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A. M3841. A.C.163 ; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A.M.5247. A.C.16., 1 MAC.v.1. JOS. HIST.b.xii.c.14-END OP MAC.JOS. HIST.6.xii.c.19. ing fortified Mount Acra, and the neighbouring towns, well supported by foreign powers, seized Ptolemais, a and put garrisons in them, he took hostages for the city of Palestine, and was making preparations to drive fidelity of the inhabitants, and so returned to Syria : " Demetrius out of the throne. On this occasion the two but, before he departed, Alcimus, the great troubler of rival princes did both make their court to Jonathan, as Israel, and whom he had, not long before, settled in the thinking him a good ally: Demetrius ' sent him letters, high-priesthood, was smitten with a palsy, whereof he constituting him his general in Judea, with full authority suddenly died; so that the land had rest for two years, to raise forces, and to provide them with arms to come and Jonathan an opportunity of bringing his affairs to to his assistance, and commanding, at the same time, some better settlement in Judea.

that the hostages, which were in the fortress of Jerusa* The adverse party, however, was not long easy ;| lein, should be delivered to him; which accordingly was but, at the end of two years, prevailed with Bacchides done. Alexander, on the other hand, c having sent him to return with his army into Judea, proposing to seize a purple robe and a crown of gold, as ensigns of great Jonathan, and all his abettors, as soon as he was arrived dignity, made him a grant of the high-priesthood, and of with his forces to support the enterprise : but when the honour to be called the king's friend. Demetrius Jonathan had intelligence of this, he laid hold on fifty hearing of this, and being resolved to outbid Alexof the principal conspirators, and put them to death, ander, made him still more advantageous offers: but the which quelled all the rest. Being sensible, however, Jews, remembering what a bitter enemy he had been to that he could not stand against so great a force as all those that had adhered to the true interest of their Bacchides had brought against him, he retired to Beth- country, and suspecting that these offers proceeded only basi, a place strongly situate in the wilderness, and here from the necessity of his affairs, which would certainly he purposed to make a stand against the enemy.

be revoked as soon as the storm was blown over, resolved Bacchides, as soon as he arrived in Judea, went after rather to enter into league with Alexander: and therefore Jonathan; but, upon his approach, Jonathan left Simon Jonathan, accepting of his grant of the high priest's his brother with one part of the forces to defend the place, whilst himself, with the other part, took the field 31 Mac. x. 25, &c.; Joseph. Antiq. b. 13. c. 4. to harass the enemy abroad: in which capacities they

Ibid. x. 15—20. Joseph. Antiq. b. 13. c. 5. both acted so well, Jonathan, by cutting off several of

51 Mac. X. 25, &c.; Joseph, Antiq. b. 13, c. 5. their parties, and now and then falling upon the out- Timarchus, another favourite of the king's, was governer of it; skirts of their army employed in the siege ; and Simon, found guilty of great misdemeanours, for which Timarchus was

but on the coming of Demetrius to the crown, they were both by making frequent sallies upon them, and burning the put to death; but Heraclides made his escape out of the king. engines they had brought against the place; that Bac- dom, and took up his residence at Rhodes. While he was there, chides, ' growing weary of this undertaking, and not a Demetrius, having given himself up entirely to luxury and little enraged at those who were the occasion of his sloth, so neglected the affairs of government, that his subjects

justly took a disgust against him, and were ready to enter into return and disgrace, put several of them to death. This any conspiracy to depose him; which Heraclides understanding, opportunity Jonathan laid hold on, and therefore sent in hopes of making a revolution in favour of himself, he coutrirmessengers to him, to desire an accommodation, which ed this plot.- In the isle of Rhodes there was a youth of a very

mean and obscure condition, called Balas, but, in other respects, Bacchides readily came into, so that a peace was con

every way fit for his purpose. Him he prevailed withi to pass for cluded. The prisoners whom he had in his custody were the son of Antiochus Epiphanes ; and having thorougtily instructall restored, and himself took an oath, never to molest ed him how to act his part, he carried him to Rome, where, by the Jews any more: which accordingly he fulfilled; for his craft and earnest solicitations, he not only prevailed with the as soon as the peace was ratified on both sides he went senate to own him, but procured a decree from them likewise,

permitting him to recover the kingdom of Syria out of the hands away, and never more returned into the country. of Demetrius, and promising their assistance in doing it. B;

