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A.M.3341. A.C. 163; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A.M, 5247. A.C 164,1 MAC.v.1.JUS.HIST.b.xii.c.14-END OR MAC.JOS, HIST.b.xiij.c.19. up to Jerusalem, and designing, by craft and treachery, desist from giving the Jews any farther molestation ; to get Judas into his power,' invited him to a conference, but before the return of these ambassadors Judas was which the other, upon the presumption of the depending dead. peace, readily complied with, and came to the place ap- 3 For Demetrius, having received an account of the pointed: but when he found that an ambush was laid defeat and death of Nicanor, sent Bacchides, with Alcifor his apprehension, he fled from his presence, and so mus, the second time into Judea, at the head of a very, began the war afresh. This war was carried on with numerous army, made up of the prime forces and flower various successes for some time, and with some par- of his militia. Judas, at their coming, had no more than ticular cruelties on Nicanor's side, a but at length, com- three thousand men to oppose them; and these were so ing to a decisive battle near a village called Bethoron, terrified with the strength and nunuber of the enemy, that Nicanor was slain in the first onset, which the rest of the they deserted their general, all to eight hundred nien. army perceiving, cast away their arms, and fled; so that, However, with these few, he resolved to try his fortune; what with Judas's pursuing them, and the country rising and when his soldiers advised him to retreat, and wait for upon them as they endeavoured to escape, not one of a supply; “ God forbid,” says he,“ that the sun should the whole army, which consisted of five and thirty thou- ever see me turn my back to my enemies. If provisand men, was left to carry home the tidings of their dence has ordained that we should die, let us die manoverthrow.
fully, fighting for our brethren ; and let us never stain the After the pursuit was ended, the victorious army re-honour of our former valorous deeds by an ignominious turning to the field of battle, took the spoils of the slain; Might:” and so animating them by his own example, he and having found Nicanor's body among the dead, they charged and broke the right wing, where Bacchides comcut off' his head, and this right hand which he stretched manded in person, and pursued thein as far as the mounout so proudly in his threatenings against the temple, tains of Azotus ; but having not forces enough to keep and hanged them up upon one of the towers of Jerusa- the left wing in play, he was followed and encompasses. lem. A general joy overspread the whole city upon this The action was very hot and obstinate: the Jews sold occasion, and in commemoration of so great a deliver their lives at a dear rate : their general did every valiant ance, it was ordained, that the thirteenth day of their thing that man could do ; till, being overpowered by month Adar, (which answers in part to our February, the numbers, he was slain, and his men, thus deprived of day whereon this victory was obtained, should be ever their heroic leader, were forced to fly. after observed as an anniversary day of solemn thanks- Thus fell the great Judas Maccabæus, the restorer giving; and so it is kept even to this present time, under and preserver of the true worship of God, and the rethe name of the day of Nicanor.
liever and protector of his distressed countrymen, while 2 Judas, having now some respite after this victory, he lived. His two brothers, Simon and Jonathan, took was thinking of making a league with the Romans. up his dead body, and conveying it to the city of Modin, He had heard much talk of their power, prowess, and they there buried it, in the sepulchre of his ancestors, policy; and was therefore desirous of making an al- with all the funeral honour that was due to the memory liance 0 with them, in hopes of receiving thereby some of so brave a man, and so excellent a commander. protection and relief against the oppressions of the After the death of Judas, Bacchides made himself Syrians. To this purpose he sent Jason and Eupolemus, master of the country, and used all the friends and admen of sufficiency for such an embassy, to Rome, who herents to the Maccabees, wherever he found them, with were kindly received by the senate, and from them oh- the utmost barbarity ; * so that Jonathan was in a mantained a decree, acknowledging the Jews for friends ner necessitated to take upon him the command in the and allies to the Romans, a league of mutual defence room of his brother Judas, and to become the captain between them, and a letter to Demetrius, requiring him, of all those who had preserved their integrity. To this upon the peril of having war denounced against him, to purpose, taking with him his brother Simon, and those
that had resorted to him, he retired into the wilderness * 2 Mac. vii. 27-31.
of Tekoa, and there encamped, with a niorass on one 2 Mac, viii.-Jewish Antiq. b. xii. c. 17.
