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A.M.3841. A.C.163, OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M.5217. A.C 161.1 MAC.v. i.JOS. HIST. b. xii. c. 14-END OF MAC.JOS. HIST.b.xiil.e.19. and sent an ambassador, demanding him to deliver up execrable villain, o we have no manner of account in Joppa and Gazara, and other places, or else to pay him history. a thousand talents of silver for them. These conditions 3 Antiochus having received from Ptolemy an account were thought too unreasonable to be complied with; and of the death of Simon and his sons, thought that he had therefore, when Antiochus sent an army under the com- now a fair opportunity to reduce Judea again under the mand of Cendebeus, to enforce them, Simon, though Syrian empire ; and therefore he immediately marched a very far advanced in years, with a juvenile courage, pre-. large army thither; and having overrun the country, and pared to give him a warm reception; and, with his two driven Hyrcanus out of the field, he shut him up and all sons, Judas and John, who was afterwards called Hyr- his forces within the walls of Jerusalem, and there becanus, put his army to flight almost at the first onset, sieged him. The siege was carried on vigorously; and and, in the pursuit, cut off a great number of them: but, the defence of the place was executed as gallantly: but to be revenged of him for this defeat, Antiochus concert- Hyrcanus being distressed for want of provisions for so ed the most abominable measures.

vast a nunber of people as was in the city, was forced Simon had a son-in-law named Ptolemy, whoin he to sue for peace, which was granted him upon these terms, had appointed governor of the plains of Jericho. ? This that the besieged should deliver up their arms; that man, who was rich and ambitious, had laid a design, Jerusalem should be dismantled ; that tribute should be which he communicated to Antiochus, for the usurpation paid to the king for Joppa, and the other towns which of the government to himself; but this could not well be were held by the Jews out of Judea ; and that, to buy done without the destruction of Simon and his family. of the fortress of Jerusalem, from being rebuilt, which As Simon, therefore, and two of his sons, Judas and Antiochus much insisted on, they should pay him five Mattathias, were making a progress through the cities hundred talents ; d three hundred down in band, and the of Judah, when they came to Jericho, Ptolemy invited them to an entertaininent which he had prepared for them 31 Mac. xvi. 18; Joseph. Antiq. b. xiii. c. 16. in a castle of his own building: but, while they were off, no grief and lamentation, too great for a man of his uncommanı drinking and making merry, he caused them, and all that merit

. - Universal History, b. ii. c. 11. attended them, to be assassinated; and, thinking there- miscreant, namely, that after he had killed his father-in-law

c Josephus has something peculiar in his account of this vile upon to make himself master of the whole land, he sent a Simon, he seized on his wife, and two of her children, and with party to Gazara, where John Hyrcanus, a Simon's third them betook himself to a certain castle not far from Jerusalem, son, resided, with a design to slay hini likewise. But called Dagon; that when Hyrcanus came to besiege it, the vilHyrcanus having had intelligence of what passed at whip and torment them in the sight of all the people, with me

lain's custom was, to bring out his mother and brothers, and to Jericho, was prepared to receive his intended murderers, aces to cast them headlong from the battlements, unless Hyrezand having dispatched them, hastened to Jerusalem to nus withdrew the siege; that when lyrcanus, out of tendeniess secure the city, and the mount of the temple, against to his mother and brothers, was thinking of raising the siege, aid those whom the traitor had sent to take possession of from the walls, not to regard her, or her children’s sufferings, but

suflering the traitor to escape, his mother called aloud to him both. After this Hyrcanus was declared high priest and to proceed in the siege with vigour, that so he might do himself prince of the Jews, in place of his father Simon, who and his family right, in taking a just vengeance upon that exerrawas greatly lamented; but what finally became of this ble monster; that, notwithstanding this magnanimous exhortation,

he could not bear to see his relations tortured, and therefore

delayed the siege, until the sabbatical year came on, wherein the 'i Mac. xv. 30–36.