When the wars were thus happily ended, Jonathan virtue of this decree he raised forces, and with them sailing to retired to Michmash, a town about nine miles' distance Ptolemais in Palestine, seized that city; and there, by the name to the north of Jerusalem, where he governed the people king of Syria. Great numbers, out of disaffection to Demetrius,

of Alexander, son of Antiochus Epiphanes, took upon him to be according to law; cut off all those that had apostatised flocked to him; so that, at length, Demetrius being defeated and from him ; and, as far as in him lay, reformed all abuses, slain, Alexander obtained the full possession of the Syrian enboth in church and state ; repairing the city of Jerusa- pire... Prideaux's Connection, anno 152. lem; fortifying it on every side, and causing the wall this effect: - King Alexander, to his brother Jonathan, &t.

c The letter which he sent him, together with these, is to round the mount of the temple, which had been pulled Being informed of your power and valour, and that you are down, to be rebuilt.

worthy of friendship, we constitute you high priest of your natic, At this time Alexander, (for that was the name which and it is our pleasure that you should be enrolled in the number he assumed,) pretending to be the son of Antiochus Epi- robe, and a golden crown, not doubting of a suitable return

of the king's friends. To this end we have sent you a parp* phanes, laid claim to the Syrian monarchy; and being from you, for our affection and friendship.-Joseph. Antig. b.

13. c. 5. "1 Mac. ix. c. 59-61.

d From the time of the return from the Babylonish captivity, Mac. ix. 69–73; Joseph. Antiq. b. 12, c. 1, and 2.

the office of bigh priest had been in the family of Jozadach,

and, in a lineal descent, was transmitted down to Onias, the third a It is most likely, that Demetrius had, by this time, received of that name. He was supplanted by Jason his brother, as Jasca the letters which were sent to him by the Romans in behalf of was by his brother Menelaus, and after the death of Mentais, the Jews, and thereupon gave Bacchides orders to surcease his Alcimus, who was of a different family, was put into the dirt vexations of that people; and that, in obedience to these orders, by the command of the king of Syria. Whether the Asmore Bacchides took occasion, on the death of Alcimus, to leave the were of the race of Jozadack, or not, it is no where said; but 3 country.-Prideaux's Connection, anno 160.

is certain that they were of the course of Joarib, (1 Mac. ii. 1., 6 In the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes, one Heraclides was which was the first class of the sons Aaron; and therefore, are his treasurer in the provioce of Buhylon, while his brother the failure of the former pontifical family, they had the best nig

A.M. 3841. A.C. 163; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A.M. 5247. A.C. 164. 1 MAC.v.1. JOS. HIST.b. xii.c.14-END OF MAC.JOS.HIST.b.xiü.c.19. office, did, on the feast of tabernacles, which soon en- the governor of Cælo-Syria, who, to oblige Jonathan to sued, put on the pontifical robe, and officiate as high quit Alexander's party, and join with Demetrius, priest, after that the place, from the death of Alcimus, marched an army as far as Jamnia, and from thence sent had been vacant seven years.

a challenge to Jonathan to leave his fastnesses on the In the mean time, the two contending kings having mountains, and come and fight him on the plains. drawn together all their forces, comniitted the determin- Provoked at this message, Jonathan marched out with ation of their cause to a decisive battle, in which Deme- ten thousand men. He first took Joppa, in the sight of trius a being defeated and slain, and Alexander, by this Apollonius and his army, and then joining battle, not victory, made master of the whole Syrian empire, 'he only vanquished him in the open field, but pursued his sent to Ptolemy king of Egypt, demanding his daughter broken forces to Azotus. Here was a famous temple of Cleopatra in marriage. To this marriage (which was the god Dagon, unto which the Syrians fled for shelter ; performed at Ptolemais) Jonathan the high priest was but Jonathan entering the town, burnt it to the ground, invited, and was received by both the kings (for Pto- and set the temple on fire; so that the number of those lemy was likewise at the nuptials) with great favour, who were slain in battle, and perished by the flames, especially by Ptolemy, who, to do him a particular hon- amounted to no less than eight thousand men. After onr, caused him to be clothed in purple, and to take this, having treated the neighbouring towns, that belongplace near himself, among the first princes of his king-ed to the enemy, in the like manner, be led his victorious dom; and, besides making him general of all his forces army back to Jerusalem, loaded with spoils ; whither in Judea, gave him an office b of great credit and renown he had not been long come, before Alexander, hearing in his palace.