side, and the river Jordan on the other, so that they a One instance of this kind was practised upon Razis, an could not easily be come at. But Bacchides ' marching eminent and honourable senator of the Jewish sanhedrim, who after them, and having made himself master of the pass had not only persevered in his religion through the worst of times, but upon all occasions been very munificent to the people. that led to their encampment, assaulted them in it on Him Nicanor was resolved to cut off
, the rather, because he the sabbath day, expecting to meet with no resistance. thought it would be an act of high displeasure to the Jews; and Jonatban, however, reminding his men of the determinatherefore seut a party to seize him. Razis was, at this time, at a castle of his which he had in the country, where he defended tion that was made in this case in the time of his father himself against them for some time with great valour; but at Mattathias, encouraged them to dispute it bravely;. length finding that he could hold out no longer, he fell upon his which accordingly they did, even till they had slain sword. The wound however was not mortal, and therefore he about a thousand of the assailants : but then, finding that threw himself headlong over the battlements of the tower whereon he fought; but finding himself still alive, he thrust his hand they should be overpowered with numbers, they cast into his wound, and pulling out his bowels, cast them upon the themselves into the river, and, by swimming over to the assailants, and so died, 2 Mac. xiv. 46.
other side, made their escape. b Josephus takes notice, that this was the very first treaty Bacchides thought it not proper to pursue them any that ever the Jews made with the Romans, which is very pro- farther, but rather to go back to Jerusalem; where, havbable from the manner in which the author of the first book of Maccabees prefaces his account of it; for there it appears that the Jews, till this time, had very little knowledge of the
31 Mac. ix. 1, &c. Roman state.-Jos. Antiq. b. xii. c. 17; and I Mac. viii. 1. *1 Mac. ix. 28-33.
* Ibid. ver, 43–53.
A. ML3841. A.C.163 ; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A, M.5247. A.C.161. 1 MAC.v.1. JOS,LIST.b.xii.c.14-BND OF MAC.JOS. HIST.b.xii.c.19. ing fortified Mount Acra, and the neighbouring towns, well supported by foreign powers, seized Ptolemais, a and put garrisons in them, he took hostages for the city of Palestine, and was making preparations to drive fidelity of the inhabitants, and so returned to Syria : Demetrius out of the throne. On this occasion the two but, before he departed, Alcimus, the great troubler of rival princes did both make their court to Jonathan, as Israel, and whom he had, not long before, settled in the thinking him a good ally: Demetrius : sent him letters, high-priesthood, was smitten with á palsy, whereof he constituting him his general in Judea, with full authority suddenly died; so that the land had rest for two years, to raise forces, and to provide them with arms to come and Jonathan an opportunity of bringing his affairs to to his assistance, and commanding, at the same time, some better settlement in Judea,
that the hostages, which were in the fortress of Jerusa* The adverse party, however, was not long easy; / lein, should be delivered to him; which accordingly was but, at the end of two years, prevailed with Bacchides done. *Alexander, on the other hand, having sent him to return with his army into Judea, proposing to seize a purple robe and a crown of gold, as ensigns of great Jonathan, and all his abettors, as soon as he was arrived dignity, made him a grant of the high-priesthood, and of with his forces to support the enterprise : but when the honour to be called the king's friend. Demetrius Jonathan had intelligence of this, he laid hold on fifty hearing of this, ' and being resolved to outbid Alexof the principal conspirators, and put them to death, ander, made him still more advantageous offers: but the which quelled all the rest. Being sensible, however, Jews, remembering what a bitter enemy he had been to that he could not stand against so great a force as all those that had adhered to the true interest of their Bacchides had brought against him, he retired to Beth-country, and suspecting that these offers proceeded only basi, a place strongly situate in the wilderness, and here from the necessity of his affairs, which would certainly he purposed to make a stand against the enemy.
