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A. M. 3596 A. C. 408; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A, M. 5070, A. C. 341. 1 MAC. i–vi. 7. 2 MAC.iii—, JOS. HIST.b. xi.c.7_b. xii.e 14, room, having his deputy on his right hand, and his sub-fore they sentenced him to be stoned ' according to the deputy on his left. The senators were ranged in order law. on each side ; and the secretaries who were to record St Paul himself declares before this very court, that the matters that came before them, were three ; whereof before his conversion to Christianity, Rhe “persecuted one wrote the sentences of those that were absolved, those of that way’unto death, and 'received letters from the other had the condemnations under his care, and the the estates of the elders,' or the sanhedrim, to bring third entered into their books the several pleadings of Christians from Damascus to Jerusalem in bonds, in all contending parties.

order to be punished.' Tertullus, who, in the trial of this The vanity and ridiculous pride of the rabbins appear apostle, was council for the sanhedrim, o tells Felix, the in nothing more, than in the excessive power which they governor of Judea, that having apprehended the criminal give to this high-court of judicature. For, according to at the bar, they thought to have proceeded against him them, it not only decided such cases as were brought according to their law; but that the chief captain, Ly. before it by way of appeal from other inferior courts, sias, came upon them, and took him out of their hands.' but had under its jurisdiction likewise a the king, the The true reason why Lysias exerted his power upon high priest, and prophets. The king, for instance, if this occasion, and took him out of their hands, was, behe offended against the law, if he married above eighteen cause they had accused him, not only of blasphemy, and wives, if he kept too many horses, if he hoarded up too profanation of their temple, but of sedition likewise, much gold or silver, the sanhedrim had him stripped which was a crime falling more properly under the cog. and whipped in their presence. But whipping, it seems, nizance of the civil government, and for which Paul was among the Jews ? was not so ignominious a thing, but therefore brought before Felix, Festus, and Agrippa. that the king bore it by way of penance, with great pa- "" So that from an examination of these particulars, wheretience, and himself made choice of the person that was in the power of the sanhedrim was concerned, we may to exercise this discipline upon him. However this be, conclude, that even after the subjection of the Jewish it is certain, that all private controversies of difficult state to the Roman empire, this sanhedrim had the discussion, all matters relating to religion, and all im- power of life and death in crimes committed against their portant affairs of state, were submitted to the determina- own law; but that in matters of sedition, and crimes tion of this august assembly, from whose sentence no committed against the civil administration, the Roman appeal could be made, because a demurring to the juris- governors interposed their authority, and in cases of this diction of their court was punished by death, that is, nature took the dispensation of justice out of their hands. while the power of life and death was in their hands; What formality was observed in bringing a lawsuit but how long this lasted, after that Judea became a Ro- before the sanhedrim, Maimonides has in this manner man province, has been a matter of some dispute among described :—“The business," says he,“ was first to be the learned.

examined in the inferior courts; but if it could not be Josephus ' tells us expressly, that the senate and em- decided there, the judges sent to Jerusalem to consult perors of Rome took no ancient rights from the nations the judgment-chamber, that sat upon the mount of the whom they conquered ; and by the words of Pilate con- temple. From this first tribunal they proceeded to that cerning our Saviour Christ, " Take ye him and judge which sat at the temple gate ; and if the matter was not him according to your law,' it seems, as though they determined there, they came at last to the great council still retained their power, though perhaps it might be chamber, which was held in one of the apartments beunder some limitations.

