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A. M. 3897. A.C. 107; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A.M. 5305. A. C. 106. JOS. HIST. b. xii. 6. 19.--END OF b. xv. to assure them, that, as her husband had made her regentness in applying to himn, accepted their presents, and during her children's minority, she would do nothing in assured them of his good inclinations: but the true the administration without their advice and participa- reason of all this civility was, that Lucullus, the Roman tion.”

general, in pursuit of Mithridates, had entered Armenia, After the reduction of Ragaba, Alexandra returned to and was putting the country under military contribution, Jerusalem in the manner that was prescribed, and in which obliged Tigranes to return home, and so delivered every thing else observed her husband's directions most the Jews from the apprehensions of an invasion from punctually: which succeeded so well, that the usual that quarter. invectives against him were changed into encomiums. Alexandra, when she was declared queen, made HyrAll deplored the loss of so valiant a prince, and honour- canus high priest, and left Aristobulus to lead a private ed his funeral with a more than ordinary pomp and life; but a private life was not agreeable to his aspiring solemnity; all pitied the queen-dowager, and, in obe- temper. As soon therefore as he perceived that the dience to her husband's will, settled her in the supreme queen was sick and past all hopes of recovery, he government of the nation.

privately in the night went out of Jerusalem, attended Alexander, when he died, left behind him two sons, only with one servant; and having visited all the castles, Hyrcanus and Aristobulus; but the regency he invested in which, by his procurement, his father's friends had in the queen, who had indeed the name of the govern- been placed in garrison, in fifteen days' time he secured ment, but the administration was entirely in the power to his interest twenty of these fortresses, and thereby of the Pharisees. The first thing therefore that they did, in a manner made himself master of the rest of the was to have the decree of John Hyrcanus against their strength of the kingdom ; so that when his mother died, traditionary constitutions abolished ; next to release all which was not long after his departure from Jerusalem, the prisoners, and recall all the exiles that were con- though she had declared his brother Hyrcanus her succerned with them in the late civil wars; and then to cessor, he nevertheless met him in the plains of Jericho; demand justice against all those by whose instigation but as the two armies were going to engage, most of the and advice the eight hundred rebels above mentioned forces of Hyrcanus deserted, and went over to Aristohad been crucified.

bulus, which obliged Hyrcanus to come to a treaty with To this purpose they exhibited articles against one his brother; in which it was agreed, that he should make Diogenes, a noted confidant of the late king's; had him resignation of the crown and high priesthood to Aristocondemned and executed ; and proceeded in like manner bulus, and submit to live quietly upon his own private against several others; so that the late king's friends fortune ; which accordingly was ratified by public sancand adherents, seeing no end of these persecutions, went tion. at length to the queen in a body, with Aristobulus, her Hyrcanus was a quiet and peaceable man, a lover of younger son, at the head of them, to remonstrate against retirement and ease, and therefore his resignation of the these proceedings. They had been old officers to the crown was not so great a grievance to him, as it was to king, and had faithfully adhered to him in all his wars some about him. Among these Antipater, the father and difficulties; and therefore they requested, that if no of Herod, surnamed the Great, was the chief; who havregard were to be had to their services, they might at ing persuaded Hyrcanus, that, while he continued in least be permitted to depart the land, and seek their Judea, his life was in danger, and that he had no other safety elsewhere, or else, to be out of the reach of their choice left, but either to reign or die, advised him to enemies, might be sent into the several garrisons of the make his escape to Aretas, king of Arabia, and with him kingdom: and to this last demand of theirs the queen he appeared before Pompey, he plucked his crowo or royal tiara consented.