of his renowned actions in favour of his cause, sent him But Alexander himself did not long enjoy this prog- adbuckle of gold, such as none but the royal family were perous state. Demetrius," the son of the late Demetrius, allowed to wear, and, at the same time, made him a preresolving to revenge his father's death, and recover his sent of the city of Ekron, and all the territories thereunto kingdom, came from Crete, (where he and his brother belonging. Antiochus had been concealed in the late troubles,) and * When Apollonius, governor of Cælo-Syria, had dewith an army of mercenaries, landed in Cilicia. It was clared for Demetrius, Alexander called in his fathernot long before he gained over to his interest Apolloniusc in-law, Ptolemy Philometer, to his assistance.

He marched into Palestine with a great army; and as he 11 Mac, x. 54; Joseph. Antiq. b. 13. c. 7.

passed, in all the cities (which, by Alexander's orders, 21 Mac. x, 67; Joseph. Antiq. b. 13. c. 8; Justin, b. 35. c. 2.

opened their gates to him) he left a good number of his to succeed. With this right it was, that Jonathan took the own soldiers to strengthen the garrisons. But, wheoffice: and in his family it became settled, and continued for ther or not this might give some umbrage to Alexander, several descents, until the time of Herod, who, from an office of inheritance, changed it into that of arbitrary will and pleasure.

so it was, that Ptolemy discovered a design, which Whoever had the power after him, put the high priests in or Ammonius, Alexander's great favourite, had formed, to out, as they thought fit, till at length the office was extinguished have him cut off at his coming to Ptolemais; and upon by the destruction of the temple by the Romans.--- Prideaux's his demanding justice to be done to the traitor, by Connection, anno 253. a In the first ouset, Demetrius's left wing put the opposite

Alexander's refusing to give him up, he plainly perwing of the enemy to flight; but as he pursued them too far, (a ceived that the king was a party to the treason, and fault in war which has lost many victories,) by the time that thence began to harbour an implacable hatred against they came back, the right wing, in which Demetrius fought in him. person, was overborne, and he slain in the rout: for his horse

He therefore marched his army to Antioch; and, havhaving plunged him into a bog, they who pursued him shot at him there with their arrows, till he died.—Joseph. Antiq. b. 13. c. 5; Justin, b. 35. c I Apion, de Syriacis; and Poly

31 Mac. x. 9—77; Joseph. Antiq. b. 13. c. 8. bius, b. 3.

4 1 Mac. x. 88, 89. 6 The word meridarches, which we translate a duke, Gro

5 1 Mac. xi. 1–5; Joseph. Antiq. b. 13. c. 8. tius, in his commentary on 1 Mac. x. 65, makes to be the under Seleucus Philopater; and this I take to be the same Apolchief sewer, which, even in the German empire, is an office that lonius, who, being continued in the same government by Alexone of the electors bears: but, in his commentary on Matth. ander, now revolted from him, to embrace the interest of xix. 28., he makes it denote the governor of a province: and if, Demetrius, the son of his old master, and to engage Jonathan to in this place, it were so taken, it would better become Jonathan, do the like, marched his forces against him. Another Apollonius one would think, to be made governor of some part of the Sy- is spoken of, (2 Mac. iv. 21,) as the chief minister of Antiochus rian empire, than to be the regulator of the dishes at the royal Epiphanes, who from him was sent as ambassador, first to Rome table. Prideaux's Connection, anno 150.

