that fall; thou curest the sick; thou loosest them that are bound, and makest good thy word of truth to those Genesis to the end of Deuterononiy, read over, in this that sleep in the dust. Who is to be compared to thee, O thou manner, every year. Lord of might? And who is like unto thee, O our King, who killest, and makest alive, and makest salvation to spring up as reading of the law was prohibited, in the room of the

In the persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes, when the the herb out of the field? Thou art faithful, to make the dead rise again to life. Blessed art thou, o God, who raisest the fifty-four sections of it, the Jews substituted fifty-four dead to life.'

sections of the prophets, which were ever after continued; III. Thou art holy, and thy name is holy, and thy saints do insomuch that when the reading of the law was again praise thee every day. Selah. For a great king, and an holy restored by the Maccabees, the section which was read one art thou, O God. Blessed art thou, O Lord, God most holy.'

every sabbath out of the law, served for the first lesson, iv. Thou of thy mercy, givest knowledge to men, and teach- and the section out of the prophets for the second; for est them understanding; give graciously unto us knowledge, that is the nieaning of 'St Paul's 'standing up to preach

, wisdom, and understanding. Blessed art thou, O Lord, who after the reading of the law and the prophets ;' that is

, graciously givest knowledge unto men.' V. Bring us back, o our Father, to the observance of thy the second lesson out of the prophets.

aster the reading of the first lesson out of the law and law, and make us to adhere to thy precepts; and do thou, O our King, draw us near to thy worship, and couvert us unto thee by 3. The exposition of the law and the prophets went perfect repentance in thy presence. Blessed art thou, O Lord, along with the reading of them : for after that the Hebrew who vouchsafest to receive us by repentance.'

Vl. • Be thou merciful to us, o our Father, for we have sin language bad ceased to be the mother-torgue of the med: pardon us, 0 our King, for we have transgressed against Jews, and the Chaldee grew up into use instead of it, thee, for thou art a God, good and ready to pardon. Blessed the custom of the synagogue was, that one should first art thou, O Lord most gracious, who multipliest thy mercies in read a paragraph of the Scriptures to the people in the the forgiveness of sins.' VII. Look, we beseech thee, upon our afflictions: be thou on

Hebrew tongue, and then another interpreted it in the our side, in all our contentions ; and plead thou our cause in all Chaldee, which they better understood. And this sees our litigations; and make haste to redeem us with a perfect re- to suggest the reason why these sections of Scripture demption, for thy name's sake: for thou art our God, our King, came to be divided into verses, namely, that by this and a strong Redeemer. Blessed art thou, O Lord, the Redeemer of Israel.'

means the reader might certainly know how much be was VIII. · Heal us, O Lord our God, and we shall be healed: to read; and the interpreter how much he was to intersave us, and we shall be saved; for thou art our praise. Bring pret at every interval. unto us sound health, and a perfect remedy for all our infirmities, 4. After that the reading and expounding were over, for all our griefs

, and for all our wounds; for thou art a God, any person of learning, and knowledge in the Scriptures, who healest, and art merciful. Blessed art thou, O Lord, our God, who curest the diseases of thy people Israel.'

might address himself to the people, upon what moral IX. Bless us, O Lord, our God, in every work of our hands, or divine subject he thought proper; only we may oband bless unto us the seasons of the year, and give us the dew, serve, that this was a compliment usually paid to stranand the rain to be a blessing unto us upon the face of all our gers; and therefore when St Paul and his company land, and satiate the world with thy blessings, and send down moisture upon every part of the earth that is habitable. Blessed to Antioch in Pisidia, and went into the place of divies art thou, O Lord, who givest thy blessing to the years.'

worship on the sabbath day, after the reading of the X. Convocate us together by the sound of the great trumpet, law and the prophets, the rulers of the synagogue seat to the enjoyment of our liberty'; and lift up thy ensigns to call unto them, saying, ye men and brethren, if ye have any together all of the captivity, from the four quarters of the earth word of exhortation for the people, say on.' to our own land. Blessed art thou, O Lord, who gatherest together the exiles of the people of Israel.'