from off his head, and cast himself prostrate on the ground before In the mean time news was brought to Jerusalem, that him.Plutarch in the Life of Lucullus and Pompey. Tigranes, king of Armenia, with an army of five hundred 6 Eusebius and Julius Africanus tell us, that the father of thousand men, had invaded Syria, and would in a short this Antipater was a heathen, and an inhabitant of Ascalon;

that a company of robbers having pillaged a temple near Ascalon, time be in Judea. This put the queen, and all the Jews, took this young Antipater, the father of Herod the Great, who, into a terrible fright; and therefore they immediately at that time, was the priest of the temple, away with them; and dispatched away ambassadors, with presents of great that his father being not able to redeem him, they carried him value, to court his friendship, and divert the storm. iuto Idumæa, where he settled, and made his fortune. But The ambassadors found hiın laying close siege to Ptole-tory of the Jewish wars, (b. i. c. 5.) tells us of this great man

there is much more probability, that what Josephus, in the hismais, and when they were introduced, for he was a man may be true, namely, that he was the son of another Antipater, e of great pride and state, he commended their forward who was made governor of Idumea by Alexander Jannæus; and

as to his religion, there is no question to be made, but that he a This vain man assumed to himself the title of king of kings; was a Jew and circumcised; because the Idumæans had long beand, to make his claim to it the better appear, having taken fore received circumcision and the religion of the Jews, even several petty princes prisoners in his wars with them, he made when Hyrcanus made a conquest of their country. This Antithem wait on him as his domestic servants. He never went pater, having had his education in the court of Alexander Janabroad but he had four of them to attend him; two ruining by næus, and Alexandra his queen, who reigned after him, had him on one side of his horse, and two on the other; and thus, in wrought himself into the good graces of Hyrcanus, the eldest of like manner, he was served by some of them at his table, in his their sons, in hopes to rise by his favour, when he should come bed chamber, and on all other occasions, but more especially to the crown after his mother; but when Hyrcanus was deposed, when he gave audience to ambassadors; for then, to make the and Aristobulus made king in his place, all the measures which greater ostentation of his glory to foreign nations, he made all he had taken for his advancement were broken; and being too these captive kings, in the posture and habit of servants, to range obnoxious to Aristobulus ever to have any prospect of favour from themselves on each side of him. But as proud as he was, when him, he thought himself obliged, both in his own interest and once he came to feel the power of the Roman arms, he was soon defence, to act the part we find he did.-Calmet's Dictionery, brought to such a state of mean and abject humiliation, that when under the word; and Prideaux's Connection, anno 65.

A. M. 3935. A. C. 69; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 5342. A. C. 69. JOS. HIST. b. xili.c. 19-END or b. sv. to stipulate for forces for the recovery of his kingdom. / a thousand of the principal Jews. What Aristobalus Hyrcanus did so; and upon condition that he would re- had to say, in answer to this, was, 6: That Hyrcanus store the towns which his father Alexander had taken was superseded in the government, by reason of his infrom him, Aretas supplied him with fifty thousand men, capacity to rule, and not through any ambition of his ; who, being joined with the Jews that were of Hyrcanus's that his sloth and inactivity bad brought upon him the party, gave battle to Aristobulus, and having obtained contempt of the people, and that therefore he was forced a complete victory, pursued him to Jerusalem, and thence to interpose, merely to preserve the government from to the mount of the temple, where they besieged him, falling into other hands.” And, to witness the truth of and committed some outrageous acts. In the mean this, he produced several young gentlemen of the nation, time, Scaurus, one of Pompey's lieutenants, being come who by the gaudiness of their dress, and the levity of with a Roman army as far as Damascus, Aristobulus their carriage, did no great credit to the cause which they took care, with the promise of four hundred talents, to pretended to support. engage him on his side ; so that he sent to Arelas to Upon this hearing, Pompey could not but perceive withdraw his forces from Jerusalem, and threatened him the injury which Aristobulus had done his brother ; but with the Roman arms in case of refusal. Hereupon for the present he dismissed them with fair words, and Aretas was forced to raise the siege and march off; but referred the full determination of the matter, until himin his retreat Aristobulus fell upon his rear, and de- self should come to Jerusalem, which he would not fail stroyed about seven thousand of his men.

