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A.M. 3596. A. C. 408; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 5073. A. C. 341. 1 MAC. i-vi. 7. 2 MAC.ii-5. JOS. HIST.b. xi. c. 7–b. xii. c. 14. of fifty drachms, which is about one pound eleven shil- | met with a stop; for the Tyrians, ' in confidence of the lings and three pence of our money.
strength of the place, and of assistance from their allies, After the death of Artaxerxes Mysuwv, Ochus succeed when he would have entered the city, denied him admited his father, but obtained the crown a by very wicked tance. and indirect means. He reigned, however, for one and While his army was besieging Tyre, he sent out his twenty years, after which he was poisoned by his favour commissioners, requiring the inhabitants of the neighite eunuch Bagoas, who put the crown upon the head of bouring countries, namely, of Galilee, Samaria, and Arses, his youngest son; but, in a short time, dispatched Judea, to submit to him, and to furnish him with what bim likewise, and made Codomannus 2 (one of the same he wanted. Other provinces coinplied ; but the Jews, family, but at some distance, and who, upon his acces- pleading their oath to Darius, by which they thought sion, took the name of Darius) king of Persia. themselves bound not to acknowledge any new master
In the third year of the reign of Ochus, about 356 so long as he was alive, refused to obey his cominands. years before the birth of Christ, Alexander the Great, This exasperated the conqueror not a little, who, d in who overthrew the Persian empire, was born at Pella in the flush of his many successes, could bear no contraMacedonia. His father Philip had been chosen captain- diction ; and therefore, as soon as he had done with general of all Greece, which, at this time, made a very Tyre, e he marched directly against Jerusalem. considerable figure in history, for carrying on the war against Persia; but when he was just ready to set for
4 For an account of the ancient and present state of Tyre, see ward upon that expedition, he was slain at home, while b. iv. s. iii. c. 4, pp. 342, 343.—ED. he was celebrating the marriage of Cleopatra his daughter confederated against the Persian empire, but he subdued the
d No sooner was he chosen general of all the Grecian cities with Alexander king of Epirus.
Tyrians and Triballians in Thrace; and, upon his return, took Upon his death, Alexander bis son succeeded him in Thebes, that had revolted from the confederacy, and razed it to the kingdom of Macedon, when he was twenty years the ground. After this, setting out upon the Persian expedition
he vanquished Darius near the Granicus; and after the action, old; and 8 having been chosen, as his father was, to took Sardis, Ephesus, Miletum, and Halicarnassas, the next command the Grecian forces against Persia, he took the year he made himself master of all Phrygia, Lycia, Pamfield, and in one campaign only, overran almost all phylia, Pisidia, Paphlagonia, and Cappadocia. The next year Asia Minor ; vanquished Darius in two pitched battles; he gave Darius a second defeat (and a terrible ope it was) took his mother, wife, and children prisoners; and, prisoners ; seized Damascus, and in it immense riches : subdued
at Issus, took his mother, wife, two daughters, and a young sm, having subdued all Syria, came to Tyre; but there he in short, all Syria, Cælo-Syria, and Phænicia: for every place
yielded to him, none pretending to make any resistance till be 'Diodorus Siculus, b. xvii.
came to Tyre.—Prideaux's Connection, anno 333. Justin, b. xi. c. 2.
e As soon as he had taken the town, he burned it down to the our money. But even this sum being too small for a national ground, and destroyed and enslaved all the inhabitants. Eight mulct, it seems most probable, that all the lambs which were thousand he slew in the sackage of the town, and two thousand offered in the temple in any sacrifice, and upon any account of those whom he took prisoners he caused to be crucified, a whatever, were taken into the reckoning. We may observe, piece of cruelty this highly unbecoming a generous conquerer. however, that whatever this mulct was, the payment of it lasted But, to palliate the matter, he gave out, that it was done by way no longer than seven years; for, on the death of Artaxerxes, of just revenge upon them, for their murdering their masters, the changes and revolutions which then happened in the empire, and that, being originally but slaves, crucifixion was the proper made a change in the government of Syria, and he that succeed- punishment for them. But this depended upon an old story. ed Bagoses in that province no farther exacted it.- Prideaux's Some ages before, the slaves of Tyre, having made a conspiracy Connection, anno 366.