Jews were obliged to rest; so that Ptolemy, by this means, being * Ibid. xvi. 14-22 ; Joseph. Antiq. b. 13. c. 14. delivered from the war, and the siege, after he had slain de a Why this captain was called Hyrcanus, some impute to the mother and brothers of Hyrcanus, withdrew to Zeno, surnamed victory which he obtained over Hyrcanus, whom the books of the Catyla, a tyrant who at that time had usurped to himself the Maccabees, and Josephus, call Čendebeus, though others say, government of Philadelphia ; (Antiq. b. xiii. c. 15). But qur that he had this name from a gallant action against the Hyrca- learned Uslier is of opinion, that this whole account of Joseplus nians, perhaps in the expedition wherein he accompanied Alex- is fabulous. ander Sidetes beyond the Euphrates.--Culmei's Dictionary, under d Josephus tells us that Hyrcanus, to find some money the word.

this, and other occasions of the government, broke up the septal1 The commendation which the autlior of the first book of the chre of David, and took from thence three thousand talents

, and Maccabees, (chap. xiv. 4,) &c. bestows upon Simon, is worth our that Herod the Great did afterwards the like, antiq. b. xvii

. observation : for he therein tells us, that he sought the good of c. 16, and b. xvi. c. 11. But both these stories are liiglaly imthe nation,' in every thing, ‘so that his authority always pleased probable. David had now been dead nearly wine hundred years them well:' that during his administration, whilst Syria, and and what is told of this treasure, supposes it to have been buried other neighbouring kingdoms were almost destroyed by wars, the with him all this time. It supposes, that as oft as the city of Jews lived quietly, every man under his own vine and fig tree,' Jerusalem, the palace, and the temple, during the reigns of the enjoying, without fear, the fruits of their lahours, and be holding kings of Judah, had been plundered of all their wealth and treswith pleasure the flourishing state of their country ; their tradu sure by prevailing enemies, this dead stock still remained sale jocreased by the reduction of Joppa, and other maritime places; from all rifle or violation. It supposes, that as oit as these kings their territories enlarged; their armies well disciplined; their were forced to take all the treasure that was fouod in the house towns and fortressus well garrisoned; their religion and liberties of the Lord, as well as in their own, to relieve the exigencies of secured; their land freed from heathen enemies, and Jewish the state, they never meddled with this, that was uselessly buried apostales ; and their friendship courted by all the nations about with David in his grave. It supposes, that when one of the them, even by the Romans and the Lacedemonians. He observes worst of their kings (2 Kings xv.8, &c. and 2 Chron. xxviii. 21, farther, that this Simon was no less zealous for the service of &c.) plundered the temple of its sacred vessels, and cut tben ja Goil, in exterminating apostasy, superstition, idolatry, and every pieces, to melt them down into money for his common arasiaus; thing else that was contrary to his laws: that he was a great and that wheu one of the best of them (2 Kings xviii

. 15, 16) protector of the true Israelites, and a friend to the poor; that he was forced to cut of the gold where with the gales and pillars el restored the service of the temple to its ancient splendour, and the temple were overlaid, io bribe a destroying enemy, this user repaired the number of its sacred vessels; so that we need not less treasure still continued untouched. Nay, it supposes, las wonder, if the Jewish sanhedrim thought no diguity or honour, Jorhen Nebuchadnezzar destroyed busha ile city and the temple o while he lived, and when he was so basely aud barbarously cuél Jerusalem ; so that, for many years they boti lay iu rublish, this

A.M. 3841. A.C. 163; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 5247. A.C.164. 1 MAC.v.1.JOS.HIST.b.xii.c.14—END OF MAC.JOS. HIST.b.xiii.c-19. other two in a reasonable time, for which they were to pretending to be the son of Alexander Balas, laid claim give hostages.