be revoked as soon as the storm was blown over, resolved Bacchides, as soon as he arrived in Judea, went after rather to enter into league with Alexander: and therefore Jonathan ; but, upon his approach, Jonathan left Simon Jonathan, e accepting of his grant of the high priest's his brother with one part of the forces to defend the place, whilst himself, with the other part, took the field 31 Mac. x. 25, &c.; Joseph. Antiq. b. 13. c. 4. to harass the enemy abroad: in which capacities they
* Ibid. x. 15—20. Joseph. Antiq. b. 13. c. 5. both acted so well, Jonathan, by cutting off several of
si Mac. X. 25, &c.; Joseph. Antiq. b. 13, c. 5. their parties, and now and then falling upon the out- Timarchus, another favourite of the king's, was governer of it; skirts of their army employed in the siege ; and Simon, found guilty of great misdemeanours, for which Timarchus was
but on the coming of Demetrius to the crown, they were both by making frequent sallies upon them, and burning the put to death; but Heraclides made his escape out of the king. engines they had brought against the place; that Bac- dom, and took up his residence at Rhodes. While he was there, chides, ' growing weary of this undertaking, and not a Demetrius, having given himself up entirely to luxury and little enraged at those who were the occasion of his sloth, so neglected the affairs of government, that his subjects
justly took a disgust against him, and were ready to enter into return and disgrace, put several of them to death. This any conspiracy to depose him; which Heraclides understanding, opportunity Jonathan laid hold on, and therefore sent in hopes of making a revolution in favour of himself, he contrismessengers to him, to desire an accommodation, which ed this plot.—In the isle of Rhodes there was a youth of a very Bacchides readily came into, so that a peace was con every way fit for his purpose. Him he prevailed with to pass for
mean and obscure condition, called Balas, but, in other respects, cluded. The prisoners whom he had in his custody were the son of Antiochus Epiphanes ; and having thoroughly instructall restored, and himself took an oath, never to molested him how to act his part, he carried him to Rome, where, by the Jews any more : which accordingly he fulfilled; for his craft and earnest solicitations, he not only prevailed with the as soon as the peace was ratified on both sides he went permitting him to recover the kingdom of Syria out of the hands
senate to own him, but procured a decree from them likewise, away, and never more returned into the country.
of Demetrius, and promising their assistance in doing it. B; When the wars were thus happily ended, Jonathan virtue of this decree he raised forces, and with them sailing to retired to Michmash, a town about nine miles' distance Ptolemais in Palestine, seized that city; and there, by the same to the north of Jerusalem, where he governed the people king of Syria. Great numbers, out of disaffection to Demetrius
of Alexander, son of Antiochus Epiphanes, took upon him to be according to law; cut off all those that had apostatised Aocked to him; so that, at length, Demetrius being defeated and from him; and, as far as in him lay, reformed all abuses, slain, Alexander obtained the full possession of the Syrian empboth in church and state ; repairing the city of Jerusa- pire.--- Prideaux's Connection, anno 152.
c The letter which he sent him, together with these, is to lem; fortifying it on every side, and causing the wall round the mount of the temple, which had been pulled Being informed of your power and valour, and that you are
this effect:- King Alexander, to his brother Jonathan, &c. down, to be rebuilt.
worthy of friendship, we constitute you high priest of your nation; At this time Alexander, (for that was the name which and it is our pleasure that you should be enrolled in the number he assumed,) pretending to be the son of Antiochus Epi- robe, and a golden crown, not doubting of a suitable return
of the king's friends. To this end we have sent you a purple phanes, laid claim to the Syrian nionarchy; and being from you, for our affection and friendship.'—Joseph. Andig. .
13. c. 5. "1 Mac. ix. c. 59-61. d from the time of the return from the Babylonish captivity
, * i Mac. ix. 69–73; Joseph. Antiq. b. 12, c. 1, and 2.
the office of bigh priest had been in the family of Jozadeck,
and, in a lineal descent, was transmitted down to Onias, the third a It is most likely, that Demetrius had, by this time, received of that name. He was supplanted by Jason his brother, as Jason the letters which were sent to him by the Romans in behalf of was by his brother Menelaus, and after the death of Menelas, the Jews, and thereupon gave Bacchides orders to surcease his Alcimus, who was of a different family, was put into the ofice vexations of that people; and that, in obedience to these orders, by the command of the king of Syria. Whether the Asmodeun Bacchides took occasion, on the death of Alcimus, to leave the were of the race of Jozadack, or not, it is no where said; but it country.- Prideaux's Connection, anno 160.