longing to the temple ; and this last council determined Upon St Peter's speech before the great council, we with so much justice and authority, that there were to find them so exasperated against the apostles, that they divisions seen, during all the time that the second temple began to think of putting them all to death, and might, | lasted.” And what caution was taken, in passing the very probably, have proceeded in their design, had they sentence of death upon criminals, by the same tribunal, not been dissuaded from it by the wise advice of Gama- the Jewish doctors (if we will believe them) have thus liel. The stoning of St Stephen was not the effect of any informed us.—“ After the witnesses were heard, and the hasty judgment of some zealots, but of the regular pro- matter in question decided, the judge put off the sentence ceedings of this court. He was brought before the till next morning. Hereupon the sanhedrim went home, council,' we read ; false witnesses accusing him of blas- eat but little, drank no wine, and then met again, two phemy were produced against him; in his own defence, by two, in order to weigh all the particulars of the trial

. he made a long discourse ; but his own defence was not The next morning, he that had given his opinion for admitted, nor his innocence acknowledged ; and there condemning of the criminal, had power to revoke it ; but

he who had once given it for absolving him, could not 1 Calmet's Dissertation on the Government of the Hebrews. alter bis mind. As soon as the judge had pronounced 2 Calmet's Dictionary, under the word Sanhedrim.

sentence, the malefactor was conducted to the place of 3 Against Apion. Jewish Antiq. book ii. c. 17. * John xviii, 31. 5 Acts v. 29, &c.

execution, while an herald, on horseback, proclaimed,

6 Acts vi, 22, &c. a This is directly the opinion of Maimonides, (in Sanhed. as he went along, such an one is condemned for such per

. 2, 3.), but that learned rabbi was strangely prejudiced in a crime ; but if any body can allege any thing in his favour of this great council ; and though Josephus is of the same behalf, let him speak. If it happened that any one opinion, yet to allow such an extent of jurisdiction to this court,

came to the gate of the court, the door-keeper made a so as to inflict corporal punishment upon the persons of their kings, is contrary to the general notions of sovereignty, and the sign to the herald to bring back the malefactor, wbile laws of all kingdoms and nations ; besides that the Holy Scriptures are absolutely silent in this particular, and nothing can be ? Deut. xvii. 7. & Acts xxii, 4, &c. 9 Chap. xxiv. 6. 7. inferred from them, to countenance such a coercive power.- 10 See Beausobre and L'enfant's Gen, Pref, to the New Test Lewis's Bebrer Antiq. vol. i. c. 6.

Basnage's History of the Jews, b. 5. c. 2.


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A.M.3841. A.C.163; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A.M.5247. A.C.164 1 MAC.v.1. JOS. HIST.b. xii. c. 14-END of MAC. JOS, HIST.b. xii.c.19. two judges were appointed to receive what his friend had, weak at present to contest it with him, fed into Egypt, to say in his favour, and to consider whether there was in hopes of procuring some assistance there, which any thing material in it.

would enable him at one time or other to make good his These formalities are indeed related in the Mishneh; claim. but it is much to be questioned, whether they were not Not long after the death of Epiphanes, Judas Macinventod since, on purpose to recommend the justice and cabæus, hearing of the confederacy which the neighbourequity of the ancient Jewish tribunals. For, besides ing nations were engaged in, namely, to destroy and that no other nation did ever yet observe such favourable extirpate the whole race of Israel, and that they had proceedings, in relation to those that were found guilty, already begun to cut off as many as were within their there is not the least mention of any thing of this kind power, 4 marched first against the Idumæans, who were in the sacred history; and in the Talmud itself we meet the forwardest in the conspiracy, and having fallen into with maxims and matter of fact quite contrary to it. that part of their country which was called Acrabatene," For therein we are told, that though a prisoner declare he there slew twenty thousand of them. He next fell upon oath, at the place of execution, that he was inno- upon the children of Bean, ' another tribe of these cent, and in confirmation of this the false witnesses re

Idumæans, and having vanquished them in the field, canted; yet the judges took no notice of their retraction, pursued them to their fortresses, which he besieged,

took, but only said, “ Let the false witnesses perish; but a and therein slew twenty thousand niore.