From what has been said it appears, that the ministrs But this is enough for a specimen. The rest are much of the tion of the synagogue-service was not confined to the same strain; but the reader that is desirous to see them, will find them in Dr Prideaux's Connection of the Old and New Testament, part I. . vi.

1 Acts xiii. 16.

3

A. M. 3475. A. C. 529; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 4947. A. C. 464. EZRA iy, 7-END, EST. NEH. PART OF HAG. ZECH. MAI.. sacerdotal order; for the priests were consecrated only superstitions and idolatrous practices of the heathen to the service of the temple, which was widely different nations that lived about them. But now, when, after from this, as consisting chiefly in the offering up of sa- the Babylonish captivity, synagogues were erected in crifices and oblations, but to this in the synagogue any every city, to which they constantly resorted for public one that by learning was qualified for it, was admitted. worship, and where, every week, they had the law at Only for the preservation of order, there were in every first, and afterwards both the law and the prophets read synagogue some fixed officers, whose business it was to to them; and where, by sermons and exhortations, they take care that all religious duties were therein decently were, at least every sabbath day, instructed in their performed.

duty, and excited to the performance of it; this kept The first of this kind are those whom the Scriptures them in a thorough knowledge of God and his laws, as of the New Testament call 'rulers of the synagogue :' | the comminations in the prophets, when once they but how many of these belonged to each synagogue we came to be read among them, deterred them from transcannot tell, only we may presume, there were more than gressing against them; for, ? (all Scripture,' as the one, because they are mentioned in the 'plural number, apostle speaks, 'is given by inspiration of God, and is in respect of the same synagogue. Next to them, and profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for perhaps one of them, was the minister of the synagogue, instruction in righteousness, that the man of God,' or whose business it was to offer up to God the public prayers every man who resolves to be godly, 'may be perfect, of the congregation ; and being for this purpose dele-wise unto salvation, and thoroughly furnished unto all gated, as it were, by them to God, is therefore in the good works.' Hebrew language, called Sheliach Zibber, that is, the One thing we may observe farther :--That, since there angel of the church, or congregation : from whence the was a public liturgy established in the Jewish church, name of the bishops of the seven churches, mentioned and forms of prayer, though very empty and jejune in in the Revelations, is manifestly borrowed. Next to this comparison of those that are in use among us ; our blessangel of the church, were the deacons, and inferior mi-ed Saviour, when upon earth, was contented to join with nisters of the synagogue, called in Hebrew Chazanin, the public in these forms, and to frequent the synagogue or overseers, who, under the rulers of the synagogue, every sabbath day. And this may inform us, that to had the charge and oversight of all things in it, and kept break the union of a church, upon the account of betthe books of the holy Scriptures, the liturgies, and uten- ter edification, or more ecstatic prayers, is a refinement sils, which they brought forth, and carried away again, as that the great Teacher of all righteousness knew nothing there was occasion : and next to these overseers was the of. In the course of his preaching, he spared not to tell interpreter, whose office it was to recite in Chaldee the the Jews freely of all the corruptions that, in his time, lessons, as they were read in Hebrew, to the congrega- they had run into: and therefore had it been contrary tion; and because a good deal of skill in both languages to the will of God, to use set forms of prayer in his pubwas requisite for such an undertaking, whenever the lic service, or had it been displeasing to him to be adrulers of the synagogue found a person fit for this pur- dressed in such mean forms, when much better might pose, they retained him by a salary, and so made him a have been made, we may be sure he would have told standing minister among them.

them both, and joined with them in neither : but since he We have nothing more to add concerning this syna- never found fault with them for using set forms, but, on gogue-worship, but that the times appointed for it were the contrary, he taught his own disciples a set form to three days a week, besides their holidays, whether fasts pray by, since he no where expressed a dislike of the or festivals, and thrice on every one of those days, that forms then in use, upon account of their meanness, but, is, in the morning, in the afternoon, and at night : and on the contrary, testified his approbation of them, by that when at any of these times the blessing was to be joining with them in their synagogues ; this should congiven, if there was a priest present in the congregation, vince our separatists, one would think, that neither our he always did the office; but if there was none there, the using set forms of prayer in our public worship, nor the Sheliach Zibber, who read the prayers, in a form of be- using of such as they think not sufficiently edifying, can nediction made proper for him, dismissed the people. be objections sufficient to justify them in their refusal to