to do, as soon as he had finished the Arabian war. Upon Not long after this Pompey himself came into Syria, the whole, Aristobulus perceiving which way Pompey's and took up his residence at Damascus, where he was discourse and inclinations tended, left Damascus without attended with ambassadors from several nations, and, ever taking leave, and, returning to Judea, there armed among the rest, Hyrcanus and Aristobulus sent their the country in his defence. Pompey bad soon done his deputies, desiring both his protection and determination business in Arabia, and thence coming to Judea, found of the controversy depending between them. But when that, upon his approach, Aristobulus had shut himself up Pompey had heard what they both had to say, he ordered in the castle of Alexandrion, which was a strong fortress, that the two brothers should appear in person before built by his father (and therefore called by this name) him, that so he might be better able to inquire into the on a high mountain, that stood in the entrance of the merits of the cause, and determine it in such a manner country of Judea, towards the Samaritan side. Hither as justice should direct.

Pompey marched his army; and, having encanped beThe two brothers accordingly waited upon Pompey to fore it, sent a niessenger to Aristobulus to come down to receive his decision; and, at the same time, several him. Aristobulus, though with much reluctancy, was chief men of the Jews came to remonstrate against them forced to comply; and when Pompey demanded of him both. The Jews pleaded, “ That it had been formerly to deliver up his castles, and to sign orders to that purthe usage of their nation to be governed by the high pose to all who commanded in them, he durst not refuse priest of the God whom they worshipped, who, without doing it, though he complained of the force that was thus assuming any other title, administered justice to them, put on him ; and, as soon as he got out of Pompey's according to the laws and constitutions transmitted down hands, fled to Jerusalem, and there prepared for war. to them from their forefathers. They owned, indeed, Pompey was not long before he marched after him ; that the two contending brothers were of the sacerdotal but when he drew near to Jerusalem, Aristobulus, b rerace, but then they alleged, that they had changed the penting of what he had done, went out to him, and, enold, and introduced a new form of government, in order deavouring to reconcile matters with him, promised an to enslave the people, and thereupon they prayed that entire submission for the future, and a considerable sum they might not be governed by a king.”

of inoney besides, if he would but withdraw his forces. Hyrcanus on his part urged, “ That, being the elder Pompey accepted the proposal ; and accordingly sent brother, he was unjustly deprived of his birthright by Gabinius, one of his lieutenants, with a body of men, to Aristobulus, who, leaving him only a small portion of receive the money; but, when he came to Jerusalem, be land for his subsistence, had usurped all the rest, and, found the gates shut against him, and was told from the as a man born for mischief, practised piracy at sea, and walls, that those within would stand to no such agreement. rapine and depredation at land, upon his neighbours." This was such treatment, that the Roman general, And for the attestation of all this, there appeared above without any more to do, clapped Aristobulus, whom he

a One barbarous action of this kind is thus related by Jose- had taken with bim, in chains, and so marching forward phus:-At this time there was at Jerusalem one Onias, a man with his whole army, was, by the prevalence of Hyrcapof great reputation for the sanctily of his life, and who, by his us's party, received into Jerusalem ; but the other faction, prayers, had been thought to have once obtained rain from hea- retiring to the mount of the temple, broke down the ven in an extremity of drought. Upon a fond imagination, therefore, that his curses would be as prevalent as his prayers, the besiegers brought him into the camp, and there pressed him 8 The fourth book of the Maccabees (chap. Ixxvi.), says nothing lo curse Aristobulus, and all that were with him. He opposed of this submission of Aristobulus to the Roman general, but teils their request as long as he could; but at length, finding no rest us, that Pompey marched directly against Jerusalem, where from their importunities, he lifted up his hands to heaven, and, observing the situation of the place, the strength of its walls, as he was standing in the midst of them, said, “O Lord God, towers, &c. he resolved to try to gain Aristobulus by fair means; ruler of the universe, since both we, that stand here before thee, that he invited him to come into his camp, and promised him all are thy people, and they that are besieged in the temple, are thy the safety that he could desire; that accordingly he came to him, priests, i humbly beseech thee not to hear the prayers of either of and engaged to deliver up all the treasure of the temple, if be them against the other.” Whereupon they who brought him would but declare for him; but that the priests having refused thicher, were so enraged against the good man, that they fell to ratify the king's promise, this made the general lay siege to the upon him, and stoned him to death. - Jewish Antig. b. xiv. c 3. | ternple.— Universal History, bu zi. c. 11.