against their masters, murdered them all in one night, (except a Artaxerxes, when he died, left three sons, Ariaspes, Ochus, only Strato, whom his slave secretly saved) and having married and Arsames; Ariaspes was an easy credulous prince; and their mistresses, continued masters of the town, and from them therefore Ochus so terrified him with menaces, which he pre- the present Tyrians were descended. So that Alexander pretended came from his father, that for fear of being put to death, tended, on this occasion, to revenge on them the murder that he poisoned himself. Arsames he caused to be assassinated by was committed by their progenitors so many ages before, though, Harpates; and this loss, added to the other, so overwhelmed the in reality, it was to gratify his rage for being so long detained old king with grief, that he broke his heart and died.—Pri- before the place, and there so valiantly resisted. Recovering, how deaux's Connection, anno 359.
ever, its beauty and riches again, it was invested with the privi6 This eunuch having poisoned both Ochus and his son Arses, leges of a Roman city for its fidelity, and in the flourishing times set the crown upon Darius's head; but, finding that he would of Christianity was distinguished as the first archbishopric under not answer his purpose, in permitting him to govern all in his the patriarchate of Jerusalem. It shared the fate of the country in name, which was the thing he aimed at in his advancement, he the Saracen invasion, in the beginning of the seventh century. was resolved to have removed him, in the same manner as he had It was reconquered by the crusaders in the twelfth, and formed done his predecessors; and accordingly had provided a poisonous a royal domain of the kingdom of Jerusalem, as well as an architpotion for him. But Darius, being advised of the design, when piscopal see. William of Tyre, the well-known historian, an Eng. the potion was brought to him, made him drink it all himself, lishman, was the first archbishop. In 1259, it was retaken by and so got rid of the traitor by his own artifice.— Prideaux's the Saracens, the Christians being permitted to remove with Connection, anno 335.
their effects. When the Sultan Selim divided Syria into pas c The occasion of his death is said to be this:-Pausanias, a chalics, Tyre, which had probably gone into decay with the deyoung noble Macedonian, and one of his guards, having had his pression of commerce, was merged in the territory of Side. body forced, and sodomitically abused by Attalus the chief of the in 1766, it was taken possession of by the Motowalies
, whe king's confidants, had often complained to Philip of the injury: repaired the port, and enclosed it on the land side with a wal but, finding no redress, he turned his revenge from the author of twenty feet high. This wall was standing at the time of Vol the injury upon him who refused to do him justice for it, and ney's visit (1784). It was a miserable village: its exports coslew him as he was passing in great state to the theatre, hav- sisted of a few sacks of corn and cotton, and the only merchant ing the images of the twelve gods and goddesses, and his own of which it could boast was a solitary Greek, in the service of in the same pompous habit, carried before him. Herehy he the French factory at Sidon, who could hardly gaio a livelihood arrogated to himself the honour of a god; but being slain as It is only within the last five and twenty years that it has come soon as his image entered the theatre, he gave a signal proof more begun to lift its head from the dist.See page 343.— that he was no more than a mere mortal man. Justin, b. ix, Prideaux's Connection, anno 333; Maundrell's Journey frea Diodor. Sicuh b. xvi.
Aleppo to Jerusalem, and Wood. Traveller.
A.M. 3596. A. C. 408; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M 5070. A. C. 341. MAC. i-vi. 7, 2 MAC. iii-X. JOS. HIST. b. xi. c. 7, b. xii. c. 14.
* Jaddua the high priest, who at this time had the of him, that he would likewise honour their city and chief government of the Jews under the king of Persia, temple with his presence. “ He was then hastening to was in dreadful apprehensions of what the event might t'gypt, he told them, but that when he returned, if his prove: but having no protection to depend on but affairs would permit him, he would not fail to comply God's, he, and all Jerusalem with him, made their cries with their desires : and when they requested of him an and supplications to him, imploring his mercy for their immunity from all taxes every seventh year, because deliverance from the approaching storm ; whereupon he they; as well as the Jews, did every seventh year suffer was ordered, in a vision of the night, to go out and their land to lie fallow, he asked them if they were Jews, meet Alexander, whenever he should come, in his pon- because to them only he had granted that privilege. tifical robes, with the priests attending him in their Their answer was, that they were Hebrews, but that the proper habits, and all the people in white garments. Phænicians called them Sichemites: whereupon, bav
Jaddua, next day, with the priests and people, hab- ing no leisure to make any farther inquiry into the matited in the manner directed, went out of the city to a ter, he referred this likewise to his return, when he procertain eminence, which commanded the prospect of all mised to examine into their pretensions, and to do them the country round, and there waited the coming of Al-justice ; but before his return, they had done enough to exander. As soon as the high priest saw him at some incense him against them. distance, he moved towards him in this solemn pomp ; On his going from these parts into Egypt, he had which struck the king with such an awe, that, as he drew made Andromachus, a special favourite of his, governor near, he bowed down to him, and saluted him with a of Syria and Palestine ; who 3 coming to Samaria, in religious veneration, to the great surprise of all that order to settle some affairs, was burnt to death in his attended him.