He then pasjudge cannot recall his sentence, when once it is pro- sed over the Jordan into the land of the Ammonites, nounced.”

wherein he defeated thein in several engagements; slew Upon the whole therefore we may observe, that what great numbers of them ; took Jahazah, ` and its appenthe Jewish doctors tell us of the origin and succession,

dant villages; and after his return to Judea, when Tithe authority and proceedings of their sanhedrim, is in motheus, the governor in those parts, pretended to follow a great measure fabulous ; that the council of seventy

him with a numerous army, he fell upon him, and overmen, which God instituted in the wilderness, was de

threw him with a great slaughter, so that himself was signed only to serve a particular purpose, and was there

forced to fly to Gazara, a city in the tribe of Ephraim, fore of short continuance in the Jewish state ; that from where his brother Chereas was governor : but Judas, the time of Joshua till after the return from the Baby

pursuing him thither, beset the place, took it in five days, lonish captivity, there are no footsteps to be found, either and there slew Chereas, Timotheus, and Apollophanes, in sacred or profane history, of such an assembly, as the

another great captain of the Syrian forces. rabbins represent their sanhedrim to have been; but

In the mean time, the heathen nations about Galaad that in the times of the Maccabees we read of the senate

6 had fallen upon the Jews that dwelt in the land of of the nation, which, under the Asmonæan princes, grew

Tob, which lay on the east of Gilead ; had slain to the into great power, and in the days of our Saviour's min

number of a thousand men ; taken their goods for a spoil; istry, had matters of the highest consequence committed

and carried away their wives and children into captivity: to their determination; till in the final destruction of whereupon most of the other Jews inhabiting those parts Jerusalem, and the dispersion of the Jewish nation, the

betook themselves to a strong fortress in Gilead, called very name and authority of that senate was entirely lost.

Dathema, with a resolution to defend themselves. This when the heathens understood they drew together, in a

great body, under the command of Timotheus, the sucSECT. IV.

cessor, and (very probably) the son, of the late Timo

theus, who was slain at Gazara, in order to besiege them, CHAP. I.- From the Death of Antiochus Epiphanes, while the inhabitants of Tyre, Sidon, Ptolemais, and to that of John Hyrcanus.

other parts thereabout, were laying their schemes to cut off all the Jews that were in Galilee ; so that Judas was sent to, both from Gilead and Galilee, to come to the succour and assistance of his

distressed countrymen. After the death of Antiochus Epiphanes, his son Antiochus Eupator, a minor , nine years old, succeeded in the Sanhedrim, or general council of the nation; and, by

. In this critical juncture of affairs he consulted the throne of Syria. His father, upon his death-bed, had constituted Philip, one of his chief favourites, regent of their advice, divided his army into three parts. With the kingdom, during the minority of his son, and had the first, which consisted of eight thousand men, he, and delivered to him his crown, his signet, and other ensigns

31 Mac. v. I, &c. 42 Mac. x. 14, 15. 51 Mac, v. 4, 5 of royalty, giving bim strict charge to educate him in

61 Mac, v. 9-13. ? Ibid. ver. 16, 17. such a manner as would quality him to reign well; but

a It is a canton of Judea, upon the frontiers of Idumæa, toPhilip, when he came to Antioch, found his office usurped wards the southern extremity of the Dead Sea. by another. For Lysias, who in the king's absence was 6 Who these children of Bean were, it is difficult to say. left governor in chief, hearing of the death of Epiphanes, Some think, that this Bean was the name of an ancient king, took Antiochus his son, who was then under his care, and, but others (with more probability) account it the name of a place;

whose descendants lived in hostility with the children of Israel ; having placed him on the throne, assumed to himself the

and if in the confines of the Dead Sea there was, as some affirm, a tuition of his person, and the government of his kingdom, city of this name, without all controversy this was it.—Calmets without any manner of regard to the will and appoint- Commentary on 1 Mac. v. 4.

c This city, which lay beyond the Jordan, was first of all ment of the late king: and Philip, finding himself too

given to the tribe of Gad, and afterwards to the Levites, Josh.