A. M. 3936. A. C. 60; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 5342 A. C. 69. JOS. HIST. b. xiii. c. 19—END. Of b. xv. bridges over the deep ditches and valleys that surrounded put into the hands of such magistrates as himself made it, and so resolved to defend the place : but there was choice of; and having divided the whole land into five no withstanding a Roman army long. In three months' provinces, appointed a court of justice, with power ultitime Pompey became master of the mount, which he mately to determine every thing, over each of them. caried sword in hand; and, having made a dreadful Aristobulus, late king of Judea, after he had been five carnage upon this occasion, be caused afterwards all years a prisoner at Romne, having with his son Antigosuch prisoners b to be put to death, as were found to nus made his escape, returned to Judea, with some few have been the principal incendiaries of this war. forces which he had got together, was endeavouring to

Before he left Jerusalem, he, with several other chief raise fresh troubles. But Gabinius came upon him beofficers accompanying him, went into the temple, and fore he was prepared to make a sufficient resistance ; and caused the most sacred parts of it, even the holy of holies, baving taken him and his son prisoners, sent them both into which himself entered, to be opened. He visited again to Rome, where his father was kept in durance ; the treasuries likewise, where he found two thousand but his children, upon the intercession of Gabinius, were talents of silver, besides vessels, and other things of great immediately sent back to Judea. value; but c touching nothing of all this, he left it entire Not long after this, the difference between Cæsar and for the sacred uses to which it was appropriated. He Pompey occasioned a distraction in the Roman affairs, thought it advisable, however, to destroy the walls of and a general contention all the empire over. Pompey Jerusalem; and though he restored Hyrcanus to the high had left some forces in Syria ; and Cæsar, to oppose priesthood, and made him prince of the country, yet he against these, had set Aristobulus at liberty, and prodeprived himn of all the new conquests which his prede- posed to have sent him with two legions into Judea, in cessors had made ; would not permit him to wear a dia- order to secure that province; but before he could get dem; and obliged him to pay an annual tribute to the out of Rome, he was poisoned by some of Pompey's Romans : and having thus regulated all matters, he set party, and his body remained a long time there, emforward on his journey bowe, carrying with him Aristo- balmed in honey, till M. Anthony procured it to be carbulus, his two sons, Alexander and Antigonus, and two ried into Judea, where it was honourably interred in the of his daughters, as captives, to be led before him in his royal sepulchre. triumph.

When Cæsar returned from the Alexandrian war, AnAlexander, oy the way, found means to make his tigonus, the second son of Aristobulus, (for Scipio, by escape ; and, after three years, returning into Judea, Pompey's order had caused his elder brother's head to gathered forces, and possessed himself of several places; be struck off at Antioch,) met him in Syria, and having but Gabinius, the Roman governor in Syria, defeated complained of the bard fate which his father and brother him in all his attempts, and then coming to Jerusalem, had met with, he charged Hyrcanus and Antipater with confirmed Hyrcanus in the priesthood: but the civil having possessed themselves of the government by force; administration a he took from the sanhedrim, and but Antipater, who was then with Cæsar, defended his

own and Hyrcanus's cause so very well, that Cæsar, ina It is supposed by Josephus, that the mount of the temple stead of restoring Antigonus, as he desired, made it a e would have hardly been taken so soon by the Romans, had it not decree, that Hyrcanus should hold the office of high been for the superstition of the Jews in their observation of the sabbath. For though they now held it lawful to defend themselves vigorously on that day, yet they would not stir a hand to annoy because of the greatness of the place, there were two, which the enemy, or obstruct them in any of their works. This Pompey sat apart from each other in two distinct rooms. Of the latter observing, ordered bis men to employ the sabbath-day in nothing sort there was only one in the whole land. The lesser sanheelse but in making their approaches, wherein the besieged giving drim despatched all affairs of justice arising within the respecthem no molestation, their engines of battery were brought for- tive cities where they sat, and the precincts belonging to them. ward, and without opposition placed just as they pleased ; and The great sanhedrim presided over the affairs ofthe whole nation, so being fitted, and raised to advantage, soon made a breach in received appeals from the lesser sanhedrims, interpreted the laws, the wall large enough for an assault.-Josephus's Jewish Wars, and, by new institutions from time to time, regulated the exeb. i. c. 5.