house, which the people set on fire, out of rage and disWhile every one stood amazed at this behaviour, content, very probably, that the privileges, which were Parmenio, his first favourite, took the freedom to ask granted to their enemies the Jews, were denied to them. him, how it came to pass, that he whom all mankind This barbarous action exasperated Alexander not a little ; adored, paid such adoration to the Jewish high priest? insomuch that, having caused those who had acted any To which his reply was, “ That he did not pay that part in the murder of the governor to be put to death, adoration to him, but to the God whose high priest he he drove all the rest of the inhabitants out of Samaria, was; that while he was at Dio in Macedonia, and delib- planted therein a colony of Macedonians, and gave the erating with himself how to carry on the war with Per- rest of their territories to the Jews. sia, that very person, and in that very babit, appeared After the death of Alexander, who did not long surto him in a dream, encouraging him to pass boldly over into Asia, and not to doubt of success, because God
3 Quint. Curt. b. iv, 17. c. 8. would be his guide in the expedition, and give him the
6 It is not well agreed among historians, how this great conempire of the Persians; and that therefore from hence queror of the world died. Some of them are of opiniou, that he he was assured that he made the present war under the was poisoned by the procurement of Antipater, whom he had conduct of that God to whom in the person of this high his mal-administration, had been lately dismissed ; and, there
left governor of all his dominions in his absence, and who, for priest, he paid adoration.” And hereupon, turning to ore, fearing to be called to an account, did, by the hands of his Jaddua again, be embraced him very kindly: and so, sons, who were about the person of the king, and one of them going into the city with him, offered sacrifices to God, his cupbearer, execute this treason upon his master's life, in in the temple, where the high priest showed him the order to save his owo; but in the judgment of other historians
he died by nothing but excessive drinking; and thus they relate prophecies of Daniel, a predicting the overthrow of the the story. “One day after he had been sacrificing to the gods Persian empire by a Grecian king, which he applied to for the many victories which he had obtained, he made an enterhimself, and thereby confirmed his opinion that God had tainment for his friends, wherein he drank very hard, and conchosen bim to execute this great work.
tinued the debauch till late at night; when returning from the When he left Jerusalem, he offered to grant the people salia to come and drink a little more at his house. Alexander
feast he and his company were invited by a physician of Theswhatever immunities the high priest should desire ; but accepted of the offer : and, as there were twenty in company, he he requested no more than a toleration to live according first drank to each of them in their
order, and so pledged them to their own laws and religion, and an exemption from again, and then called for the Herculean cup. There was in the payment of tribute every seventh year, because on
company one Prodeas, a Macedonian, but a terrible drinker, and
to him the king drank this Herculean brimful, which they tell the sabbatical year the Jews were forbidden to till their us held six of our quarts, and not long after pledged him in the ground. This he readily consented to, and having sig. same; but immediately after the second cup he dropped down nified his pleasure, that if any of them were minded to upon the place, and then fell into a violent fever, of which he list in his troops, he would readily receive them, great years, six years as king of Macedon, and six more as monarch
died, in the thirty-third year of his age, after a reign of twelve multitudes did hereupon offer their service, and followed of Asia." 'He was a man of a bold enterprising spirit, but fuller him in his other expeditions.