Before we dismiss this subject, there is one common join with us in them, because in both these cases they inquiry which, by this time, we may be able to satisfy, have the example of Christ directly against them. and that is,-How it came to pass, that the Jews were so The truth is, whether there be a form or no form, or prone to idolatry before the Babylonish captivity, and whether the form be elegantly or meanly composed ; noso strongly bent against it, even to a degree of supersti- thing of this availeth to the recommending of our prayers tion, after that captivity was ended ? which can hardly unto God. It is the true and sincere devotion of the be imputed to any other cause, but that they had the law heart alone, that can make them acceptable unto him : and the prophets every week read unto them, after that for it is this only that gives life and vigour, and a true captivity, which they had not before. Before the capti-acceptance, to all our religious addresses. Without this, vity they had no synagogues for public worship, or in- how elegantly, how movingly, soever the prayer may be struction, nor any places to resort to for these purposes, composed, and how fervently, how zealously, soever it but either the temple at Jerusalem, or the cities of the may seem to be poured out, yet all this is dead matLevites ; and from hence great ignorance grew among ter, and of no validity in the presence of our God. But, the people : God was little known among them, and his on the contrary, the very heathens can tell us, that, be laws in a manner wholly forgotten; and therefore, as our prayers and oblations ever so mean, they will be occasions offered, they were easily drawn into all the a' sacrifice of a sweet smelling savour' unto him, if we I Mark v. 35, &c. Luke viii, 41-xiii. 14,

2 2 Tim. iii, 16, 17.

3 Luke iv. 16.

THE HISTORY.

A. M. 3196. A. C. 408; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 5970. A. C.341. 1 MAC. i-vi. 7. 2 MAC.ii-. JOS, HIST. b. xi. c7-b. vii. c 14. bring but to his worship, “ a fixed purity of purpose, and The Samaritans were originally the Cutheans, and a mind holy at its inmost core, with a will untarnished such other of the eastern nations, as Esarhaddon, after by low chicane ; the suppliant yielding these, shall prove the deportation of the Israelites, planted there ; but after grateful to the gods." I

this temple was built, and Samaria became a common refuge for all retractory Jews, this mixture of inhabitants in a short time produced a change in religion. For

whereas they had hitherto worshipped the God of Israel, SECT. III.

in conjunction with the gods of the east, from whence

they cane, when once the Jewish worship came to be CHAP. I.–From the Death of Nehemiah, to the Death settled among them, and the book of the law of Moses of Antiochus Epiphanes.

to be read publicly, they conforined themselves wholly to the worship of the true God, and in their performance

of this were as exact as the Jews themselves. The Manasseh, as Josephus calls him, (for we have now left Jews, however, looking on them as apostates, hated the sacred history, and have nothing but the books them to such a degree, as to avoid all manner of conof the Maccabees, Philo Judæus, and Josephus, with verse and communication with them. This hatred first some fragments of the Greek and Latin writers, to de- began from the malice which the Samaritans expressed pend on, being expelled from Jerusalem, with several against them, both in the rebuilding of their temple, and others, who would not submit to Nehemiah's order for their in the repairing the walls of their city. It was afterwards parting with their idolatrous wives, went to Samaria, as much increased by the apostasy of Manasseh, and his we said before, and there put himself under the protec- setting up an altar and temple, in opposition to those at tion of Sanballat, his father-in-law; who, applying to Jerusalem; and it was all along kept up, on account of Darius Nothus, the then king of Persia, did so far insi- some particular tenets wherein the two nations were nuate himself into his favour, as to obtain a grant for the building of a temple on Mount Gerizim, near Samaria, hood B. C. 412, there are for the eighty years which intervene and for making Manasseh, his son-in-law, the high priest between this period and the time of Alexander, three high priests, of it.a

namely, Joiada, Jonathan or Johanan (John) and Jaddua; and

it is known that Jaddua was very aged when Alexander visited 1 Pers, sat. 2.