and afterwards to Ptolemy Philometer, king of Egypt; and him c Apollonius was a common name among the Syro-Macedo- I take to be the same, that, with a detachment of two and nians and Greeks; and in the history of the Maccabees we find twenty thousand men, was sent to destroy Jerusalem, and so many mentioned of that name, that, for the prevention of build a fortress on Mount Acra. There are, besides these, two mistakes, it may not be improper to give some account of the other persons, in the history of the Maccabees, mentioned under several persons who bore it. The first that we meet with of that the name of Apollonius. The former of these, being governor name, is Apollonius, the son of Thraseas, (2 Mac. iii. 5,) who of Samaria in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, (i Mac. iii. was governor of Cælo-Syria and Phænicia, under Seleucus Philo-10,) was slain in battle by Judas Maccabæus; and the latter pater, when Heliodorus came to Jerusalem, to rob the temple. (who is called the son of Genneus,) (2 Mac. xii. 2,) being goHe was chief minister of state to Seleucus; but, on the accession vernor of some toparchy in Palestine, under Antiochus Eupater, of his brother Antiochus Epiphanes to the crown, he left Syria, did then signalize himself being a great enemy to the Jews. and retired to Miletus. He had a son of his own name, that - Prideaux's Connection, anno 148. was bred up at Rome, and resided with Demetrius, the son of d The golden buckle, which was worn upon the shoulder, was Seleucus Philopater, who was then an hostage in that place. a very singular mark of distinction both among the Greeks and When Demetrius recovered the crown of Syria, this Apollonius the Persians, from whom the Macedonians took it, and was became his prime favourite, and was made governor of Cælo generally made the reward of great and gallant actions in war, Syria and Phænicia, the same government which his father held - Calmet's Commentary on 1 Mac. x. 89.

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A.M. 3841, A.C. 163; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M.5217. A.C.164.1 MAC.v.1.JOS, HIST.b. xii.c.11-END OF MAC. JOS. HIST.b.xii.c. 19. ing taken his daughter from Alexander, gave her to his execution, unless he sent the taxes and tribute which rival Demetrius, and with her assurance to restore him to were usually paid by his predecessors; and would cerhis father's throne. 'The Antiochians, taking the op- tainly have done all that he had threatened, had not portunity of Ptolemy's approach to execute their resent- Tryphon found out another employment for his arins. ments upon Ammonius, rose in a tumult, and slew him ; This Tryphon had formerly served Alexander, as goand then opening their gates to Ptolemy, were all dis- vernor of Antioch, but, in the present king's reign, was posed to make him their king ; but he modestly declin- laid aside. Observing, however, that the cruelty and ing that ofter, recommended to them the restoration of tyranny, which were every where practised, the disbandDemetrius, the true heir : whereupon Demetrius was ing the Syrian soldiers, and retaining only foreigners in received into the city, and placed on the throne of his pay, together with many more grievances, which the peoancestors.

ple laboured under, had quite alienated their hearts, and Alexander, who was then in Cilicia, hearing of this, made them ready for a general defection, he thought this came with all his forces towards Antioch, wasting the no unfit opportunity to put in practice his long concerted country with fire and sword; but when Ptolemy with his scheme of advancing himself to the crown of Syria. new son-in-law, met him, and gave him battle, his army To this purpose he goes into Arabia ; ' gets Antiochus, was routed, and himself was forced to fly to Arabia, son of the late Alexander, into his hands; brings him where Zabdiel, king of the country, cut off' his head, and into Syria, claims the kingdom for him ; and, to support sent it as a present to Ptolemy, who was not a little this claim, all the soldiers whom Demetrius had disbandpleased with the sight of it. His joys however did not ed, and several others, whom bis ill conduct had made last long ; for in five days' tin:e he died of the wounds he his enemies, flock in great numbers to the pretender. had received in battle, leaving Demetrius in quiet pos- With these Tryphon marches against Demetrius, vansession of his father's kingdom, which he having recov- quishes him in battle, forces him into Seleucia, and have ered by virtue of this victory, did thenceforward take ing taken possession of Antioch, places Antiochus upon upon him the name of Nicanor, that is, conqueror. the throne, and gives him the name of Theos, or the

During these transactions, Jonathan : Jaid siege to the Divine. fortress at Jerusalem ; but some of the garrison, escaping The ill return which Demetrius made Jonathan, was, by night, came and acquainted Demetrius with it, who doubtless, the chief reason for his declaring for this new thereupon marched from Antioch with an army to relieve king ; $ who, by the advice of those that were about him, it. But coming to Ptolemais, he stopped there and sent took care, not only to confirm him in the office of high for Jonathan to appear before him, and answer to such priest, and in all his other places and dignities, but to accusations as were preferred against him. Jonathan make likewise his brother Simon commander of all bis went thither, though he ordered the siege still to go on; forces, from Tyre to the frontiers of Egypt. Upon this and, when he came to Demetrius, by his rich presents defection from him, Demetrius sent all the troops that and wise nanagement, he so mollified the king, and in- were left in Cælo-Syria and Phænicia, to chastise him sinuated himself into his good graces, that he not only for it: but he not only repulsed them twice, but took confirmed him in the possession of what he had, but Gaza likewise, and all the country as far as Damascus; honoured him likewise with many new favours, and upon while Simon,' whom he left in Judea, penetrating into the the payment of 300 talents, agreed to exempt from all land of the Philistines, took Joppa, and placed a strong tolls, taxes and tributes, all the places that were under garrison in it. Tryphon, who had no other aim in gethis government.