of fire than discretion. His actions, though they were attended * No sooner was he well got out of the city, but the with success, were carried on with a furious and extravagant Samaritans met him in great pomp and parade, desiring much greater vices. Vain-glory was the predominant passion A. M. 3596. A.C. 408; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 5070. A.C. 341. 1 MAC.i-vi. 7. 2 MAC.ii-X. JOS. HIST.b. xi. C7_b. xii, c.14. vive the unfortunate Darius, a the Grecian or Macedo-lhe first of all attempted to bribe Laomedon, a Mitylenian empire, for so it was now becoine, was divided nian captain of Alexander's, (who after the death of among the chief commanders of his army, who soon fell Andronachus, very probably was made governor of to leaguing and fighting against each other, till after Syria, and the adjacent countries,) with a vast sum of some years they were all destroyed, except four, and money, to deliver them up into his hands : but not being these agreed to make a partition of the whole among able to prevail this way, he sent Nicanor, one of his themselves, and so cantoned it into four kingdoms, captains, with an army into Syria, whilst himself, with a though all this while Aridæus, "a bastard brother of Peet, invaded Phænicia ; and so baving vanquished Alexander's, that took upon him the name of Philip, and Laomedon, and taken him prisoner, be made himself after him Alexander Ægus, his own son by his wife master of all these provinces. Roxana, bore both of them the title of kings.
rashness; and the few virtues that he had were obscured with
of his soul; and the fables of the ancient Greek heroes, the only 1 Joseph, b. xi. c. 8.
chart by which he steered his conduct. This was the reason that a Namely, what is written of the ram and the he-goat, chap. he dragged Betis round the walls of Gaza, in the same manner viii. where that he-goat is interpreted to be the king of Grecia, as Achilles had used Hector ; that he undertook that hazardous who should conquer the Medes and Persians, ver. 20. As like-expedition into India, as Hercules had done before him; that he wise what is written by the same prophet, of the same Grecian made a drunken procession through Caramania, because Bacchus king, chap. xi. 3; for both these prophecies foretold the destruc- is said to have done the like in the same place; and that he tion of the Persian king.- Prideaux's Connection, anno 333. aflected to be called the son of Jupiter, because most of the
2 The Jews, however, for some time, stood out against In this division, Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, whom him, and upon account of the oath they had taken to the Greeks call Soter, having taken possession of Egypt, the deposed governor, refused to submit to his authority. thought that the provinces of Syria, Phænicia, and Judea, Hereupon he marched into Judea, and, having got poswould be an excellent barrier for him; and therefore session of most of the country, laid siege to Jerusalem.
The place was strong enough, both by nature and art, ancient heroes pretended, that they had for their fathers one to have made a considerable defence against him ; but god or other. The truth is, this young conqueror, having the the Jews had then such a superstitious notion for the Iliad of Homer in great admiration, always carried them with observance of the sabbath, that they thought it a breach him, laid them under his pillow when he slept, and read in them on all leisure opportunities; and therefore finding Achilles to be of their law, even to defend themselves on it: which the great hero in that poem, he thought every thing said of him when Ptolemy understood, be made choice of that day worthy of imitation, and the readiest way to become a hero him to storn the place, and in the assault took it, because self, which was the main impulsive cause of all his undertakings: there were none that would defend the walls against but in reality, were actions to be duly estimated, he could de him. At first he dealt hardly with the inhabitants, and serve no other character than that of the great cut-throat of the age in which he lived. The folly of mankind, however, and the carried above an bundred thousand of them captives into error of historians is such, that they usually make the actions of Egypt ; but afterwards, considering how faithful they had war, bloodshed, and conquest, the subjects or their highest en- been to their former governors, he employed them in bis comiums, and those their most celebrated heroes that most excel in these ; whereas those only are the true heroes, who most army and garrisons, and granted them large immunities benefit the world, by promoting the peace and welfare of man- and privileges; whereupon the whole nation of the Jews kind. In a righteous cause indeed, and the just defence of a became subject to the power and dominion of the kings man’s country, all actions of valour are just reasons of praise ; but of Egypt. in all other cases victory and conquest are no more than murder