Jerusalem. It is accordingly no longer necessary to assume, a On the supposition that Nehemiah returned to Judea in the without evidence, that there were two high priests of the name latter part of the reign of Darius Nothus, it is easy to see what of Jaddua, one at the time of Nehemiah, and a second in the days gave occasion to the mistake of Josephus, who assigns Sanballat, of Alexander.-Jahn's Hebrew Commonwealth.-ED. the chief of the Samaritans, contemporary with Nehemiah, to the b If we believe their chronicle, which they tell us is of great reign of Darius Codomannus; and makes Manasseh, the son of antiquity, though others who have examined it, will not allow it Joiada and son-in-law of Sanballat, the son of the high priest to be as old as Constantine's days, they give us an account of Jaddua. Misled by the similarity of the names, he confounded their origin quite different from what we gather from sacred writ

. Darius Nothus with Darius Codomannus; and this is not at all They pretend to be descended from Joseph by Ephraim, in surprising, for Josephus in his Antiquities treats of this period direct line; and that when Joshua entered into the promised very negligently, and has fallen into numerous errors. The more land, he caused a temple to be built upon Mount Gerizim, and modern Jews were very ignorant of the later periods of Persian appointed one Buz of the seed of Aaron, to officiate as high history. Ji we correct this oversight of Josephus, it will no longer priest, from whom they have an exact genealogy, and uninter, be necessary to maintain the very improbable assumption, that rupted succession ever since. They neither own Jeroboam's there were two chiefs of the Samaritans of the name of Sanballat, schism, nor the transmigration of the ten tribes, but give this separated from each other by a century, (B. C. 431 and 331,) each account of their leaving their country, and returning to of whom had a daughter, married to a fugitive son of the Jewish it again :—That when the kings of Jerusalem and Syria bad high priest. There was but one Sanballat, chief of the Samaritans, revolted against Bachtnezzar, so they called Nebuchadnezni, whose daughter was married to a son of the high priest Joiada, he came with an army and took Jerusalem, and thence and that about the year B. C. 408. That important historical marching to the Shechemites, for that is the name they give fact, therefore, which Josephus has placed in the reign of Darius themselves, ordered them to leave their country in seven days, Codomannus, properly belongs to the last years of Darius Nothus, upon pain of military execution, which they readily did: that It was from this last mentioned monarch that Sanballat obtained when he sent Persians to inhabit the cities which they had left, permission to build a temple for the Samaritans on mount Gerizim. they could not live there, because the fruits which seemed fair to This chief had distinguished himself, perhaps by his alacrity in the eye, were tainted with poison, and so destroyed them: that furnishing with provisions the army destined for Égypt; and hav- upon complaints of this, the king consulted with some of the ancient ing thus ingratiated himself with the king, his request was the inhabitants of these provinces, who informed him that the only more readily granted. In this temple Manasseh the son of the remedy was to send the Hebrews back again into their own high priest Joiada, whom Nehemiah had expelled from Judea on country, which when he consented to, a place was appointed account of his connexion with the daughter of Sanballat, was for their general rendezvous: that when they came to this place appointed high priest. Afterwards, according to the testimony of a dispute arose between them, whether they should go and rebuild Josephus, those Jews, who in their own country had been guilty the temple of Jerusalem, or that of Gerizim, and when Zerubbeof criminal oflences, or who from any cause became dissatisfied, bel was for the former, and Sanballat for the latter, each pleadiog took refuge in Samaria. By means of these emigrants the Sa- the sanction of the Pentateuch, and each pretending that the copy maritans were recalled from idolatry, and brought to worship of his opponent was corrupt, they resolved to end the controversy Jehovah alone. But this circumstance, far from allaying the by a fiery trial: that Zerubbabel's copy being thrown into the fire

, enmity between the two nations, tended rather to increase it, was immediately consumed, but that Sanballat's endured the at least on the part of the Jews, to whom this temple, built after flames three times together, and received no manner of harm; the year B. C. 408, and the reception of fugitive Jews, was a whereupon the king honoured the Shechemites with rich presents constant source of provocation. In this manner every thing falls and sent Sanballat as the head of the len tribes, to take possessin naturally and without violence into its proper order of time, and of Mount Gerizim. But who sees not that this whole history, the succession of the high priests, (Neh. xii. 10, 11,) is completely full of falsities and absurdities as it is

, was only invented to win reconciled with history. For though this table was evidently off the shame and disgrace of the Samaritaus, for being the otcompleted by a later hand, this circumstauce alone, without other spring of proselytes, and a medley of foreign nations ? - Bar reasons, cannot prove it incorrect, And no such other proof of nage's History of the Jews, b. ii. c. 1., and Universal History, its incorrectness now remains; for if Joiada entered on the priest- b. ii. c. I.