is certain that they were of the course of Joarib, (1 Mac. ii. 1., 6 In the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes, one Heraclides was which was the first class of the sons Aaron; and therefore, upvis his treasurer in the provioce of Babylon, while his brother the failure of the former pontifical family, they had the best riga! A.M. 3841. A.C. 163; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 5247. A.C. 164. 1 MAC.v.1.JOS. HIST.b. xii.c.14-END OF MAC.JOS.HIST.b.xiii.c.19. office, did, on the feast of tabernacles, which soon en- | the governor of Cælo-Syria, who, to oblige Jonathan to sued, put on the pontifical robe, and officiate as high quit Alexander's party, and join with Demetrius, priest, after that the place, from the death of Alcimus, marched an army as far as Jamnia, and from thence sent had been vacant seven years.
a challenge to Jonathan to leave his fastnesses on the In the mean time, the two contending kings having mountains, and come and fight him on the plains. drawn together all eir forces, committed the determin- Provoked at this message, Jonathan marched out with ation of their cause to a decisive battle, in which Deme- ten thousand men. He first took Joppa, in the sight of trius a being defeated and slain, and Alexander, by this Apollonius and his army, and then joining battle, not victory, made master of the whole Syrian empire, 'he only vanquished him in the open field, but pursued his sent to Ptolemy king of Egypt, demanding his daughter broken forces to Azotus. Here was a famous temple of Cleopatra in marriage. To this marriage (which was the god Dagon, unto which the Syrians fled for shelter ; performed at Ptolemais) Jonathan the high priest was but Jonathan entering the town, burnt it to the ground, invited, and was received by both the kings (for Pto- and set the temple on fire; so that the number of those lemy was likewise at the nuptials) with great favour, who were slain in battle, and perished by the flames, especially by Ptolemy, who, to do him a' particular hon- amounted to no less than eight thousand men. After our, caused bim to be clothed in purple, and to take this, having treated the neighbouring towns, that belongplace near himself, among the first princes of his king-ed to the enemy, in the like manner, he led his victorious dom; and, besides making him general of all his forces army back to Jerusalem, loaded with spoils; whither in Judea, gave him an office b of great credit and renown he had not been long come, before Alexander, hearing in his palace.
of his renowned actions in favour of his cause, 'sent him But Alexander himself did not long enjoy this prog- ad buckle of gold, such as none but the royal family were perous state. Demetrius," the son of the late Demetrius, allowed to wear, and, at the saine time, made him a preresolving to revenge his father's death, and recover his sent of the city of Ekron, and all the territories thereunto kingdom, came from Crete, (where he and his brother belonging. Antiochus had been concealed in the late troubles,) and * When Apollonius, governor of Cælo-Syria, had dewith an army of mercenaries, landed in Cilicia. It was clared for Demetrius, Alexander called in his fathernot long before he gained over to his interest Apolloniuse in-law, Ptolemy Philometer, to his assistance.
He marched into Palestine with a great army; and as he 11 Mac. x. 54; Joseph. Antiq. b. 13. c. 7.
passed, in all the cities (which, by Alexander's orders, *1 Mac. x. 67; Joseph. Antiq. b. 13. c. 8; Justin, b. 35. c. 2. opened their gates to him) he left a good number of his to succeed. With this right it was, that Jonathan took the own soldiers to strengthen the garrisons. But, wheoffice: and in his family it became settled, and continued for ther or not this might give some umbrage to Alexander, several descents, until the time of Herod, who, from an office of inheritance, changed it into that of arbitrary will and pleasure. so it was, that Ptolemy discovered a design, which Whoever had the power after him, put the high priests in or Ammonius, Alexander's great favourite, had formed, to out, as they thought fit, till at length the office was extinguished have him cut off at his coming to Ptolemais; and upon by the destruction of the temple by the Romans.-- Prideaue's his demanding justice to be done to the traitor, by Connection, anno 253.