In the fifth year of this Ptolemy's reign, Onias, the and rapine, and those who thus oppress the world with the slaughter of man, the desolation of countries, the burning of Jewish high priest, died, and was succeeded by Sindu cities, and the other calamities which attend war, are the scourges his son, who, from the holiness of his life, and the grest of God, the Attilas of the age in which they live, and the greatest righteousness which shone forth in all his actions, was plagues and calamities that happen to it; and therefore to make called · Simon the Just.' He continued in his office these the subject of praise and panegyric, is to lay ill examples for nine years, in which time he did many
beneficial before princes, as it such oppressions of mankind were the truest ways to honour and glory. - Diod. Sic. b. xvii; Arrian, b. vii: acts e both in the church and state of the Jews; boi Justin, b. xii: Quin. Curt. b. X; Plutarch. in Alexandro; and what is chiefly commemorated of him, is his completPrideaux's Connection, anno 328, and 332. a After the battle of Arbela, wherein he was sore discomfited,
ing the canon of the Scriptures of the Old Testament. he made his escape into Media, and having got some few forces What Ezra, ' and the men of the great synagogue, together, thought to have tried his fate in one battle more; who, as some say, assisted him, did in this work, we when Bessus, his governor of Bactria, and Nabazanes, another have taken sufficient notice of before. The books of Persian nobleman, conspired together; and having seized the Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, and Malachi, as well as the poor king, and made him their prisoner, put him in chains, and shut him up in a close cart, and so carried him with them to two Chronicles of the kings of Judah and Israel, could wards Bactria, intending, if Alexander pursued them to pur- not possibly be inserted by Ezra himself, because some chase their peace by delivering him up into his hands; but if of these books claim him for their author and in others he did not, to kill him, and seize his kingdom, and so renew the war. Alexander having heard what these traitors had done, made all the haste he could to rescue Darius out of their hands; 1 Diod. Sic. b. xviii; Plutarch, in Demetrio, but when, after several days' march, he came up with them,
2 Jewish Antiq. b. xii. c. 1. (because Darius refused to mount on horseback, for his more
3 Prideaux's Connection, anno 292. speedy flight with them, they gave him several mortal wounds, and left him dying in the cart. He was dead before Alexander c The commendation which the author of Ecclesiasticus gives came; but when he saw his corpse, he could not forbear shedding of this high priest, is thus expressed:—He, in his lifetime, tears at so melancholy a spectacle: and having cast his cloak over repaired the house again, and in his days fortified the tempt it, he ordered that it should be wrapped up therein, and carried By him was built from the foundation, the double height, the to his mother Sisygambis, at Shushan, where he had left her with high fortress of the wall above the temple. In his days, the the other captive ladies, to be buried there with a royal funeral, cistern to receive water, being in compass as the sea, was cores for which himself allowed the expense, in the sepulchres of the ed with plates of brass. He took care of the temple that it shals kings of Persia.-Prideaux's Connection, anno 330.
not fall, and fortified the city against besieging. How was b 6 Aridæus, with his wife Eurydice, was put to death by honoured amidst the people, in his coming out of the sanctuary? Olympias, the mother of Alexander the Great, after he had He was as the morning star in the midst of a cloud, and as the borne the title of king for six years and seven months: and moon at the full, or the sun shining upon the temple of the dist Alexander Ægus, with his mother Roxana, after a long imprison- High, and as a rainbow giving light in the bright clouds:ment in the castle of Amphipolis, was, in like manner, murder- When he put on the robe of honour, and was clothed with the ed hy Cassander, to make way for himself to the crown of perfection of glory, and when he went up to the holy altar, ba Macedon,
made the garments of holiness honourable.'—Ecclus. b. i.ü.&
And if so,
A. M.3556. A. C. 408 ; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 5070. A. C. 341. 1 MAC. i—vi. 7. 2 MAC. iii-X. JOS. HIST. b. xi. c. 7.-6. vi.c. 14. there are some particulars which refer to times as low as priest, to desire an authentic copy of it: and, because Alexander the Great, and therefore a later time must be it was written in a language that he did not underassigned for their reception into the canon.
stand, he desired him, at the same time, to send a comthere seems to be none so proper as thåt when the men petent number of learned men, well versed in both the of the great synagogue, who, under the direction and Hebrew and Greek tongues, who, out of the former, might presidency of Simon the Just, were employed in this translate it for him unto the latter. This Eleazar failed work, ceased to be.