ting young Antiochus into his hands, than to serve his Jonathan, upon his return to Jerusalem, pressed the wicked purposes, knew very well, that, as long as Jonasiege of the fortress very closely ; but finding little or than continued in his interest, it would be in vain for bim no success therein, he sent an embassy, 'to Demetrius, to attempt the crown ; and 8 therefore, having prevailed desiring him to withdraw the garrison, which he could with him to dismiss bis army, and to accompany him to not expel. This and much more Demetrius promised Ptolemais, under pretence of putting that place into his to do for him, if he would but send him some forces to hands, with no more than a thousand men, they were po reduce the inhabitants of Antioch, who, incensed by his sooner entered, but the garrison, having shut the gates cruelty and oppression, had taken up arms against him. upon them, seized Jonathan, and put his men to the Jonathan immediately dispatched 3000 choice men to his sword. aid, who coming to Antioch, when the people had beset Having thus circumvented Jonathan, he took him along the place with an intent to murder the tyrant, as they with him, and marched his army into Judea ; but the called him, fell on with fire and sword, and having burn- | Jews by this time had chosen Simon his brother for thes ed a great part of the city, and slain of the inhabitants conmander, and were ready to give him a warm rerepabout 100,000 persons, obliged the rest to have recourse tion. Not finding himself therefore able to engage then, to the king's clemency, and pray for peace. But all this he sent Simon this deceitful message, -9 “ That he had service availed nothing. Demetrius, seeing this storm seized Jonathan only because he owed ICO talents to the overpast, forgot the bargains which he had made with king ; but that in case he would send the money, and Jonathan at Ptolemais; and, though he had received the Jonathan's two sons to be hostages for their father's 300 talents in lieu of them, threatened him with military fidelity, he would set him again at liberty.” Simon sees

51 Mac. xi. 54–56; Joseph. Antiq. b. xiii, c. 9; and Apoio il Mac. xi. 13; Joseph. Antiq. b. xiii. c. S.

de Syriacis. 2 Ibid. ver. 20, 47; Joseph. Antiq. b. xvii. c. 8.

6 Ibid. xi. 57—59; Joseph. ibid. Ibid. ver. 47-52; Joseph. Antiq. b. xiii. c. 9.

i 1 Mac, xi. 64; Joseph. Ibid.

• Ibid. xii. SO 41 Mar, xi. 53.

• Ibid. nili. 12-13; Joseph. Antiq. b. xii. c. II.

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A. M.3841. A C.163; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A.M. 5247. A.C.164.1 MAC.v.1. JOS.HIST.b. xii.c.14-END OF MAC. JOS.HIST. b. xiii. c, 19. saw through this deceit; but he complied with the trai- | Cleopatra his queen had shut up herself and her children tor's demand, for fear it should be said that he had not in Seleucia; ¢ but, fearing to fall into the hands of the done all that lay in his power to save his brother's life; traitor Tryphon, and being provoked at her husband's and accordingly sent the money, and two young men. marrying the daughter of Mithridates, king of Parthia, But when the villain had got them in his power, he put she sent to his brother Antiochus, who still continued in both them and their father to death ; and thinking that Crete, offering him the crown, and herself in marriage, he had now nothing to obstruct his main design, he caus- if he would come and join his interest with hers against ed Antiochus to be murdered privately; and then assum- Tryphon. This offer he readily accepted of; and, in the ing the crown, declared himself king of Syria in his beginning of the next year, landed in Syria, with an army stead.

of mercenaries, which was soon augmented by a large acWhen Simon heard of his brother's death, and that he cession of the usurper's forces, which every day deserted was buried at Bascama in the land of Gilead, 'he sent from him: so that, not being able to keep the field, le and fetched his dead body from thence; and, having filed from place to place, till at length, coming to Apaburied it with great funeral solemnity in his father's se- mea, d his own native city, he was there taken and put pulchre at Modin, he erected over it a stately monu- to death. This end being put to his usurpation, Antioment, a all built of white marble, and curiously wrought chus became fully possessed of his father's throne; and, and polished.