to his crown; and by the assistance of Ptolemy PhysThe treaty being thus concluded, Hyrcanus invited con, king of Egypt, defeated him in a pitched battle. the king and his army into the city, where he gave them Demetrius fled for refuge to Ptolemais, where his wife a splendid and most magnificent reception, and after- Cleopatra c then resided; but she ordered the gates to wards, with some of his forces, attended him to the be shut against him, so that he was forced to betake Parthian war: for Antiochus, under pretence of rescuing himself for refuge to Tyre, where he fell into the hands his brother Demetrius Nicanor from the hands of Phra- of his enemies, who first made him prisoner, and then ortes king of Parthia, wbo had long detained him as put him to death. Zabina, by this means, ascended the prisoner, marched against him with a powerful army. throne of Syria, but he did not sit long there; for PhysIn three pitched battles he gained the victory, and reco- con, expecting that he should hold it in homage from vered Babylonia, Medea, and some other provinces that him, which the other was not inclinable to do, resolved formerly belonged to the Syrian monarchy; and as Hyr- to pull him down as fast as he had set him up; and canus had his share in all these actions, he returned with therefore, having married his daughter Tryphæna to the glory of them at the end of the year ; but Antiochus Antiochus Gryphus, the son of the late Demetrius, he 'and his army, who chose to winter in the east, were assisted him with an army, which vanquished Zabina, and all, in one night,« destroyed by the inhabitants of the compelled him to shut himself up in Antioch : but the country.

Antiochians, being informed that he intended to rob In the mean time, Demetrius,' whom Phraortes o had their teniple of Jupiter of a golden statue, which was sel at liberty, was returned to Syria, and, upon his bro- very massy, to enable him to carry on the war, thrust ther's death, had recovered his kingdom; but still per- him out from thence, so that wandering from place to sisting in his vicious courses, and tyrannical way of to place, he fell at last into the hands of those who cargoverninent, he had not been long reinstated, before his ried him to Antiochus, by whose direction he was put to subjects rebelled against him, and one Alexander Zabina, death.

During these divisions and disturbances, Hyrcanus 1 Justin, b. xxxviii.

laid hold on the opportunity, not only to enlarge his 1 Justin, b. xxxviii; Joseph. Antiq. b. xiii. c. 16. own territories, but to shake off the Syrian yoke liketreasure in David's sopulchre lay, all the while, safe and secure wise, and make himself wholly independent. He built under it: and that when Antiochus Epiphanes, in like manner, destroyed the city, and robbed the temple of all that he could find,

the stately tower, or rather castle of Baris, d upon a tuis treasure still escaped his rapacious hands, nor was ever steep rock, that was fifty cubits high, and on all sides molested, till Hyrcanus, at this time, was forced to make bold | inaccessible, except towards the temple. He took with it: all which suppositions seem highly improbable, and be- several cities, which the great draughts of men the kings yond belief

. There is this, however, to be said in the matter, of Syria had made for their foreign expeditions, had left that as there certainly was a bank or treasury in the temple where money was laid up for the support of the poor, for the relief of unprovided with garrisons : he subdued Shechem, the widows and fatherless children, and for the maintenance of divine chief seat of the sect of the Samaritans, and destroyed service; and where the great men, and rich men of the nation, their temple which Sanballat had built them on Mount were used to deposit their wealth, for its better security: it is Gerazzim: ‘he conquered the Idumeans, and prevailed not improbable, that upon the account of the frequent invasions and depredations they were liable to, this treasure might be kept with them all to become proselytes e to the Jewish reliin some secret and subterraneous place, unknown to all, but such as were at the head of affairs; that Hyrcanus, being now under

* Justin, b. xxxix. c. 1, and 2; Joseph. Antiq. b. xiii. c. 17. great difficulty to raise money, might horrow it out of this bank,

* Joseph. Antiq. b. xiii. c. 17. till better times enabled him to repay it; and that Herod, when he plundered it quite, might trump up this plausible story, that c This Cleopatra was the daughter of Ptolemy Philometer, it neither belonged to church, nor poor, nor any private person, king of Egypt, and Cleopatra his wife. She was at first married but had been deposited there by David and his successors, as a to Alexander Balas, and afterwards to this Demetrius, in her proper supply for the state in times of need.-Prideaux's Con- father's lifetime. While Demetrius was detained a prisoner in nection, anno 135; and Universal History, b. ii. c. II.