not to do; and, from the joint labours of the LXX. or Simon was succeeded in the pontificate by his brother rather LXXII. translators, that were employed in the Eleazar, (for his son Onias was but a minor when he work, the version has ever since gone under the name of died); and, upon the death of Ptolemy Soter, his son the Septuagint : but of this piece of history we have alPtolemy Philadelphus succeeded in the throne of Egypt, ready had occasion to say what we thought sufficient, and pursued his father's example in continuing the mu- towards the conclusion of our d apparatus. seum, " or college of learned men, which he had erect- After the death of Ptolemy Philadelphus, e his son ed, and in augmenting the noble library 6 which he had Euergetes came to the crown of Egypt, and Onias sucleft behind him at Alexandria. To this purpose, hear- ceeded his uncle, though not immediately, in the pontifiing that the Jews had among them a famous book, name- cate. He was the son of Simon the Just ; but in many ly, the book of their law, which well deserved a place things, the very reverse of his father. At the best he among his collection, he sent to Eleazar c the high was but a weak and inconsiderate man;
' but being now
grown very old, and very covetous, he took no care to a This was a large edifice in Alexandria, which stood in that pay Ptolemy Euergetes the annual tribute of twenty taquarter of the city called Brachium, and was designed for the lents, which his predecessors used to do ; so that, when habitation of such learned men as made it their study to improve the arrears were swelled to a large sum, the king sent philosophy, and all useful knowledge, like that of the Royal Society at London, and the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris. one Athenion, an officer of his court, to Jerusalem, to This building, which was not far distant from the palace, was demand the full payment of the money, upon peril of surrounded with a portico or piazza, where the philosophers having an army sent among them to dispossess them of walked and conversed, and had in it a common hall, where they their country. used to eat together. The members of this society were under the government of a president, whose office was of that considera- * Onias had a nephew by his sister's side, whose tion and dignity, that, during the reign of the Ptolemies, he was always constituted by those kings, and afterwards by the Roman
" Jewish Antiq. b. xii. c. 3. ? Jewish Antiq. b. xii. c. 4. emperors. The revenues appointed for the maintenance of this college, from the first foundation of it, were large. From it did them from slavery, and employing several of them both in his proceed men of very excellent literature; and to it was owing, court and camp; and that, as a farther testimony of his kindness hat Alexandria, for a great many ages together, was the greatest to them, he proposed to make a translation of their law into the chool of learning in all those parts of the world; until, in the Greek language, for which he desired them to send a proper var which the Alexandrians had with Aurelian the Roman em- number of such men as he knew were qualified for the underberor, all that quarter of the city where the museum stood was taking.”. In answer to which, Eleazar acknowledges the lestroyed, and with it this college of learned men dissolved. – receipt of his most gracious letter, and of the valuable presents Prideaux's Connection, anno 285.
which he had sent; and, in return promises, that the people This library was at first placed in the museum; but, when should not fail to pray to God daily for the protection of his perwas filled with books to the number of 400,000 volumes, there son, and the prosperity of his royal family, and that, pursuant tas another library erected within the Serapeum, or the famous to his commands, he had sent an authentic copy of the law, and +mple where the image of Serapis was set up, which increased in six men out of each tribe to assist in the translation of it.me to the number of 300,000 volumes, and these two put together Jewish Hist. b. xii. c. 2. jade up the number of 700,000 volumes in the whole, of which d Those who would see more at large what are the opinions of le royal libraries of the Ptolemean kings at Alexandria are said learned men concerning the Septuagint, and the account which consist. Their manner of collecting them was not so very Aristæas gives of the manner in which it was done, may consult nourable ; for whatever books were brought by any foreigner the critics who have expressly handled this matter, such as Scato Egypt, these they seized, and sending them to the museum, liger, Usher, Wallon, Frassen, Dupin, Valdal, Hody, Calmet, here they maintained people for that purpose, they caused them Whiston, and Prideaux in his Connection, anno 277.