xxi. 36. It was situated at the foot of the mountains of Gilead, 1 Ex Gemara, tit. Sanhed, c. 6. f. 4.

near the brook Jazah, which forms a rivulet or torrent, that falls ? 1 Mac, vi. 17; 2 Mac. X. 10,11; Joseph. Antia. b. 12. c. 14. | into the Jordan,

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A.M.3841. A.C. 163; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A.M.5247. A.C. 164.1 MAC. v. 1 JOS.HIST.b. xii.c. 14-end of MAC, JOS, HIST. b. xii.c.19. Jonathan his brother, marched for the relief of the Gilead-foot, and sixteen hundred horse, put the rest of his army ites : with the second, consisting of three thousand, Si- to fight : so that Lysias, who with much ado escaped to mion, another of his brothers, was sent into Galilee ; and Antioch, growing weary of so unprosperous a war, and not the rest were left at Jerusalem, under the command of knowing where to raise fresh recruits, made a peace with Joseph, for the defence of the place, and the country Judas and his people, whereby the decree of Antiochus adjacent, but with a strict charge from Judas, not to en- Epiphanes, obliging them to conform to the religion of terprise any thing against the enemy, but to stand wholly the Greeks, was rescinded, and a liberty granted them upon the defensive, until he and Simon should return to live according to their own laws. again.

This peace was ratified by Antiochus Eupator, but it Judas and Jonathan passing the Jordan, and march did not last long, ' because the governors of the several ing into Gilead, had intelligence, that, at Bassora, a neighbouring places did not like it. The people of town of the Edomites, a great number of Jews were im- Joppa were the first that broke it, by drowning in the sea prisoned, in order to be destroyed, as soon as Dathema two hundred of the Jews, who lived among them in that was taken : whereupon, by hasty marches, they came city; but Judas severely revenged their cruelty: for, upon the city sooner than was expected, and, having slain falling upon them by night, he burned their shipping, put all the males, taken their spoils, and freed their brethren, all to the sword that had escaped the fire, and then hearthey set it on fire, and so proceeded on their way to ing that the people of Jamnia had but badly treated the Dathema. On the morning, when they arrived, (for they Jews, he set fire to that haven likewise, and burned all marched all night,) Timotheus and his men had begun the ships in it. to storm the place; but Judas, coming upon them when Timotheus was one of the govemors that was dissatisthey little expected so sudden and violent an assault, fied with the peace; and therefore, when Judas underput them all to the rout, and, in the pursuit, slew eight stood that he had drawn all his forces together, to the thousand of them. He thence marched his army from number of an hundred and twenty thousand foot, and two place to place, where he understood that any Jews were thousand five hundred horse ; and that he was going to oppressed or imprisoned ; and having treated them in give the Jews in Gilead fresh vexations, he marched the same manner as he did Bassora, slain all the males, against him; and, having defeated a strong party of wantaken their spoils, and set their cities on fire, he returned dering Arabs a in his way, and made peace with them, to Jerusalem.

he first took the city of Caspis, slew the inhabitants, While Judas and his brother Jonathan were thus suc- and destroyed the place; then attacked Caraca, which cessful in Gilead, the other brother Simon was not idle was garrisoned with ten thousand men, whom he put to in Galilee. For he defeated the enemy ? in several en- the sword; and, at last, coming up with Timotheus

, counters, drove them out of the country, and pursued near a place called Raphon, on the river Jabboc, be them, with a great slaughter, to the very gates of Ptole- there gave him battle, slew of his army thirty thousand mais: and, being now ready to return, he took along men, and 'took him prisoner ; but, upon condition that he with him all the Jews, men, women, and children, that should release all the Jews that were captives in any he could find in those parts, because he thought them too places under his command, he gave him both his life and far distant from Jerusalem to be under the eye and pro- his liberty. Understanding, however, that a great part tection of their brethren; and, having brought them safe of the vanquished army had fled to Carnion, a city in into Judea, with them he repeopled these places which Arabia, he pursued them thither, and having taken the had been desolated by the enemy, during the persecution place, slew twenty-five thousand more of Timotheus's of Antiochus Epiphanes.