1

A M. 3596. A. C. 408; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 5070. A. C. 341 1 MAC. i-vi. 7. 2 MAC. iii-X JOS. HIST.b, xi, c. 7-b xii.c. 14. known to disagree. For the Samaritans received no made Bagoses governor of Syria and Phenicia, who other Scriptures than the five books of Moses; they re- took upon him to confer the pontificate, even while jected all traditions, and adhered only to the written Johanan the high priest, who had been several years word itself; and they maintained, that Mount Gerizim, invested with it, was alive, upon the high priest's brother & whereon their temple was built, was the only proper Joshua, and who accordingly came with this grant to place for the worship of God; and from this variety of Jerusalem, in order to take possession of the office. causes did ensue all the hatred and virulence, which, in

But while the one endeavoured by force to get possesthe course of this history, we shall have but too frequent sion, and the other by force to keep him from it, it so occasion to take notice of.

happened, that Johanan slew Joshua in the inner court After the death of Nehemiah, who was the last gover- of the temple ; which, when Bagoses heard, he came in nor that the kings of Persia sent to Jerusalem, Judea great wrath to Jerusalem ; went into the temple, notwithbeing added to the prefecture of Syria, was from thence- standing the remonstrances that were made against it ; forward subjected to the rulers of that province; and and, having taken a thorough cognizance of the fact, under then the administration of all public affairs, both imposed a mulct for the punishment of it, and obliged civil and ecclesiastical, was committed to the high priest, the priests to pay, out of the public treasury, for every which made that office much more coveted than it used lamb that they offered in the daily sacrifice,' the sum to be, and many times tempted those who had no right

1 Jewish Antiq. b. xi. c. 7. to it, to invade it.

Arsaces, ascended the throne on the death of his father, notwithUpon the death of Darius Nothus, Artaxerxes, who standing the exertions of his mother Parysatis to secure the sucfor his extraordinary memory, is by the Greeks called cession to her younger son Cyrus. Though at the commencethe remembrancer, succeeded his father in the throne ment of his reigu he permitted his queen Statira to be guilty of

an act of the most horrid cruelty, and generally yielded too far of Persia ; 6 and towards the latter end of his reign, to the wickedness of his mother, he was on the whole a just and