Parthia, she became the wife of his brother Antiochus Sidetes; a The army, which, together with its attendants, amounted but, upou the death of Sidetes, the restoration of Demetrius, and to the number of nearly four hundred thousand persons, being recovery of his kingdom, she returned to his bed again, but never forced to disperse all over the country, were quartered at too had any great esteem for him, because in his captivity he had great a distance from each other to be able in any time to gather married the danghter of the king of Parthia.- Prideaux's Cortogether in a body; and as they had grievously oppressed all nection, anno 127. places wherever they lay, the inhabitants took the advantage of d The word baris, which is originally Chaldee, signifies prothis their dispersion, and conspired with the Parthians, in one perly a house, or castle, inclosed on every side, as this was encomand the same day, to fall upon them in their several quarters, passed with the wall which Simou built to stop the communicaand cut their throats; which accordingly they did, and when tion between the temple and the fortress of Acre. Here it was Antiochus, with the forces which he had about him, hastened to that Hyrcanus built an apartment, for the safe keeping of his the assistance of the quarters that were near him, he was over- pontifical robes and ornaments, whenever he undressed himself ; powered, and slain; so that of this numerous army, there scarce and here the Asmonean princes took up their abode, and made returned a man into Syria, to carry the doleful news of this ter- it their royal palace, until Hercd asceuded the throne, and havrible overthrow. Phraortes, however, (who was then king of ing rebuilt, enlarged, and beautified it, gave it the name of AnParthia,) caused the body of Antiochus to be taken up from tonia, in honour of his friend M. Antony.—Universal History, among the dead, and having put it into a silver coffin, sent it b.ii. c. 11. honourably into Syria, to be there buried among his ancestors.- e Among the Jews there were two sorts of proselytes, namely, Justin, b. xxxviii. c. 12; Joseph. Antiq. b. xiii. c. 16.- the proselytes of the gate, and the proselytes of justice. 1. The Apion de Syriacis.

proselytes of the gate, were so called, because they were permitted 6 The reason of his releasing Demetrius, and sending him to dwell with the Jews in the same cities, and the occasion of into Syria, was, that by raising troubles there for the recovery of their name seems to have been taken from that expression in the his crown, he might force Antiochus to return, in order to sup- fourth commandment, 'the strangers which are within thy gates: press them.-Prideaux's Connection, anno 130.

where the word ger, which we render strangers, does every A. M.3941. A.C.163; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 5247. A.C. 161. IMAC.v.I.JOS.HIST.b.xii.c.14--END OF MAC.JOS. HIST.b. xii.c.19 gion, so that thenceforward they were incorporated into / administration, and to give hiin all the commendations the same church and nation, and in time lost the name due to a brave man, and a just and worthy governor. of Idumeans or Edomites, and were all called Jews. He When the rest had done their encomiums, Eleazar, who renewed the alliance with the Romans, and, by a de- had hitherto said nothing, rose up, and, directing his discree« from them, obtained greater privileges and ad- course to Hyrcanus, " Since you desire," said he,“ to vantages than the Jews ever had before; and now, have the truth freely told you, if you would show yourbeing much increased in riches and power, he sent his self a just man, resign the high priesthood, and content two sons, Aristobulus and Antigonus, to besiege Samaria, yourself with the civil government of the nation.” Hyrwho on this occasion gave good proofs of their valour canus then asking him for what reason he gave him that and conduct. The place held out for a whole year; advice? “ Because," replied he,“ we are assured, by the but, being forced to surrender at last, by the direction testimony of the ancients among us, that your mother of Hyrcanus, it was utterly demolished: for he caused was a captive taken in the wars, and being therefore the

not only the houses and walls to be pulled down, and son of a strange woman, you are incapable of that high · razed, but trenches to be dug every way across the ground office and dignity.”

whereon it stood, and to be filled with water, that it might This was an allegation salse in fact, and therefore all never again be built.