being a man much addicted to hunting, he had for that Simon, as soon as he was admitted to the govern- reason the name of Sidetes, which, in the Syrian lanment of the land, sent to Demetrius, who was then at guage, signifies the hunter. Laodicea, a crown of gold, and ambassadors to treat Before Antiochus landed in Syria, to gain Simon over with him about terms of peace and alliance. The king to his interest, he wrote him a letter, s wherein he made granted to Sinon a confirmation of the high priesthood him many grants, and promised him more; but, as soon and principality, and to the people a release of all taxes, as he was settled in the kingdom, he forgot his promises, tolls, and tributes, with an oblivion of all past acts of

* Joseph. Antiq. b. 13. c. 12. 51 Mac. xv. 2-5. hostility, on condition that they would join with him against the usurper: in virtue of which treaty, Simon, liad made themselves masters of every country from the river

thians liad at this time overrun in a manner all the East, and being made sovereign prince of the land, and the land Indus to the Euphrates, those who were of the Macedonian race freed from all foreign yoke, the Jews from this time, in those parts, not bearing their usurpation and insolence, invitinstead of dating their instruments and contracts by the ed Demetrius, by repeated embassies, to come to their relief, years of the Syrian kings, as hitherto they had done, promising him a general revolt-from the Parthians, and such

assistance of forces against them as would enable him to suppress dated them by the years of Simon and his successors.

these usurpers, and recover to his dominions all the provinces of Having thus obtained the independent sovereignty of the East.' Upon confidence of these promises, he undertook the the land, he took a progress through it, to inspect what expedition; and found as soon as he appeared, that the Elywas wanting for its security; repairing the fortifications maans, the Persians, and the Bactrians, declared for him. By

the assistance of these nations he overthrew the Parthians in that were decayed, making new ones where they were several conflicts; but at last, under the show of a treaty peace, wanted, and besieging and taking the places that stood being drawn into a snare, he was made prisoner, and all his out against him. He had no occasion however to be army cut to pieces. The king that reigned in Parthia at this siege the fortress of Jerusalem, because the wall which time was Mithridates, the son of Priapatites, who, having thus

got Demetrius into his power, carried him round the revolted his brother Jonathan had built against it had so cut off provinces, that, hy seeing the prince w liom they contided in reall communication with the city, that the garrison being duced to this ignominious condition, they might more easily be sore distressed for want of provisions, and all other ne- brought to submit to their former yoke: but, when he had done cessaries, was forced to surrender the place; and Simon, this, he allowed liim a maintenance suitable to the state of a wisely considering how much the city of Jerusalem had Rhodaguna, in marriage.Justin, b. 41. c. 5, and 0; Joseph.

king, and gave him one of his daughters, whose name was been infested by that citadel, pulled it down to the Antiq. B. 13. c. 9 and 12; and Orosus, b. 5. c. 4. ground, that it might no longer be a retreat to sedition c Seleucia was a city of Syria, situate upon the Mediterranean, and faction; and, to prevent its being built at any time, It was generally called Pieria, to distinguish it from other cities

near the place where the Orontes discharges itself into that sea. levelled the hill on which it was situated; so that now no of the same name; and from the country adjoining received eminence was left but the mount of the temple only. the name of Seleuris. To the natural streng:h of the place, were Demetrius b at this time was prisoner in Parthia, and added so many fortifications, that, in the opinion of Strabo, the

city was rendered impregnable. Pompey, the Roman general,

conferred on it the privilege of a free city, a privilege which was "1 Mac. xiii. 25–30: Joseph. Antiq. h. xiii. c. 11. confirmed by several emperors, as appears from many ancient ' 1 Mac. xiii. 31–42; Josep. ibid. * 1 Mac, xiv, 7-33. medals. The chief deity of the inhabitants, previous to the recep