magnanimous prince. He pardoned his brother Cyrus, who, on a Josephus, in his Jewish Antiquities, (h. xiji. c. 6,) relates a the information of Tissaphernes, was detected in an attempt to dispute, which arose in Egypt, in the reign of Ptolemy Philopa- assassinate him at his coronation, and even reinstated him in his ter, between the Jews and Samaritans, concerning their temples. government of Asia Minor. But Cyrus was so little affected by The Samaritans maintained, that their temple upon Mount Ge- his brother's generosity, that he now determined on accomplislırizim was the only true temple of the Lord; and the Jews on ing his object by open rebellion. Under pretence of making war the contrary affirmed that theirs at Jerusalem was the only true upon Thrace, and afterwards upon Tissaphernes, he levied one. The dispute was brought before the king; advocates on powerful army, and was powerfully supported by the Lacedæmoboth sides were named; and it was agreed, that they who did nians, whom he had assisted with money in the Peloponnesian not make their allegations good, should be condemned to death. war. Clearchus, a Lacedæmonian general joined his forces, Both parties promised that they would produce all their testi- already consisting of 100,000 men of various nations, with a body monies from the law only. Andronicus, advocate for the Jews, of 13,000 Greeks. With these forces Cyrus marched to Babyspake first, and proved so very evidently from the Scriptures, lon, B. C. 401, the same year in which Socrates was put to the antiquity of the temple of Jerusalem, the succession of the death. Artaxerxes, who had been seasonably informed of the high priests, and the value which the Asiatic princes always had revolt by Tissaphernes, came against him with an army of for that holy place, while at the same time they never so much as 900,000 men. They engaged in a bloody battle at the village thought of the temple at Gerizim, that the king and his assessors, of Cunaxa, which was situated about thirty English miles south declared he had carried his cause, and ordered Sabbæus and of Babylon, between the Tigris and Euphrates. The 13,000 Theodosius, the advocates for the Samaritans, to be put to death. Greeks had already half gained the victory, when Cyrus, pressing Whether there be any reality in this account of Josephus or on too zealously against his brother, whom he wounded, was himself no, it is certain that the Samaritans, on behalf of Mount Geri- slain by the royal guards. This expedition, and particularly the zim, have to plead, That there Abraham, (Gen. xii. 6, 7, and astonishing retreat of the 10,CCO surviving Greeks hy a route of xiii. 4,) and there Jacob, (Gen. xxxiii. 20,) built altars unto more than eighteen hundred English miles, have been described God, and by their offering up sacrifices thereon consecrated that by Xenophon, the eye witness and director of that achievement.place above all others to his worship: that for this reason God Jahn's Hebrew Commonwealth.-ED. himself appointed it (Deut. xxvii. 12,) to be the hill of blessing: c This, if extended only to the ordinary sacrifices which were and that accordingly Joshua on his entrance upon the land of offered every day, amounted to 365,000 drachms for the whole Canaan, caused the blessings of God, to such as would observe year, which is no more than one thousand one hundred and his laws, from hence to be pronounced; and, lastly, that when forty pounds twelve shillings and sixpence of our money: but, il he passed the Jordan, he built here an altar of the twelve stones, it extended also to the extraordinary sacrifices, which on solemn which he took out of the river in his passage, (Deut. xxviii. 2-days, when added to the ordinary, it will come to about half as 7.) according to what God had commanded him by Moses. But much more. For the ordinary sacrifices, which were offered herein the Samaritans are guilty of a great prevarication ; for every day, and therefore called the daily sacrifices,' were a lamb they have changed the words in the text of Deuteronomy, and in the morning and another in the evening, whirh are called instead of Mount Ebal, as it is in the original, have put Mount the morning and evening sacrifices ;' and these, in the whole Gerizim, the better to serve their cause. The truth of the year, came to seven hundred and thirty. But, besides these, matter is, since Manasseh was resolved to make a schism in the there were added, on every sabbath, two lambs more, (Numb. Jewish church, and Sanballat to build a temple for him, the rea- xxviji. 9, 10;) on every new moon, seven, (Numb. xxviii. 11;) sons above mentioned might be inducement enough for them to on each of the seven days of the paschal solemnity, seven, (Numb. make choice of that place, rather than any other; but from thence xxviii. 16-24;) besides one more on the second day, when the to pretend to vie with the temple at Jerusalem, is highly arrogant; wave-sheaf, was offered, (Lev. xxiii. 12;) on the day of Pentebecause the Jews have authentic testimonies, that the public cost, seven, (ver. 17, 18;) on the feast of trumpets, seven, exercise of the true religion was settled among them, and solem- (Numb. xxviii. 27; on the great day of expiation, seven, (chap. nized at Jerusalem long before this temple at Gerizim was xxix. 8;) on each of the seven days of the feast of tabernacles, thought of. In short, the religious observances of the Jewish fourteen, (chap. xxix. 13;) and on the eighth day, seven, (Numb. worship did always attend the ark of the covenant, but the ark xxix. 36 :) so that the additional lambs being three hundred was never once at Gerizim, nor indeed was it fixed in any seventy and one, these, if reckoned to the other, make the whole settled place, until David took it to his palace at Jerusalem, and number annually offered at the morning and evening sacrifices, Solomon had built a temple for it in the same city.- Prideaux's to be eleven hundred and one: and therefore, if the mulct of Connection, anno 409, and Calmet's Dictionary under the word fifty drachms a lamb were paid for them all, it would make the Gerizim.

whole of it to amount to 55,050 drachms, which comes to seven6 Artaxerxes the second, surnamed Moemon, also called teen hundred and twenty pounds six shillings aud threepence of

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