the company resented it with a just indignation; but After the taking of Samaria, the remainder of his life Hyrcanus was so exasperated at it, that he resolved to Hyrcanus enjoyed in full quiet from all foreign wars ; be revenged in a very signal manner. This disposition but,' towards the conclusion of it, met with some trouble one Jonathan, an intimate 'friend of his, but a zealous from the Pharisees, a prevailing sect among the Jews. Sadducee, observing, took the opportunity to endeavour They, by their pretences to extraordinary strictness in to set him against the whole sect of the Pharisees, (among religion, had gained to themselves a great reputation whom Hyrcanus had been bred up,) and to draw him over and interest among the common people; and, for this to that of the Sadducees. To this purpose he suggested reason, Hyrcanus endeavoured to gain their esteem by to him,—“ That this was not the single act of Eleazar, all manner of favours. Having therefore, one day, in- but, most certainly a thing concerted by the wbole party; vited several of their leading men to a splendid enter- that Eleazar, in speaking it out, was no more than the tainment, when the banquet was over, he desired them to mouth of the rest ; and that, to satisfy himself in these tell him, 'if, in the conduct of his life, he bad done any particulars, he needed only refer it to them in what manthing contrary to justice and religion, according to the ner the calumniator deserved to be punished.” Hyrcanus maxims received and taught amongst them.' As soon followed his advice : and therefore, consulting the chief as he had ended his discourse, all began to praise his leaders of the Pharisees with relation to the penalty

which he might deserve, who had thus slandered the Joseph. Antiq. b. xiji. c. 18.

prince, and high priest of his pation, he received for whit as properly signify proselytes. Now, this kind of prose-answer,—“ That as calumny was no capital ciwe, all ytes was obliged only to renounce idolatry, and to worship God the punishinent that it merited could be only whipping According to the law of nature, which the doctors of the Talmud reduced to seven articles, called by them the • seven precepts of that what Jonathan had suggested was true, and, from

or imprisonment :” 2 which fully convinced Hyrcanus, the sons of Noah.' Whoever performed these were looked upon as in a state of acceptance with God; and allowed, not only to that very moment, he became a mortal enemy to the live quietly in their cities, but to resort likewise to their temple, whole sect of the Pharisees. Their traditional constituthere to ofler up their prayers; but then they were permitted to tions he forthwith abrogated; he enjoined a penalty on enter no farther than into the outer court, which was called the 6 court of the Gentiles.' 2. The proselytes of justice' were so

all that should observe them ; and he himself for ever recalled, because they took upon them to observe the whole law, nouncing their party, went over to that of the Sadducees. both moral and ceremonial, in the latter of which some of the But, notwithstanding this, he was an excellent governor; Jews, and especially the Pharisees, made justification to consist.

The former sort of proselytes had no form of initiation, but these and, from the cime of his father's death, having had the were admitted by baptism, sacrifice, and circumcision; and when administration of all affairs, both in church and stime, itt they were thus admitted, they were received into the Jewish the space of nine and twenty years, at hij death, he left church, and to all the rights and privileges of church-membership, the high priesthood and sovereignty to Judas Aristobulus, in the same manner as if they had been natural Jews.-Preface who was the first that, in a formal manner, took Generale sur le Nov. Test. par de Beausobre, and L'enfant; aud him the title of a king, by putting a diadem on his head. Prideau's Connection, anno 129.

a The ambassadors whom Hyrcanus sent to Rome to renew the league, which his father Simon had made with the senate, made their complaint-That Antiochus Sidetes had made war upou the Jews, contrary to what the Romans had in their behalf decreed in that league: that they had taken from them several

CHAP. II.-Objections answered and Difficulties cities, and made them become tributary to them for others, and

obviated. forced them to a dishonourable peace, by besieging Jerusalem: Whereupon the senate decreed, that whatever of this kind had The name of Maccabees relates not only to Judas and been done against them, since the time of the late treaty with his brothers, but to all those who joined him in the same Simon, should be all null and void ; that all the places which had either been taken from them, or made tributary by the Syrians,

Joseph. Antiq. b. xiii. c. 18. should be restored, and made free from all homage, tribute, and 6 This punishment, among the Jews, was not to exceed forty other services; that, for the future, the Syrian kings should have stripes, Deut. xxv. 3. ; and therefore the whip where with it was no right to march their armies through the Jewish territories; inflicted, was made with three thongs, and each blow gave three that for all the damages which the Syrians had done the Jews, stripes, they never inflicted upon any crimival more than thirten, reparation should be made them; and that ambassadors should because thirteen of these blows made thirty-nine stripes

, and to be sent from Rome to see this decree put in execution.-Jewish I have added another blow, would have been a transgression of the Antiq. b. xiii. c. 17.