a In the first ouset, Demetrius's left wing put the opposite Alexander's refusing to give him up, he plainly perwing of the enemy to fight; but as he pursued them too far, (aceived that the king was a party to the treason, and fault in war which has lost many victories,) by the time that thence began to harbour an implacable hatred against they came back, the right wing, in which Demetrius fought in him. person, was overborne, and he slain in the rout: for his horse having plunged him into a bog, they who pursued him shot
He therefore marched his army to Antioch ; and, havat him there with their arrows, till he died.—Joseph. Antiq. b. 13. c. 5; Justin, b. 35. cl Apion, de Syriacis; and Poly
1 Mac. x. 9–77; Joseph. Antiq. b. 13. c. S. bius, b. 3.
4 1 Mac. x. 88, 89. 6 The word meridarches, which we translate a duke, Gro
5 1 Mac. xi, 1–5; Joseph. Antiq. b. 13. c. 8. tius, in his commentary on 1 Mac. x. 65, makes to be the under Seleucus Philopater; and this I take to be the same Apolchief sewer, which, even in the German empire, is an office that lonius, who, being continued in the same government by Alexone of the electors bears; but, in his commentary on Matth.ander, now revolted from him, to embrace the interest of xix. 28., he makes it denote the governor of a province: and if, Demetrius, the son of his old master, and to engage Jonathan to in this place, it were so taken, it would better become Jonathan, do the like, marched his forces against him. Another Apollonius one would think, to be made governor of some part of the Sy- is spoken of, (2 Mac. iv. 21,) as the chief minister of Antiochus rian empire, than to be the regulator of the dishes at the royal Epiphanes, who from him was sent as ambassador, first to Rome table.- Prideau.r's Connection, anno 150.
and afterwards to Ptolemy Philometer, king of Egypt; and him c Apollonius was a common name among the Syro-Macedo- I take to be the same, that, with a detachment of two and nians and Greeks; and in the history of the Maccabees we find twenty thousand men, was sent to destroy Jerusalem, and so many mentioned of that name, that, for the prevention of build a fortress on Mount Acra. There are, besides these, two mistakes, it may not be improper to give some account of the other persons, in the history of the Maccabees, mentioned under several persons who bore it. The first that we meet with of that the name of Apollonius. The former of these, being governor name, is Apollonius, the son of Thraseas, (2 Mac. iii. 5,) who of Samaria in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, (i Mac. iii. was governor of Calo-Syria and Phænicia, under Seleucus Philo- 10,) was slain in battle by Judas Maccabæus; and the latter pater, when Heliodorus came to Jerusalem, to rob the temple. (who is called the son of Genneus,) (2 Mac. xii, 2,) being goHe was chief minister of state to Seleucus; but, on the accession vernor of some toparchy in Palestine, vnder Antiochus Eupater, of his brother Antiochus Epiphanes to the crown, he left Syria, did then signalize himself by being a great enemy to the Jews. and retired to Miletus. He had a son of his own name, that -Prideaux's Connection, anno 148. was bred up at Rome, and resided with Demetrius, the son of d The golden buckle, which was worn upon the shoulder, was Seleucus Philopater, who was then an hostage in that place. a very singular mark of distinction both among the Greeks and When Demetrius recovered the crown of Syria, this Apollonius the Persians, from whom the Macedonians took it, and was became his prime favourite, and was made governor of Cælo generally made the reward of great and gallant actions in war, Syria and Phænicia, the same government which his father held - Calmet's Commentary on 1 Mac. x. 89.
A.M.3841, A.C. 163; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M.5247. A.C.164.1 MAC.v.1.JOS,HIST.b.xii.c.11-END OF MAC. JOS. HIST.b.xii. c. 19. ing taken his daughter from Alexander, gave her to his execution, unless he sent the taxes and tribute which rival Demetrius, and with her assurance to restore him to were usually paid by his predecessors; and would cerhis father's throne. The Antiochians, taking the op- tainly have done all that he had threatened, had not portunity of Ptolemy's approach to execute their resent- Tryphon found out another employment for his arıns. ments upon Ammonius, rose in a tumult, and slew him ; This Tryphon had formerly served Alexander, as goand then opening their gates to Ptolemy, were all dis- vernor of Antioch, but, in the present king's reign, was posed to make him their king ; but he modestly declin- laid aside. Observing, however, that the cruelty and ing that offer, recommended to them the restoration of tyranny, which were every where practised, the disbandDemetrius, the true heir : whereupon Demetrius was ing the Syrian soldiers, and retaining only foreigners in received into the city, and placed on the throne of his pay, together with many niore grievances, which the peoancestors.