forces, that had there taken refuge. * Joseph, who, with the remainder of the army, was In bis return to Jerusalem, he took along with his left in Jerusalem, hearing of these great successes in all the Jews that were in the land of Gilead, for the Gilead and Galilee, would needs be doing something; same reason that Simon had carried them out of the and therefore, contrary to the orders that had been given land of Galilee the year before, namely, to inhabit and him, led forth the forces on an ill-projected expedition fortify the cities of Judea, which were not sufficiently against Jamnia, a seaport on the Mediterranean, think peopled : ' but being in his way to pass through Ephron, ' ing to take the place : but Gorgias, who commanded in those parts for the king of Syria, fell upon Joseph's 52 Mac. xii. 2, &c. 6 1 Mac, v. 37, &c.; 2 Mac. xii. 20—23. army, put them to flight, and, in the pursuit, slew about

1 2 Mac. xi. 24, 25. two thousand of them ; which rash attempt ended in the

$ 1 Mac, v. 46, &c.; 2 Mac. xii. 27, 28. confusion of those that undertook it; for Judas had given a These people lived in tents, and stayed in a place no longer contrary orders, and by his wise conduct, and undaunted than it afforded them provision for themselves and their cattle.

They were the descendants of Ishmael, and according to the bravery, was every where attended with success.

angel's prediction of them (Gen. xvi. 12.) 'their hand was against Enraged at these successes, Lysias, * who was com- every man, and every man's hand against them;' for they lived mander-in-chief of the Syrian forces, having raised an chiefly upon plundur; but as they were a stout and warlike per army of eighty thousand men, marched against Judas, ple, and well acquainted with the course of those countries, it with all the horse of the kingdom, and eighty elephants ; to sue for peace, and had obliged them to furnish him with:

was no bad policy in the Jewish general, after he had forced thes and coming to Bethzura, thought it necessary to take certain quantity of cattle and provisions, to secure their friend that place in his way; but while he was besieging it, ship and future services.—2 Mac. xii. 11; Universal History, Judas came upon him, and having slain eleven thousand b. 2. c. 11.

6 This is the same as Hesbon, in the tribe of Reuben.

C The Scripture makes mention of this city of Ephrem, 5 "Mac, v. 21, &c.

Sid. ver, 21, &c. standing upon the Jordan, only in this place; and therefore it is Ibid. ver. 55, &c. * 2 Mac. xi. 1, &c.

hard to define its particular situation.

A. M.3841. A.C.163; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A.M. 5247.A.C.164.1 MAC.v.1. JOS.HIST.b. xt1.c.14—END OF MAC. JOS.HIST. b.xlll.c. 19. a strong city, and well garrisoned by Lysias, the people the rest, • armed with royal harness, and supposing refused to open their gates ; whereupon he assaulted the thereby that the king was upon it, at once, both to deliplace, and, having taken it by storm, put all the males, ver his country, and gain himself immortal honour, he to the number of twenty-five thousand persons, to the made at it with all his might; and having slain every one sword, took their spoils, and razed the city to the ground. that stood in his way, got under its belly, and thrust his After this, repassing Jordan, and returning to Jerusa- spear into it, so that the creature fell down dead, but lem, ' he and his company went up to the temple, to give unhappily crushed him to death by its weight in the fall. God thanks for the great success wherewith he had been At length, after having slain about six hundred of the pleased to prosper this expedition, and for his singular king's forces, perceiving that they must be overpowered and wonderful protection of them, in that, notwithstand-by so great a number, they withdrew from the fight, and ing all the hazardous enterprises they had been engaged made a safe retreat to Jerusalem. Antiochus followed in, they had not so much as lost one man.