| law, hy inflicting two stripes more than what was prescribed

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upon A.M. 3811. A.C. 163: OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A:M, 5247. A.C. 161. 1 MAC.v.1.JOS. ILIST, b.xii.c.ltesd or MACJOS,ILIST.b.xiii.c.19. cause ; and, not only to them, but also to all others, who the history; and of the history itself, which is an abridgsuffered in the like cause under any of the Grecian kings, ment of a larger work, composed by one Jason, an Hellenwhether of Syria or Egypt, though sone of them lived ist Jew of Cyrene; but the whole is by no means equal to long before them. Thus those who suflered under Ptole- the excellence and accuracy of the first. The third, which my Philopater, at Alexandria, fifty years before the time seems to have been written by an Alexandrian Jew, d in of Judas, were afterwards called Maccabees, as were the Greek language, is set off with enlargements and en. likewise Eleazar, and the mother, and her seven sons, bellishments of the author's own invention; but, as to the though they suffered likewise before Judas erected the main ground-work of it, or the reality of such a persestandard which gave occasion to the name.

cution raised against the Jews at Alexandria, it is unAs therefore those books which give us the history doubtedly true; and, though its style be a little too of Judns and his brethren, and their wars against the theatrical, its sentiments in many places are both benuSyrian kings, in defence of their religion and liberties, tiful and sublime. The fourth, e which is generally are called the first and second books of the Maccabees; allowed to be the same with what is ascribed to Joseso that which gives us the history of those, who, in the phus, the Jewish historian, under the title of “ The govlike cause, under Ptolemy Philopater, were exposed to erning power of reason,” is designed to enlarge and his elephants at Alexandria, is called the third book of adorn the history of old Eleazar, and of the seven brothe Maccabees; as that which contains the account of thers, who, with their mother, suffered martyrdom under the martyrdom of Eleazar, and of the seven brothers Antiochus, as it is related more succinctly in the second and their mother, is called the fourth.

book of Maccabees. ? According to the order of time, indeed, and the sub- The author of the epistle to the Hebrews has stamped ject matter which they treat of, these books are wrong some authority upon these books, by alluding to their placed; for the third should be set first, the second history, and the punishment which the Maccabees were placed before the first, and the fourth immediately after made to undergo; but we must not therefore receive it; so that, to reduce them to right order, the first should them as canonical, because, according to the report of be put in the place of the third, and the third in the St Jerome, neither the Jewish nor the Christian church place of the first. Grotius, indeed, is of opinion, that ever looked upon them in that capacity: the church inthe third book, though it treats of matters antecedent to deed read the books of Maccabees but did not receive what is the subject of the first and second, was neverthe- them among the canonical writings. They read them as Jess written after them, even after the book of Ecclesias- books which contained lessons of wholesome instruction, ticus, and upon that account had the name of the third and excellent examples of worthy patriots, and glorious book given it; but the true reason of its being postponed martyrs suffering manfully in the defence of their reliis :—that, being of less repute and authority than the gion and liberty, and not accepting deliverance, that two former, it has always been reckoned after them, they might obtain a better resurrection.' according to the order of dignity, though it be before 6 In the whole compass of history, where can we find a them in the order of time.

pattern in allrespects equal to Judas Maccabæus ? Most of The first of these books : was originally written in the

• Chap. vi. and vii.

* Heh, xi, 35, &c. Chaldee a language of the Jerusalem dialect, which was

Calmet's Commentary on 1 Mac. ix. 18. the only language spoken in Juden after the return from the second, it is not only written in the name of Judas Maccathe Babylonish captivity, and is a very accurate and bæus, who was slain six and thirty years before the date which excellent history, coming nearest to the style and man- it bears, but also contains such tabulous and absurd stuti, as could ner of the sacred historical writings of any extant. The never have been written by the great comcil of the Jews, assemsecond is a compilation of several pieces; of two epis- Prideaux's Connection, amo 166.

bled a! Jerusalem for the whole nation, as this pretends to be. tles from the Jews at Jerusalem to those of Alexandria, c This book, though it is in most of the ancient manuscript * which seem to be spurious; \ of a preface preceding copies of the Greek Septuagint, and quoted by several fathers as

an holy and divine hook, yet was it never inserted in the vulgar "Prideaux's Connection, anno 216.