ple laboured under, had quite alienated their hearts, and Alexander, who was then in Cilicia, hearing of this, made them ready for a general defection, he thought this came with all his forces towards Antioch, wasting the no unfit opportunity to put in practice his long concerted country with fire and sword; but when Ptolemy with his scheme of advancing himself to the crown of Syria. new son-in-law, met him, and gave him battle, his army To this purpose he goes into Arabia ; ' gets Antiochus, was routed, and himself was forced to fly to Arabia, son of the late Alexander, into his hands; brings him where Zabdiel, king of the country, cut off his head, and into Syria, claims the kingdom for him ; and, to support sent it as a present to Ptolemy, who was not a little this claim, all the soldiers whom Demetrius had disbandpleased with the sight of it. His joys however did not ed, and several others, whom his ill conduct had made last long ; for in five days' time he died of the wounds he his enemies, flock in great numbers to the pretender. had received in battle, leaving Demetrius in quiet pos- With these Tryphon marches against Demetrius, vansession of his father's kingdom, which he having recov- quishes him in battle, forces him into Seleucia, and havered by virtue of this victory, did thenceforward take ing taken possession of Antioch, places Antiochus upon upon him the name of Nicanor, that is, conqueror. the throne, and gives him the name of Theos, or the
During these transactions, Jonathan laid siege to the Divine. fortress at Jerusalem ; but some of the garrison, escaping The ill return which Demetrius made Jonathan, was, by night, came and acquainted Demetrius with it, who doubtless, the chief reason for his declaring for this new thereupon marched from Antioch with an army to relieve king; o who, by the advice of those that were about him, it. But coming to Ptolemais, he stopped there and sent took care, not only to confirm him in the office of high for Jonathan to appear before him, and answer to such priest, and in all his other places and dignities, but to accusations as were preferred against him. Jonathan make likewise his brother Simon commander of all his went thither, though he ordered the siege still to go on; forces, from Tyre to the frontiers of Egypt. Upon this and, when he came to Demetrius, by his rich presents defection from him, Demetrius sent all the troops that and wise management, he so mollified the king, and in- were left in Cælo-Syria and Phænicia, to chastise him sinuated bimself into his good graces, that he not only for it: but he not only repulsed them twice, but took confirmed him in the possession of what he had, but | Gaza likewise, and all the country as far as Damascus; honoured him likewise with many new favours, and upon while Simon,’ whom he left in Judea, penetrating into the the payment of 300 talents, agreed to exempt from all land of the Philistines, took Joppa, and placed a strong tolls, taxes and tributes, all the places that were under garrison in it. Tryphon, who had no other aim in gethis government.
ting young Antiochus into his hands, than to serve bis Jonathan, upon his return to Jerusalem, pressed the wicked purposes, knew very well, that, as long as Jonasiege of the fortress very closely; but finding little or than continued in his interest, it would be in vain for bim no success therein, he sent an embassy, ' to Demetrius, to attempt the crown ; and 8 therefore, having prevailed desiring him to withdraw the garrison, which he could with him to dismiss bis army, and to accompany him to not expel. This and much more Demetrius promised Ptolemais, under pretence of putting that place into his to do for him, if he would but send him some forces to hands, with no more than a thousand men, they were to reduce the inhabitants of Antioch, who, incensed by his soouer entered, but the garrison, having shut the gates cruelty and oppression, had taken up arms against him. upon them, seized Jonathan, and put his men to the Jonathan immediately dispatched 3000 choice men to his sword. aid, who coming to Antioch, when the people had beset Having thus circumvented Jonathan, he took him along the place with an intent to murder the tyrant, as they with him, and marched his army into Judea ; but the called him, fell on with fire and sword, and having burn- Jews by this time had chosen Simon his brother for their ed a great part of the city, and slain of the inhabitants conmander, and were ready to give him a warm recepabout 100,000 persons, obliged the rest to have recourse tion. Not finding himself therefore able to engage then, to the king's clemency, and pray for peace. But all this he sent Simon this deceitful message,_9 « That he had service arailed nothing. Demetrius,“ seeing this storm seized Jonathan only because he owed 100 talents to the overpast, forgot the bargains which he had made with king; but that in case be would send the money, ar! Jonathan at Ptolemais ; and, though he had received the Jonathan's two sons to be hostages for their father's 300 talents in lieu of them, threatened him with military fidelity, he would set him again at liberty." Simon srea
5 1 Mac. xi. 54-56; Joseph. Antiq. b. xiii. c. 9; aud Apisum i 1 Mac. xi. 13; Joseph. Antiq. b. xiii. c.8.