cution of them. All this Gabivius abolished; and, instead thereof, 6 Among these, it is supposed, that Absalom, a younger son erected five courts, or sanhedrims, and invested them all with of the famous John Hyrcanus, suffered; he had lived a private sovereign power, independent on each other. The first of them life, without meddling with public affairs, under the protection he placed at Jerusalem; the second at Jericho; the third at of his brother Alexander Jannæus: but having unhappily married Gadra; the fourth at Amathus ; and the fifth at Sepphorus ; and his daughter to his nephew Aristobulus, he was, by that means, having, under these five cities, divided the land into five pro drawn into his son-in-law's party, and being taken prisoner, in vinces, he ordered the inhabitants of each to repair to the court all probability was put to death: because from that time we find which he had there erected, and from which there was no appeal, no farther mention made of him.- Joseph. Antiq. b. xiv. c. 8; and except it was to Rome. Besides the two sorts of sanhedrims Unirersal History.

above-mentioned, there was a third court among the Jews, which c But though Pompey was thus modest, yet Crassus soon after was not affected by any of these alterations, and that was the coming that way, not only extorted the two thousand talents, court of three, instituted for the deciding of all controversies about and a large bar of gold, by way of bribe, to restrain him from bargains, sales, contracts, and all other such matters of common farther plunder, but, contrary to the promise which he had given right between man and man. In all which cases, one of the upon oath, ransacked the temple all over, and robbed it of every litigants chose one judge, and the other another, and these two thing that he thought worth taking away, insomuch, that the chose a third, which three constituted a court to hear, and ulti. whole of his sacrilegious plunder amounted to the value of ten mately determine the matter in contest.- Talmud on the Santhousand talents, which is above two millions of our money.- hedrim; Lightfoot's Prospect of the Temple, c. xx. and xxii; and Joseph. Antiq, b. xiv. c. 12, and Jewish Wars, b. i. c. 6. Joseph. Antiq. b. xiv. c. 10.

d Before this, the government had been managed under the e This decree, which at once abolished the aristocracy which prince by two sorts of councils, or courts of justice; one con- Gabinius had lately set up, and restored the Jewish state to its sisting of twenty-three persons, called the lesser sanhedrim;' pristine sovereignty, according to Josephus, runs in this form:and the other, of seventy-two, called the 'grcater sanhedrim.' “ Julius Cæsar, emperor, the second time dictator, and PontiOf the first sort there was one in every city; only in Jerusalem, fex Maximus, &c. Porasmuch as Hyrcanus, the son of Alexan

4. M. 3935. A. C. 69; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 5342. A. C. 69.JOS. HIST.b. xiii.c. 19-END OF B. IV. priest at Jerusalem, and the principality of Judea with him, and dissuaded him from it; so that, for the present, it, to him and those of his family in a perpetual succes- he dropped his resentment. sion; by which he restored the government to its ancient As long as Julius Cæsar lived, the Jews were held in form, and abolished the aristocracy which Gabinius had great honour and esteem by the Romans, and bad several instituted, and that Antipater should be the procurator of decrees passed in their favour : but after bis untimely Judea under him.

death, their country became a prey to every hungry This Antipater, who was a person of great wisdom, of general of Rome. Cassius, having made himself master powerful interest in several places, and in high favour of Syria, exacted of the Jews about seven hundred with the Romans, had two sons, Pbasael and Herod ; to talents of silver, which Antipater prevailed with his two the former of which he gave the government of the coun- sons to pay him, and so preserved himself the longer in try about Jerusalem, and to the other that of Galilee. the goveroment of Judea. He was, as we said, procuPhasael behaved himself in his administration with great rator of the province under Hyrcanus ; and the next lenity ; but Herod was a man of a different character, man to him in power and authority was Malicus : but and his boisterous temper made him less acceptable to not being contented to be the second man next the the Jews.