after with one part of his army, but left the other to carry This continued series of success gave Judas ? encou- on the siege of Bethzura, which the inhabitants, seeing ragement to carry the war into the southern parts of Idu- no prospect of relief from their friends, were forced to mæa, where he took and dismantled Hebron, the metro- surrender. From Bethzura the king's forces ? marched polis thereof: and thence passing into the land of the to Jerusalem, where Judas had shut himself up, and his Philistines, took Azotus, formerly called Ashdod ; pulled friends, in the temple. They defended the place with down their heathen altars, burned their carved images, great resolution, but must inevitably have been compelled and spoiled the place; and having done the like to all to surrender, had they not been relieved by this lucky the other cities of that country, where he prevailed, he and unexpected accident. led his victorious army, laden with the spoils of their In the absence of the king, and the regent Lysias, enemies, back again to Judea.

that Philip, whom, as we said before, Antiochus EpiBut, notwithstanding all these successes, the Jews phanes, at his death, constituted guardian of his son, had could not call themselves entirely masters of Jerusalem. made himself master of Antioch, and taken upon him the The fortress of Acra a still held out for the king of Syria, government of the Syrian empire. 8 Upon the receipt and the garrison, consisting of Macedonians and rene- of this news, Lysias found it necessary to make peace gado Jews, was very troublesome to such as resorted to with the Jews, that he might be at liberty to return, and the temple. Judas therefore thought it highly necessary expel the intruder. Accordingly a peace was granted to attempt the reduction of the place; and having got them upon honourable and advantageous terms, and ratiengines a and machines for that purpose, he soon strait-fied by oath; but when Antiochus came to see the strength ened the garrison. The besieged, however, found means of the fortifications belonging to the temple, he caused to acquaint king Antiochus with their distress, who pro- them, contrary to the articles he had sworn, to be all inised to relieve them, and, for that end, gathered an pulled down and demolished, and then returned towards arny of an hundred and ten thousand foot, twenty thou- Syria, where he found that Philip had seized on the imsand horse, thirty-two elephants, with castles on their perial city; but by one easy battle, wherein Philip was backs full of archers, and three hundred armed chariots worsted and slain, he soon recovered the possession of war. With all this force, Antiochus, marching to the of it. relief of the fortress of Jerusalem, passed through Idu- . In this expedition against Judea, Menelaus, the high mæa, where, in his way, be laid siege to Bethzura, which priest, accompanied Antiochus, and was as busy in offermade a brave defence; for the inhabitants, by bold sal- ing him his service against his own people as any: but lies, so burned and disordered his engines, that he spent falling by some means under the displeasure of Lysias, much time about it to no purpose. Judas all this while he was accused, and condemned, as the author and fopressed the fortress of Acra with all his might; but fear- mentor of this Jewish war, and accordingly was carried ing lest the Bethzurians should be forced to submit to the to Berhæa, a town in Syria, and there cast headlong superior strength of the enemy, he left the siege of it, and went to the relief of them,

6 1 Mac. vi. 47. 1 Ibid, ver. 48, &c. 4 His intent was to surprise the king's forces; and

8 Ibid. ver. 55, 56; 2 Mac. xiii. 23. 9 Ibid. ver. 39. therefore marching in the night, he fell upon one quarter

6 Though elephants have an hide impenetrable almost in every of the army in the dark; killed four thousand of them; part, except their belly, yet for their greater safety, those that

are appointed for the wars, are usually armed and covered all and having put the whole army into confusion, retreated over, as it were with a coat of mail. The kings of India, accordou break of day, without suffering any loss. In the ing to Q. Curtius, (b. 2.) when they took the field, were drawn morning, when both sides prepared for an open battle, by elephants all covered over with gold; and Florus described Judas and his men, with great fierceness, began the onset, the elephants made use of in battles, as brilliant with gold, silver, and did wonders: for Eleazar, ' a brother of Judas, much after the fashion of the war-horse in Virgil: " he pricked

purple, and their own ivory, (h. 2. c. 8.) harnessed, and set out, observing one particular elephant, which was liigher than on his foaming steed, covered over with a skin of brazen scales,

clasped together with gold."-Æn. 11.