de Syriacis. 2 Ibid. ver. 20, 47; Joseph. Antiq. b. xvii. c. 8.
6 Jbid. xi. 57—59; Joseph. ibid. Ibid, ver. 47–52; Joseph. Antiq. b. xiii. c. 9.
i 1 Mac, xi, 64; Joseph. Ibid. 4 | Mac. xi. 53.
• Ibid. xii, 12-19; Joseph. Antiq. b. xiii. c. ll.
* Ibid. xii. 304
A. M.3841. A. C.163; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 5247.A.C.164. 1 MAC.v.1. JOS. HIST. b. xii.c.14-END OF MAC. JOS. HIST. b. xiii. c. 19. saw through this deceit; but he complied with the trai- Cleopatra his queen had shut up herself and her children tor's demand, for fear it should be said that he had not in Seleucia; ¢ but, fearing to fall into the hands of the done all that lay in his power to save his brother's life; traitor Tryphon, and being provoked at her husband's and accordingly sent the money, and two young men. marrying the daughter of Mithridates, king of Parthia,“ But when the villain had got them in his power, he put she sent to his brother Antiochus, who still continued in both them and their father to death ; and thinking that Crete, offering him the crown, and herself in marriage, he had now nothing to obstruct his main design, he caus- if he would come and join his interest with hers against ed Antiochus to be murdered privately; and then assum- Tryphon. This offer he readily accepted of; and, in the ing the crown, declared himself king of Syria in his beginning of the next year, landed in Syria, with an army stead.
of mercenaries, which was soon augmented by a large acWhen Simon heard of his brother’s death, and that he cession of the usurper's forces, which every day deserted was buried at Bascama in the land of Gilead, he sent from him: so that, not being able to keep the field, he and fetched his dead body from thence; and, having fled from place to place, till at length, coming to Apaburied it with great funeral solemnity in his father's se- mea, d his own native city, he was there taken and put pulchre at Modin, he erected over it a stately monu- to death. This end being put to his usurpation, Antioment, a all built of white marble, and curiously wrought chus became fully possessed of his father's throne; and, and polished.