prince, he would fain have been the first; especially At this time there was a gang of thieves that infested since he was a natural Jew, and Antipater but an IduGalilee, and the neighbouring parts of Colo-Syria, whom mean. Antipater had all along been his fast friend, Herod fell upon, and having taken one Hezekiah their and upon more occasions than one saved his life : but ringleader, with several of his associates, put them all to he, like an ungrateful wretch, was continually laying death. Those who envied the prosperity of Antipater, plots against him ; and, at length, taking the opportuand the growth and greatness of his power, made this nity of his dining one day with Hyrcanus, he bribed the a handle to accuse Herod to Hyrcanus for executing butler to give him poison in his wine, of which he died, men without a legal trial, and obtained a citation from and then, with an armed force, seized on the governhim to summon Herod to answer for it before the sanhe- ment of Jerusalem. Phasael and Herod had, for a long drim. He came; but as he made his appearance in a time, suspected this traitor's design against their father, purple robe, and surrounded with his guards, he so over- and when they heard of his death, they concluded that awed that great council, that they all sat silent without he was the author of it. They thought proper, however, saying a word against him, until Simeas, a man of great to conceal their resentment for the present; but as justice and integrity, rose up, and with a becoming pre- soon as Herod found a fit opportunity, be had him sence of mind, complained, that he never saw a criminal taken off. appear in a court of justice so attended ; that it looked as if he meant to make the administration thereof more the Parthians, in order to revenge the death of Crassus, and the

a While Julius Cæsar was preparing for an expedition against dangerous to the judges, than the malefactor: “ but this," Romans that were slain with him at the battle of Carrbæ, on the says he, turning to the high priest, " is not so much to be ides of March, that is, on the fifteenth day of that month, four imputed to his insolence, as to your connivance, which days before he intended to set out upon that expedition, he was encourages it: yet know,” continued he," that his per- This was the most villanous act, and the more so, because the

murdered in the senate-house, by a conspiracy of the senators. son whom you screen from the justice of the laws, will be prime authors of it, namely, Marcus Brutus, Decimus Brutus, a scourge to you all.” Nor was be in this a false pro- Cassius, Trebonius, and some others of them, were the very perpbet.

sons whom Cæsar, in the highest manner, had obliged; yet it For Herod having, by the persuasion of the high priest, freeing their country from one, whom they called a tyrant: and

was executed under the notion of a high heroic virtue, in thus for fear that the sentence of the sanhedrim should pass the manner in which it was executed, is this: as soon as he came against him, made his escape from Jerusalem, and retir- into the senate-house, Attilius Cimber, who was one of the ed to Damascus, where Sextus Cæsar, the prefect of conspirators, presented himself, according as it was agreed among Syria, then resided, and put himself under his protection, them, to demand his brother's pardon, who was banished; but he so far insinuated himself with him, that for a sum of submission, laid hold of the bottom of his robe, and pulled it so

upon Cæsar's refusal, under pretence of begging it with greater money, with which he presented him, he obtained the hard, that he made him bend his back: then Casca drew his daggovernment of Colo-Syria, where he soon raised an ger, and stabbed him in the shoulder, but the wound proved but army, and marched it into Judea, with an intent to have slight, so that Cæsar fell upon him: but as they were scuffling, deposed Hyrcanus, and cut off the whole sanhedrim for side, Cassius at the same time wounded him in the face, and

another of the corispirators came behind and stabbed him in the the indignity they had put upon him by their late process ; Brutus pierced his thigh. With much courage he still defended but his father Antipater, and his brother Phasael, met himself; but the blood he lost through so many wounds having