This edifice, heing crerted on an eminence, was seen far off tion of Christianity, was Jupiter, whose worship was splendidly at sea; and, on that coast, was taken notice of as a good sea- celebrated on Casius, a neighbouring mountain, It was from the mark. Near to the monument Simon placed seven pyramids, port of this city that Paul and Barnalias embarked for Cyprus, two for his father and mother, four for his four brothers, and the Acts xiii. 4; and, iike the neighbouring city of Antioch, where seventh for himself, and then encompassed the whole with a the disciples of Jesus were first called Christians. The city of stately portico, supported by marble pillars, each of one entire Seleucia also very varly received the gospel, probably about A. D. piere, and whereon were engraved ships and arms, and other 43. At a subsequent period it became an eminent Christian city; military ensigns. Josephus tells us, that this whole fabric was but nothing remains of Seleucia at the present time, except ruins, standing entire in his days, and looked upon as a very curious among which are those of some of its ancient churches and conand excellent piece of architecture : (Antig. h. 13, c. 11.) and vents.-ED. Eusebius mentions it as still in being in his time, which was two d It is a city of Syria, lying upon the Orontes, and was built, hundred years after the time of Josephus.-- Pridraux's Connec- as is believed, either by Seleucus the first bing of Syria, or by tion, anno 144.

his son Antiochus Soter, in honour of Quen Apamea the wife of 6 The reason of Demetrius's being in this condition in this Seleucus, the mother of Antiochus.-. Calmet's Litionary, wider place, hy profane historians, is said to be this:-As the Pur-ihe word.

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A.M.3841. A.C.163, OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A.M.5217. A.C 161,1 MAC.v. i.JOS. HIST. b. xii. c. 14-END OF MAC.JOS. HIST.b.xiil.c.19. and sent an ambassador, demanding him to deliver up execrable villain, C we have no manner of account in Joppa and Gazara, and other places, or else to pay him history. a thousand talents of silver for them. These conditions 3 Antiochus having received from Ptolemy an account were thought too unreasonable to be complied with; and of the death of Simon and his sons, thought that he had therefore, when Antiochus sent an army under the com- now a fair opportunity to reduce Judea again under the mand of Cendebeus, to enforce them, Simon, though Syrian empire ; and therefore he inunediately marched a very far advanced in years, with a juvenile courage, pre-. large army thither; and having overrun the country, and pared to give him a warm reception; and, with his two driven Hyrcanus out of the field, he shut him up and all sons, Judas and John, who was afterwards called Hyr- his forces within the walls of Jerusalem, and there becanus, put his army to fight almost at the first onset, sieged him. The siege was carried on vigorously; and and, in the pursuit, cut off a great number of themi: but, the defence of the place was executed as gallantly: but to be revenged of him for this defeat, Antiochus concert- Hyrcanus being distressed for want of provisions for so ed the inost abominable measures.

vast a number of people as was in the city, was forced Simon had a son-in-law named Ptolemy, whoin he to sue for peace, which was granted him upon these terms, had appointed governor of the plains of Jericho. ? This that the besieged should deliver up their arms ; that man, who was rich and ambitious, had laid a design, Jerusalem should be dismantled ; that tribute should be which he cornmunicated to Antiochus, for the usurpation paid to the king for Joppa, and the other towns which of the government to himself; but this could not well be were held by the Jews out of Judea ; and that, to buy done without the destruction of Simon and his family. off' the fortress of Jerusalem, from being rebuilt, which As Simon, therefore, and two of his sons, Judas and Antiochus much insisted on, they should pay hin five Mattathias, were making a progress through the cities hundred talents ; d three hundred down in band, and the of Judah, when they came to Jericho, Ptolemy invited them to an entertainment which he had prepared for them 31 Mac. xvi. 28; Joseph. Antiq. b. xiii. c. 16. in a castle of his own building: but, while they were oft; no grief and lamentation, too great for a man of his uncommon drinking and making merry, he caused them, and all that merit. — Universal History, b. ii. c. 11. attended them, to be assassinated; and, thinking there- miscreant, namely, that after he had killed his father-in-law

c Josephus bias something peculiar in his account of this rile upon to make himself master of the whole land, he sent a Simon, hie seized on his wife, and two of her children, aral with party to Gazara, where John Hyrcanus, « Simon's third them betook himself to a certain castle pot far from Jerusalem, son, resided, with a design to slay hini likewise. But called Dagon; that when Hyrcanus came to besiege it, the vilHyrcanus having had intelligence of what passed at whip and torment them in the sight of all the people, with welt