c This was one of the punishments of the Persians, whereby 11 Mac. v. 54. ? Ibid, ver. 65–68. 3 Chap. vi. 19, &c. great criminals among them were put to death. The manner of 4 Ibid. ver. 32. 5 2 Mac. xiii. 15, &c.

it is described in the 13th chapter of the second book of the

Maccabees, to be thus: An high tower was filled a great way a These, in Jeremiah vi. 6, are rendered in the margin up with ashes; the criminal, being from the top thrown down • engines of shot,' and, without doubt, resembled in some mea- headlong into them, there had the ashes by a wheel continually sure, the balistæ and catapultæ among the Romans, which were stirred up, and raised about him, till he was suffocated and died. used for throwing stones and arrows, and were to them of old/ Such was the death of that wicked man,' says the author of the instead of mortars and carcasses.-Lewis's Jewish Intiq. b.6. book above cited,' that he had not a burial in the earth, and that c. 46.

very justly,' But then the reason which he gives for this pro

A. M-3841. A.C. 163; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A.M.5247. A.C. 164.1 MAC.K. 1. JOS, HIST.b.xii.c.14 -- END OF MAC. JOS, HIST.b. xii. C, 19. into a tower of ashes ; but after his death, ' Antiochus | and so, without any farther opposition, became thoroughconferred the office of high priest upon one Alcimus, a ly settled in the whole kingdom. man altogether as wicked as the other.

He had not been long so settled, before Alcimus, who, All this while Antiochus Eupater held the crown of on the death of Menelaus, had by Antiochus Eupater Syria, by an unjust title ; for Demetrius, the son of Se- been constituted high priest of the Jews, but was never leucus Philopater, elder brother to Antiochus Epiphanes, acknowledged as such, because in the time of persecuwas the legal heir thereof. He, in exchange for his un- tion he had apostatised, came, and implored his proteccle Antiochus, had been sent an hostage to Rome, the tion against Judas Maccabæus and his party ; accusing very year that his father died; and Antiochus returning them of being enemies to the kings of Syria, fomentors at the very nick of time, was unanimously declared king, of sedition, and murderers and persecutors of his most in the absence and minority of the rightful heir. But faithful subjects. By this representation Denetrius was Demetrius, being now in the twenty-third year of his age, so exasperated that she immediately ordered Bacchides, when his uncle died, and his son Eupater, who was ap- the governor of Mesopotamia, to march with an army into pointed king in his room, a thought it high time to put Judea ; and having confirmed Alcimus in the office of in his claim ; and accordingly moved the senate of Rome high priest, joined him in the same commission for carfor their assistance in the recovery of his father's king- rying on the war in Judea. dom; and as an inducement thereunto, he alleged, that No sooner were they arrived in Judea, with a consi. having been bred up in that city from his childhood,“ he derable body of troops, but the scribes and doctors of should always look on Rome as bis country, the senators the law met together, and consulted what they were to as his fathers, and their sons as his brothers.” But the do upon this occasion. Very desirous they were to have senate having more regard to their own interest, than an high priest again settled among them, and not at all the right of Demetrius, and judging it more to their suspicious that any of the sons of Aaron would do thema advantage to have a boy reign in Syria, as Eupater then any wrong; and therefore upon promise of safe conduct, was, than a man of mature understanding, as they knew they waited upon them, in order to bring matters to a Demetrius to be, instead of asserting his right, to whom peaceable accommodation : but the perfidious Alcimus, it belonged, they confirmed Eupater in the kingdom. having got them in his power, caused sixty of them to