being a man much addicted to hunting, he had for that 2 Simon, as soon as he was admitted to the govern- reason the name of Sidetes, which, in the Syrian lanment of the land, sent to Demetrius, who was then at guage, signifies the hunter. Laodicea, a crown of gold, and ambassadors to treat Before Antiochus landed in Syria, to gain Simon over with him about terms of peace and alliance. The king to his interest, he wrote him a letter, s wherein he made granted to Simon a confirmation of the high priesthood him many grants, and promised him more; but, as soon and principality, and to the people a release of all taxes, as he was settled in the kingdom, he forgot his promises, tolls, and tributes, with an oblivion of all past acts of
Joseph. Antiq. b. 13. c. 12. $1 Mac. xv. 2-5. hostility, on condition that they would join with him against the usurper: in virtue of which treaty, Simon, thians liad at this time overrun in a manner all the East, and
had made themselves masters of every country from the river being made sovereign prince of the land, and the land Indus to the Euphrates, those who were of the Macedonian race freed from all foreign yoke, the Jews from this time, in those parts, not bearing their usurpation and insolence, invitinstead of dating their instruments and contracts by the ed Demetrius, by repeated embassies, to come to their relief, years of the Syrian kings, as hitherto they had done, assistance of forces against them as would enable him to suppress
promising him a general revolt -from the Parthians, and such dated them by the years of Simon and his successors. these usurpers, and recover to his dominions all the provinces of
Having thus obtained the independent sovereignty of the East.' Upon confidence of these promises, he undertook the the land,' he took a progress through it, to inspect what expedition; and found as soon as he appeared, that the Elywas wanting for its security; repairing the fortifications mæans, the Persians, and the Bactrians, declared for him. By
the assistance of these nations he overthrew the Parthians in that were decayed, making new ones where they were several conflicts; but at last, under the show of a treaty of peace, wanted, and besieging and taking the places that stood being drawn into a snare, he was made prisoner, and all his out against him. He had no occasion however to be army cut to pieces. The king that reigned in Parthia at this siege the fortress of Jerusalem, because the wall which time was Mithridates, the son of Priapatites, who, having thus
got Demetrius into his power, carried him round the revolted his brother Jonathan had built against it had so cut off provinces, that, by seeing the prince whořn they confided in reall communication with the city, that the garrison being duced to this ignominious condition, they might more easily be sore distressed for want of provisions, and all other ne- brought to submit to their former yoke: but, when he had done cessaries, was forced to surrender the place; and Simon, this, he allowed liim a maintenance suitable to the state of a
king, and gave him one of his daughters, whose name was wisely considering how much the city of Jerusalem had Rhodaguna, in marriage.—Justin, b. 41. c. 5, and 6; Joseph. been infested by that citadel, pulled it down to the Antiq. 1. 13. c. 9 and 12; and Orosus, b. 5. c. 4. ground, that it might no longer be a retreat to sedition c Seleucia was a city of Syria, situate upon the Mediterranean, and faction; and, to prevent its being built at any time, It was generally called Pieria, to distinguish it from other cities
near the place where the Orontes discharges itself into that sea. levelled the hill on which it was situated; so that now no of the same name; and from it the country adjoining received eminence was left but the mount of the temple only. the name of Seleucis. To the natural strength of the place, were Demetrius b at this time was prisoner in Parthia, and added so many fortifications, that, in the opinion of Strabo, the
city was rendered impregnable. Pompey, the Roman general,
conferred on it the privilege of a free city, a privilege which was 11 Mar. xiii, 25—30: Joseph. Antiq. h. xiii. c. 11. confirmed hy several emperors, as appears from many ancient ' 1 Mac, xiii. 31–42; Josep. ibid. 31 Mac. xiv, 7-33.
medals. The chief deity ofthe inhabitants, previous to the recepa This edifice, being ererted on an eminence, was seen far off tion of Christianity, was Jupiter, whose worship was splendidly at sea; and, on that coast, was taken notice of as a good sea- celebrated on Casius, a neighbouring mountain, '. It was from the mark. Near to the monument Simon placed seven pyramids, port of this city that Paul and Barnabas embarked for Cyprus, two for his father and mother, four for his four brothers, and the Acts xiii, 4; and, like the neighbouring city of Antioch, where seventh for himself, and then encompassed the whole with a the disciples of Jesus were first called Christians. The city of stately portico, supported by marble pillars, each of one entire Seleucia also very early received the gospel, probably about A.D., piere, and whereon were engraved ships and arms, and other 43. At a subsequent period it became an eminent Christian city; military ensigns. Josephus tells us, that this whole fabric was but nothing remains of Seleucia at the present time, except ruins, standing entire in lois days, and looked upon as a very curious among which are those of some of its ancient churches and conand excellent piece of architecture ; (Antiq. b. 13, c. 11.) and vents.-ED. Eusehjus mentions it as still in being in his time, which was two d It is a city of Syria, lying upon the Orontes, and was built, hundred years after the time of Josepbus.-- Prideaux's Connec- as is believed, either by Seleucus the first king of Syria, or by tion, anno 141.
his son Antiochus Soter, in honour of Queen Apamea the wife of 6 The reason of Demetrius's heing in this condition in this Seleucus, the mother of Antiochus.- Calmet's Dictionary, wider place, hy profane historians, is said to be this:-As the Par- the word.