much weakened him, he went to the foot of Pompey's statue,

where he fell and expired, after having been stabbed in three and der, a Jew, has, at all times, as well in war as peace, approved twenty places by the hands of those whom he thought he had himself to be our good and trusty friend and ally, as appeareth disarmed by his good offices.—Prideaus's Connection, anno 44, by several attestations of unquestionable credit, &c. These ser- and Vertot's Revolution of Rome, c. 13. vices and good offices duly considered, I do hereby confirm and 6 The matter was conducted thus:-Cassius being informed establish to him and his heirs, the perpetual government of the by Herod of the manner of his father's death, gave him leave to Jews, both as their prince and high priest, after the manner and revenge himself on the murderır, and sent his orders to the method of their own laws; and from this day forward, enrol them forces, under his command at Tyre, to be assistant to him among the number of my trusty and well beloved friends, and therein. On Cassius's taking Laodicea, all the princes and ratify an affinity with them as my associates. I ordain likewise chief lords of Syria and Palestine hastened thither with their that all the legal pontifical rights and privileges be devolved upon presents and congratulations. Hyrcanus, together with Malicus him, and his sons for ever; and that in case any controversy shall and Herod, put himself upon the road for the same purpose; arise among the people concerning the Jewish discipline, himself and as they drew near to Tyre, where they were to lodge that and his family, in the course of succession, shall be the only night, Herod invited all the company to sup with him; and judge of it.”—Joseph. Antiq. b. xiv. c. 17.

sending his servants before, under pretence of providing the A. M. 3935. A. C. 69; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 3342. A. C. 69. JOS. HIST. b. xiii. e 19--BND or b. xv. No sooner was the death of Malicus, and the inanner vailed with Anthony, that he would not so much as hear of it known at Jerusalem, but a party of his friends rose them. This, however, did not discourage the Jews that in arms to revenge it on the sons of Antipater ; and were his enemies : for when Anthony came to Daphne having gained Hyrcanus, and Felix the commander of near Antioch, a hundred of the most considerable the Roman forces on their side, put the whole city in an among them waited upon him with the like complaints. uproar.

Herod was then with Fabius, the Roman Here Anthony gave them a hearing; and when ho put governor of Damascus, and there laid up with sickness ; it to Hyrcanus, whether the iwo brothers or their accusso that the whole storm fell upon Phasael, which he ers were in his opinion fittest to govern the state under weathered with full success : for he drove Felix and all him, he gave it for the two brothers; and Anthony, that tumultuous party out of Jerusalem, and when his being minded to do them a farther favour, made them brother recovered and returned, they both together soon both tetrarchs, d and committed all the affairs of Judea quelled the faction, and would doubtless have resented to their administration. This he confirmed by letters the high priest's behaviour upon this occasion with more to the Jews; and to oblige them to obey what he had severity, but that, at this time a match was set on foot done, he detained fifteen of the hundred as hostages, and between Herod and his grand-daughter Mariamne, a would have put them to death, had not Herod saved them which reconciled all differences. But though the faction by his intercession, was, for the present, suppressed, it was not long before This notwithstanding, they did not still give over their it revived.

solicitation ; but when Anthony came to Tyre, they sent After the defeat of Brutus 6 and Cassius, by M. a thousand of their principal men with the like accusaAnthony and Cæsar Octavianus c at Philippi, Anthony, tions against the two brothers : but looking on this as a coming into Asia, was attended by the deputies of most tumult, rather than embassy, he directed his soldiers to princes and states in that part of the world, and, among fall upon them, so that some of them were slain,

and others, with several principal persons of the Jewish more wounded; and at the same time he sent a perempnation, who were sent to accuse Phasael and Herod of tory order to the magistrates to assist Herod in the reusurping the government from Hyrcanus : but partly by covery of his government. With this order Herod went money, and partly by interest, Herod had so far pre- to Jerusalem, and would have persuaded the people to

receive him, by expostulating the danger of disobeying supper by them, he communicated the orders of Cassius to the bim, and provoking the Roman general ; but instead of commanders of the Roman garrison in the city, who accordingly regarding his threats or advice, they fell upon bim; and sent out a party of armed men, that fell upon Malicus as he drew near to the place, and slew him.-- Joseph. Antig. b. xiv. by killing some and wounding others of his attendants, c. 10; and Jewish Wars, b. i. c. 9.