Demetrius being excluded from all hopes of any fa- be seized, and all put to death on one day, which made vour or assistance from the senate, had nothing left to the people more cautious of him for the future. do, but to endeavour to make his escape from Rome, Bacchides, however, returning to Antioch, put Aldiand to risk his fortune in his own country: this he did ; mus in possession of the country, and left him some forces 2 and landing at 'Tripolis in Syria, made it believed that to support him in it. With these the wicked high priest he was sent by the Roman senate, which would support did much mischief, and committed many murders upen his pretensions, to take possession of the kingdom. those that were not for him : but as soon as Judas, with Hereupon Eupater's cause, being in the general opinion his men, appeared in the field again, he left the country given up for lost, every one deserted from him to Deme- for fear, and returned to the king with fresh accusations trius; nay, the very soldiers seized on him, and the re- against him and his brothers, who, as long as they were gent Lysias, with an intent to deliver them up to this permitted to live, as he told him, would never suffer the new comer, as soon as he arrived at Antioch ; but he re- king's authority to take place, nor any lasting peace is fusing to see them, ordered them both to be put to death, be established in the country. So that, upon this repre.

sentation, Demetrius

sent another arniy against the

Jews, under the command of Nicanor, with strict orders 12 Mac. xiv. 3; Jewish Antiq. b. xii. c. 15. 2 1 Mac. vii. 1, &c.; 2 Mac. xiv. 1, 2; Joseph. Antiq. b. xii. establish Alcimus in the high priest's office.

to destroy Judas, disperse his followers, and thoroughly c. 16; Justin, b. xxxiv, c, 3.

Nicanor was not insensible of the courage and condix vidential judgment upon him is very light and trifling: foras of Judas; and therefore, loath to come to an engara much as he had committed many sins about the altar, whose fire and ashes were holy, he received his death in ashes,' v. 7, 8.- ment with him, he endeavoured to compose matters by a Prideaux's Connection, anno 424.

treaty, and accordingly entered into articles of peace a What excited him the rather to do it at this time, was the with him : but the high priest, not liking the peace, bemurder of Cn. Octavius: for the Roman senate having sent three

cause his interest, as he imagined, was not sufficiently ambassadors into Syria, whereof Octavius was chief, to administer the affairs of the nation, during the minority of the king, secured in it, went, the third time to the king, and so these ambassadors, finding that there were more ships in the navy, possessed him against it, that he refused to ratify ukat and more elephants in the army, than the treaty made with Antiochus the Great, after the battle of Mount Siphilus, allowed of; nor, to go on with the war, and not cease proserut

was agreed, and sent his positive commands to Niccaused the ships to be burned, and the elephants to be slain, that exceeded the number stipulated. This occasioned great muring it, until he had either slain Judas, or takes him murings and discontent among the people, and provoked one prisoner, and sent him bound to Antioch. Upon these Leptines to such a degree of indignation, that he fell upon Octa- these instructions, Nicanor being obliged, though much vius, as he was anointing himself in the gymnasium at Laodicea, against his will, to alter his conduct, marched his army and there slew him. Eupater and Lysias did all they could to clear themselves from having any hand in this vile act, and to 31 Mac, vii, 8—20.

* 1 Mac, vü, 23, 24. this purpose sent ambassadors to Rome to inform the senate of

5 Ibid, ver. 26—29. 2 Mac. xiv. 12-25. their innocence; but the senate, after having heard what the am

61 Mac. vii. 26-29. bassadors had to say, gave them no answer, expressing their re- 6 These, in all probability, were a deputation from the great sentment by their angry silence; and therefore Demetrius thought sanhedrim, which, at this time, had the government of the this no improper time to move the senate, when he perceived tion in their hands; and why Judas, who was at the head of them thus out of humour with Eupater, the usurper of his king- them, did not think proper to accompany them, the reason dom.--- Prideaux's Connection, anno 162.

pretty obvious.-Calmet's Commentary on 1 Mac. vii, 12.

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