lain's custom was, to bring out his mother and brothers, and to Jericho, was prepared to receive his intended murderers, aces to cast them headlong from the battlements, unless Ilyreaand having dispatched them, hastened to Jerusalem to rus withdrew the siege; that when lyrcanus, out of tendentes secure the city, and the mount of the temple, against to liis mother and brothers, was thinking of raising the siege, aud those whom the traitor had sent to take possession of sutering the traitor to escape, his mother called aloud to hin both. After this Hyrcanus was declared high priest and to proceed in the siege with vigour, that so he might do tumself prince of the Jews, in place of his father Simon, who and his family right, in taking a just vengeance upon that exerrawas greatly lamented; but what finally became of this ble monster: that, notwithstanding this magnanimous exhortation,

he could not bear to see his relations tortured, and therefore

delayed the siege, until the sabbatical year came on, wherein the '1 Mac. xv. 30–36.

Jews were obliged to rest; so liat Plolemy, by this meairs, being * Ibid. xvi. 14-22; Joseph. Antiq. b. 13. c. 14. delivered from the war, and the siege, after he had slain de c Why this captain was called Hyrcanus, some impute to the muther and brothers of Hyrcanus, withdrew to Zeno, surated victory which he obtained over Hyrcanus, whom the books of the Catyla, a tyrant who at that time bad usurped to himself the Maccabees, and Josephus, call Čendebeus, though others say, government of Philadelphia ; (Antiq. b. xiii. c. 15). But our that he had this name from a gallant action against the Hyrca- learned Uslier is of opinion, that this whole account of Jesepdias nians, perhaps in the expedition wherein he accompanied Alex

is fabulous. ander Sidetes beyond the Euphrates.-Culmei's Dictionary, under d Josephus tells us that Hyrcanus, to find some money the word.

this, and other occasions of the government, broke up the sepsi6 The commendation which the author of the first book of the chre of David, and took from thence three thousand talents, and Maccabees, (chap. xiv. 4,) &c. bestows upon Simon, is worth our that Herod the Great did alterwards the like, antiq. b. xvii. oliservation ; for he therein tells us, that he sought the good of c. 16, and b. xvi. c. 11. But both these stories are higlely ithe nation, in every thing, “ so that his authority always pleased probable. David had now been dead nearly vive hundred years, them well:' that during his administration, whilst Syria, and and what is told of this treasure, supposes it to have beru berica other neiglibouring kingdoms were almost destroyed by wars, the with him all this time. It supposes, that as vít as the city of Jews lived quietly, every man under his own vine and fig tree,' | Jerusalem, the palace, and the temple, during the reigns of tive enjoying, without fear, the fruits of their lahours, and beholding hings of Judah, liad been plundered of all their wealth and tres: with pleasure the flourishing state of their country ; their trade sure hy prevailing enemies, this dead stork still remained ale jocreased by the reduction of Joppa, and other maritime places: from all rifle or violation. It supposes, that as oit as these hillos their territories enlarged; their armies well disciplined; their were forced to take all the treasure that was found in the keuse towns and fortresses well garrisoned: their religion and liberties of the Lord, as well as in their own, to relieve the exigencies of secured; their land freed from heathen enemies, and Jewish the state, they never meddled with this, that was uselessly buried apostates; and their friendship courted by all the nations about with David in his grave. It supposes, that when one of the them, even by the Romans and the Lacedemonians. He observes worst of their kings (2 Kings xv. 8, &c. and 2 Chron. xxviii.?!, farther, that this Simon was no less zealous for the service of &c.) plundered the temple of its sacred vessels, and cut them a God, in exterminating apostasy, superstition, idolatry, and every pieces, to melt them doiran into miley for his common arasigá; thing else that was contrary to his laws; that he was a great and that when one of the best of them (2 Kings xviii. 15, protector of the true Israelites, and a friend to the poor; that be was forced to cut off the gold where with the gaies aud pillars of restored the service of the temple to its ancient splendour, and the temple were overlaid, lo bribe a destroying enemy, this userepaired the number of its sacred vessels; so that we need not less treasure still continued untouched. Nay, it suppuses, les wonder, is the Jewish sauhediim thought no dignity or honour, when Nebuchadnezzar destroyed bodde ikie city and the temple o while he lived, and when lie was so basely and barbarously cuél Jerusalem ; so that, for many years they botit lay iu rubh ist, is

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