so enragedl Anthony against them, that he ordered their a She was the daughter of Alexander, the son of king Aristo fifteen hostages to be put to death, and threatened a bulus, by Alexandra the daughter of Hyrcanus the second, and

severe revenge against the rest. therefore was grand-daughter to both these brothers. She was a lady of extraordinary beauty and great virtue, and in all other

In the mean time Antigonus, the son of Aristobulus, laudable qualifications, accomplished beyond most of her time; having had long before attempted to possess himself of but the true motive fór Herod's desiring to make her his wife Judea, but being defeated, and expelled by Herod, fled was, because the Jews at this time had a ry zealous affection to Parthia, and was there kindly received and protected. for the Asmonæan family; and therefore he thought that, by After he had been there some time, and established an marrying this lady, he should the easier reconcile the hearts of the people to him.-Prideaux's Connection, anno 38.

interest among the most considerable persons of that 6 Philippi is a town of Macedonia, to the inhabitants of which nation, he promised them 1000 talents, and 500 of the St Paul wrote his epistle ; but what made this place the most finest e women in the country, if they would assist him in remarkable, was the famous battle that was fought near, it, be the recovery of his father's kingdom. The Parthians tween the army under Octavianus and Anthony, and that under Brutus and Cassius, consisting of near a hundred thousand men accepted of the proposal, and the king sent his general each. Brutus and Cassius both commanded in the action; but along with Antigonus, at the head of a powerful army, Octavianus being sick in his tent, the command of the other to invade Judea. As soon as they had entered the army fell wholly upon Anthony. The forces commanded by Cassius were soon repulsed, so that he retired to a hill, there to country, great numbers of the Jews joined thein in their wait for an account of that part of the army which was com march; and when they came to Jerusalem, the faction manded by Brutus; but in the confusion and dust, not being that hated the two brothers declared for them : so that able to perceive what was doing, his mind misgave him that Brutus was overcome, and thereupon he commanded his servant Pindarus to cut off his head. Brutus, in the first day of action, d This word, which sometimes occurs in scripture, and is was so successful, that he made the enemy retire, and took pretty frequent among the descendants of Herod the Great, Octavianus's camp; but in a few days after, coming to a second according to the force of the Greek, signifies a lord that has the engagement, he was entirely routed; and being loath to fall into fourth part of a state, province, or kingdom, without wearing a the enemy's hands, prevailed with his friend Strabo to despatch diadem, or bearing the title of a king: but it must not always him; and what is very remarkable in these two men's deaths, is, be understood in a rigorous sense, because the name of tetrarch that they were both killed with the same swords wherewith they was given to him that possessed sometimes a half, and somebad murdered Cæsar.Plut. on Brutus; Velleius Paterculus, times a third part, of any principality; nay, oftentimes the name b.ii. c. 70; Apion on the Civil Wars, b. iv.; and Dion Cassius, of a king was given to him that was but a tetrarch, and that of b. xlvii.

a kingdom, to & tetrarchy.–Calmet's Dictionary, under the c Octavianus was the son of Caius Octavius, by Atia the word. daughter of Julia, sister of Julius Cæsar; and therefore Julius e The fourth book of Maccabees (ehap. xlix.) says 800 women, adopted him, as being his nephew and next male relation, to be the fairest and best bred in all the country: but Josephus adds, his son; upon his uncle's death he took upon him the name of that Antigonus was not able to make good his contract, by reaCaius Julius Cæsar Octavianus, and by this name he was after- son that Herod had seized on most of the fine women, and sent wards known, till that of Augustus, which was given after the them away with his wife and family to Massada, a place of safe victory at Actium swallowed up all the rest.- Prideaux's Con- retreat, whilst himself stayed behind with bis guards, to cover wection, anno 44.

their march, and prevent their being pursued.

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