Latin translation of the bible; and, as our first English trausla2 Calmet's Preface on the third book of Maccabees.

· lbid.

tions were made from that, none of them have it among the Prideaux's Commection, anno 100.

apocryphal books; nor has it ever since been added, though it

certainly deserves a place therein much better than several Rather than do this therefore, the usual way was, to give one too other pieces that are there.- Prideaux's Connection, anno 214. few; and therefore St Paul tells us, 2 Cor. xi. 24, that when he This is a mistake. It was added to the other books in Becke's was whipped by the Jews,' he received forty stripes, save oue.' bille, (1551) and, lastly, in a new version, iu Bishop Wilson's Prideaux's Connection, in the notes, anno 108.

bible.—Bp. Gleig. a It was extant in this language in the time of St Jerome; for d To this day it is extant in most of the ancient manuscript he tells us, that he had seen it, and that the title which it then copies of the Greek Septuagint: as, particularly in the Alexanbore, was Sharbit sar bene El, that is, the sceptre of the prince drian mamuscript in our king's library, and in the Vatican manuof the sons of God, a title which well suited Judas, who was so script at Rome. But, as it was never inserted in the vulgar valiant a commander of God's people then under persecution. Latin version of the bible, and as that version was the only one From the Chalder it was translated into Greek by Theodotion, in use through the whole western church, until the reformation, as some think, though others account that version elder; and, it thence came to pass, that, in the first translations which we from the Greek, both the Latin translation and our English did have of the bible in the English, the third book of Maccabees proceed.- Prideur's Connection, amo 166.

has never yet been inserted among other apocryphal tracts, 6 The former of these epistles calls the feast of the dedication, though it certainly deserves a place there much better than some Exqvozuylu iv Kudiacó, that is, the fenst of making tabernacles or parts of the second book of the Maccabees.-. Prideaux's Connecbooths in Cisleu. Now, as the month Cisleu fell in the middle tion, anno 216. of winter, it can hardly be presumed, that the people could either e This book, in like manner, though it be found in most of lie abroad in these booths, or find green boughs enough at this the ancient Greek manuscripts, is not to be met with in any of time of the year wherewith to make them. This is an incon- our Latin bibles; and has therefore no place among our apo gruity enough to explode the former epistle. And then, as to cryphal books.-Prideaux's Connection, anno 216.

4 Ibid.

A. M. 3841. A. C. 163; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M.5247. A.C.161.1 MAC.v.1.JOS, HIST.b.xii.c.14—END OF MAC. JOS.HIST. b.xii.c.19. the commanders we read of were carried away with their have here,” says he, a “ warlike bravery, in which there ambition, vanity or vain glory; and while they valued is no silly appearance of honour and decency, because themselves upon the subduction of others, had no rule or he preferred death to slavery and disgrace.” command over their own passions. But in this Jewish The message which Moses sent to the king of Edom leader we find all the characters of a great hero: cour- was delivered in these words,— Let us pass, I pray age and intrepidity, guided by counsel and wisdon, and thee, through thy country. We will not pass through without any allay either of rashness or pride. And what the fields, or through the vineyards, neither will we a profound knowledge he had of the laws of God, and drink of the water of thy wells. We will go by the the principles of true morality, every speech that he king's highway; we will not turn to the right hand or to makes to his men, when he is animating them to the the left, until we have passed thy borders: and Edou combat, and inspiring them with a contempt of the said unto him, Thou shalt not pass by ine, lest I come out greatest dangers, is a sufficient indication.