be transcribed, and then sent the copies to the owners, but e After the death of his beloved wife Arsinoe, Ptolemy did not id up the originals in the library. When Julius Cæsar waged long survive her: for, being of a tender constitution himself
, and ir with the Alexandrians, it só happened, that the library in having farther weakened it by a luxurious indulgence, he could not e Brachium was burned, and the 400,000 yolumes that were bear the approach of age, or the grief of mind which he fell und up there were all consumed. But that of the Serapeum der upon this occasion; but, sinking under these burdens, hu died, I remained, and soon grew to be larger, and of more eminent in the sixty-third year of his life, after he had reigned in Egypt le than the former; but at length, in the year of our Lord 642, thirty-eight years. As he was a learned prince, himself, and a en the Saracens made themselves masters of the city, they great patron of learning, many of those who were eminent for ally destroyed it. For, when the general of the army wrote any part of literature resorted to him from all parts, and partook Omar, who was then the caliph or emperor of the Saracens, of his favour and bounty. Seven celebrated poets of that age are know his pleasure concerning it, his answer was," that is said to have lived at his court: four of which, namely, Theocrise books contained what was a greeing with the Alcoran, there tus, Callimachus, Lycophron, and Aratus, have their works still i no need of them, because the Alcoran alone was sufficient remaining; and, among these, the first of them has a whole all truth; but if they contained what was disagreeing with Idyllium, and the second, part of two hymns, written in his they were not to be endured:” and therefore he ordered, that praise. Manetho, the Egyptian historian, dedicated his history itsoever the contents of them were, they should all be de- to him; and Zoilus the snarling critic, came also to his court; yed.-- Prideaux's Connection, anno 285.
but how great soever his wit was, he could never recommend Josephus hath given us both Ptolemy's letter to Eleazar, himself to king Ptolemy, who hated him for the bitterness and
Eleazar's answer at large; but whether these pieces are ill-nature of it: and, for the same reason, having drawn on himwine or no, is a matter of some dispute among the learned. self the odium and aversion of all men, he at length died misery are too long, however, to be here inserted; but the sub-ably; for some say that he was stoned; others that he was burned ce of the letter is,—" That both Ptolemy and his father to death; and others again, that he was crucified by king Ptolebeen extremely kind to the Jews; his father, in placing them my, for a crime that deserved that punishment.--Prideaux's ffices of trust; and himself, in redeeming great numbers of Connection, anno 249.
A. M, 3596. A. C.408; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 5070. A. C. 341. 1 MAC. i–vi. 7. 2 MAC. —x. JOS. HIST. D. xi. c. 7–6. xii. e. 14. name was Joseph, a young man of great reputation set out for Alexandria ; and falling in upon the road among the Jews, for prudence, justice, and sanctity of with several of the chief nobility of Colo-Syria and life. He, as soon as he heard of the message, which Phænicia, whose business at court was to farm the royal Athenion had brought, and of the people's great con- revenues of these provinces, he joined company with sternation thereupon, went immediately to his uncle, and them, and having learned from their discourse of what severely upbraided him with his ill management of the value these revenues were, he made use of that intellipublic interest, who, for the lucre of a little money, had gence afterwards, both to his own and the king's adexposed the whole nation to such imminent danger, vantage. which now there was no way to avoid, as he told him, When they all arrived at Alexandria, the king was gone but by his going immediately to the Egyptian court, and, to Memphis ; ( so that Joseph made haste thither, and by a timely application to the king there, endeavouring had the good fortune to meet him, the queen, and Atheto pacify his wrath.
nion, all in the same chariot, returning to Alexandria. The bare mentioning of a journey to Alexandria a so The king, upon Athenion's signifying who he was, called terrified the high priest, that upon his declaring, that he him into the chariot; and having mentioned his uncle's would quit his station both in church and state, rather ill-usage, in not paying him his tribute, he was therethan undertake it, Joseph offered, with his permission, upon entertained with so handsome an apology for that and the people’s approbation to go in his stead. In the neglect, which he chiefly imputed to his uncle's old age, mean time he took care to entertain Athenion at his own and other infirmities, that he not only satisfied the king, house, as long as he continued in Jerusalem, in a very but gave him withal so good an opinion of the advocate, splendid and magnificent manner : when he departed, that, when they came to Alexandria, he ordered him to he presented him with several very valuable gifts; and be lodged in the palace, and entertained at his expense. 80 sent him away in a good disposition, to make as fa- When the day of farming out the revenues to the best vourable a representation to the king as the case would bidder was come, the Syrian and Phænician noblemen, bear, until himself should come to the Egyptian court, in with whom Joseph had travelled to Alexandria, beat order to give him a full satisfaction.
down their price, and would give no more for all the Athenion was so taken with this prudent behaviour, duties of Cælo-Syria, Phænicia, Judea, and Samaria, and kind entertainment of Joseph, that when he came to than eight thousand talents : but Joseph having found give the king a report of his embassy, he could not but fault with them for undervaluing the king's revenues, mention his name with pleasure ; and when he told him of offered to give twice as much, even exclusive of the forhis intentions to come and wait upon him himself, he set feitures, which used before to belong to the farmers; forth his character with so much advantage, that the king and was thereupon admitted to be the king's receiverexpressed a desire to see him. In a short time Joseph general of all these provinces.