against thee with the sword.' But hereupon a question He died indeed a little unfortunately, and, when his has arisen, whether the Edomites might lawfully, and acarmy had forsaken him, encountered bis enemies with an cording to the rules of strict right, deny the Israelites a incompetent strength ; but, as he had all along fought passage through their country. under the protection of God's good providence, he had * Selden is of opinion, that princes have always 3 no more reason to be diffident at this time than he had right to deny foreign troops a passage through their been formerly. In his first engagement with the Sy-country, not only to preserve their territories from being rians, when he was to encounter 'forty thousand horse, invaded, and their subjects from being plundered, but and seven thousand foot,' he made proclamation in the to prevent their being corrupted like wise, by the introcamp, that all such "as had betrothed wives, or were duction of strange manners and customs into their king. building houses, or planting vineyards, or were any ways dom. But Grotius, on the other hand, asserts, that this afraid,' might return home, which could not but reduce his refusal of the Edomites was an act contrary to the just army considerably; and yet we find him, with this hand rights of human society ; that, after the promise which ful of men, routing three generals that were sent against the Israelites had made of inarching through their colinhiin at once, forcing and burning their camp, defeating try quietly and inoffensively, they might very justly have their troops, and returning loaded with their spoils. His fallen upon the Edomites, had they not been restrained notion was, that God could save with a few as well as by a divine prohibition : that, for this very cause, the with a multitude ; and therefore he might look on the Greeks thought proper to make war upon the kings of desertion of his forces as a providential thing, to make Mysia ; and that the principal reason which the powers the victory more conspicuous, and to magnify the divine of Christendom gave for their carrying their arıns against interposition in his deliverano».

the Saracens was, because they hindered their brethren 3. The people that are with thee,' says the Lord to going in pilgrimage to Jerusalem from passing through Gideon,' are too many for me to give the Midianites their country. into their hands, lest Israel vaunt themselves against

However the sentiments of these two great men may nie, saying, Mine hand hath saved me: proclaim there- be, it is certain, that Gideon's severity against the inhafore in the tents of the people, that whosoever is fearful bitants of Succoth, for denying bis army some necessary and afraid, let him return, and depart from niount refreshments when they were pursuing the enemy, is Gilead ;' which reduced the Jewish army to ten thou- justified upon the presumption, that such a refusal was a sand, and these again, by another expedient, were reduc- kind of rebellion against the state, that those who exposed to three hundred ; and yet even these, by the assistance ed their lives for the public safety had a right to be of the Lord of Hosts, utterly subdued the vast army of maintained at the public expense, and that no man wight the Midianites. Upon this presumption, then, that call any thing his own when a demand of this nature Judas thought his army under the care and direction of came upon him. And if Gideon, 'who was sent inune the same Lord of Hosts, there was no discouragement diately by an angel to deliver bis brethren, and, in all in the desertion of his forces, nor any false reasoning in his achievements, was supported by the Spirit of God, his speech : “If our time is come, let us die manfully thought it no injustice to put the people of Succoth *** for our brethren ; which, in the present juncture of our exquisite tortures for denying his army what they wanted : affairs, is the best thing we can do: but if it be not, why might not Judas give the people of Ephron up to God, we know, is able to give us victory, and to defend military execution, for being su cruel and inhuman as to us. For how often have we experienced the effects of deny him a passage through their city, when there was his almighty power ? Is not conquest always in his no possibility of taking his route any other way? hands ? Or is there any difference, with regard to him What the particular situation of this l' phron was, we between a larger or a smaller number?” These seem to can no where learn; but the author of the book of Macbe the reasons that deterinined Judas in his choice of cabees seems to imply, that the country all about it nas engaging the enemy, though superior in force : and if innpassable, that is, was very probably so full of water these reasons are built upon right notions of God, and and morasses, that the company which Judas had along confirmed by a long experience of his goodness, they with him must have been lost, had they been obliged to will certainly clear him from all imputation of rashness, turn either to the right hand or to the left. In their or presumptuous tempting of God in this action: an own defence, therefore, they were necessitated to make action for which St Ambrose, in particular, has represent their way through the town ; and if, in the siege and ed him as a perfect model of true heroism: for *“ You

► Mare Clausum, c. 20. On the law of War and Peace, ] Mac, iii. 39. • Ibid ver. 56. Judges vii. 2, &c. b. ij. c. 2; and Mare Clausum, b. i. r, l. • Ambros. b. i. Offic. c. 41.

Judges vi. 14. * Chap. viii, 10. :1 Mac. 4, 45, 46.

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