Upon the credit of this employment, he borrowed at a This city, which was built by Alexander the Great, A.M. Alexandria five hundred talents, wherewith he satisfied 3673, was, after his death, made the capital of Egypt, by Ptole the king for his uncle's arrears; and having received a my and his successors, for almost 300 years. Dinocrates, who guard of two thousand men, to support him in the collecrebuilt the temple of Diana at Ephesus, after it had been burned tion of the duties, he left Alexandria, and immediately by Erostratus, was the architect who drew the plan of it, and had the chief direction of the work; but to have it carried on with entered upon it. In some places he met with opposi. more expedition, Alexander appointed Cleomenes, one of his tion, and very opprobrious language ; but having ordered captains to be the surveyor of it; anid for this reason, Justin (b. the chief ringleaders to be seized, and exemplary justice xiii
. c. 4.) calls him the founder of it. The happy situation of to be executed upon them, he bereby so terrified the rest, this city between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, and upon that they readily paid him his demands without any mo. the river Nile, drew thither the commerce of the east and west, and made it in a very little time one of the most flourishing cities lestation. And in this office he continued for the space in the world. It has still some small repute for merchandise; of two and twenty years, under Ptolemy Euergetes, and but what has occasioned the decay of its trade, is the discovery of the passage to the East Indies by the Cape of Good Hope, on the south of Africa. Before this discovery the whole spice trade 6 This was a very famous city, and, till the time of the Ptowas carried into this part of the world through this city; for the lemies, who removed to Alexandria, the place of residence for spices were brought from the East Indies, up the Red Sea to the ancient kings of Egypt. It was situated above the parting Egypt, and from thence were carried by land on camels to Alex- of the river Nile, where the Della begins. Towards the south andria. When Egypt became a province of the Roman empire, of this city stood the famous pyramids, two of which were this city continued the metropolis of it, and when the Arabians esteemed the wonders of the world; and, in this city, was fed the took it, which was about 640
years after Christ, there were 4000 ox Apis, which Cambyses slew in contempt of the Egyptius palaces still standing in it, 4000 bagnios, 40,000 Jews paying worshipping it as a god. The kings of Egypt took great piste tribute, 400 squares, and 12,000 persons that sold herbs and sure in adorning this city; and in all its beauty it continue fruits. Here, as we said, was the famous Serapeum, or temple till the Arabians made a conquest of Egypt under the Caliph of Serapis, for beauty of workmanship and magnificence of struc-Omar. The general who took it built another city just by ture, inferior to nothing but the Roman capitol. Here was the which was called Fustat, because his tent
had been a long time museum, or college of philosophers: and here that noble library, set up in that place, and the Caliph's Fatamites, when they ben which was erected by Ptolemy Philadelphus, but unhappily came masters of Egypt, added another to it, which is known burned in the war between Cæsar and Pompey, but notwith us at this day by the name of Grand Cairo. The Mameluke standing all its former splendour and
magnificence, this city is Sultans, of the dynasty of the Carcassians, having afterward now become a poor village, by the Egyptians called Rachot, built a strong fort on the eastern shore of the Nile, did, by die without any thing remarkable in it, except its ruins, and the re- grees, annex a city to it, which came to be called the New Cart mains of its former grandeur ; only without the city, Pompey's as what the Fatamites had built was called the Old; but it is pillar, the shalt whereof is six fathoms high, all of one piece of be observed, that the ancient Memphis stood an the western curious granite, is justly admired as one of the finest columns that shore of the Nile, whereas whatever the Arabians have there is any where to be seen.-Calmet's Dictionary under the word; built
, from time to time, is on the eastern shore of that river") and Wells' Geography of the New Testament,
Calmet's Dictionary, under the word.