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A. M. 1656. A. C. 2349; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 2256. A. C 3135. GEN. CH. vi. 12. TO ix. 20. certainly do, to make them reach the tops of the was occasioned by the dissolution of the primeval earth ; highest mountains, it will be difficult to conceive, the dissolution of the earth by the fermentation of the how they could either drown man or beast, keep alive enclosed waters; the fermentation of the waters by the the fish, or support the beavy bulk of the ark. The continued intense heat of the sun; and the great heat of truth is, Moses, in his account of the deluge, says not the sum, by the perpendicular position of the axis of the one word of the transmutation of elements : the forty earth to the plane of the ecliptic. But allowing the days’ rain, and the disruption of the abyss, are the only position of the earth to be what he imagines, " yet it causes which he assigns; and these, very likely, will seems difficult to conceive, how the heat of the sun should supply us with a suflicient quantity of water when other be so intense, as to cause great cracks in it, and so devices fail.

raise the waters in it into vapours; or how the waters, thus A very sagacious naturalist, observing, that at rarefied, should be of force sufficient to break through certain times, there are extraordinary pressures on the an arch of solid matter, lying upon them some hundred surface of the sea, which force the waters outwards miles thick. It is much more probable, that if the action upon the shores to a great height, does very reasonably of the sun was so strong, the abyss (which the theorist suppose, that the divine power might, at this time, by the makes the only storehouse of waters in the first earth) instrumentality of some natural agent, to us at present would have been almost quite exhausted, before the time unknown, so depress the surface of the ocean, as to force of the deluge: nor can we believe that this account up the water of the abyss through certain channels and of things is any way consonant to the Mosaic history, apertures, and so make them a partial and concurrent which describes a gradual rise and abatement, a long cause of the deluge. It cannot be denied, indeed, but continuance of the flood, and not such a sudden shock that the divine providence might, at the time of the and convulsion of nature, as the theorist intends, in deluge, so order and dispose second causes, as to make which, without the divine intervention, it was impossible them raise and impel the water to an height sufficient for the ark to be saved. to overflow the earth; but then, because there must be * Another learned theorist endeavours to solve the another miracle required to suspend the waters upon the whole matter, and supply a sufficiency of water from the land, and to hinder them from running off again into the trajection of a comet. For he supposes, “ That, in its sea, our author seems to give the preference to another descent towards the sun, it pressed very violently upon hypothesis, which, at the time of the deluge, supposes the earth, and by that means, both raised a great tide in the centre of the earth to have been changed, and set the sea, and forced up a vast quantity of subterraneous nearer to the centre or middle of our continent, where- waters; that, as it passed by, it involved the earth in its upon the Atlantic and Pacific oceans must needs press atmosphere for a considerable time ; and, as it went off, upon the subterraneous abyss, and so compel the water left a vast tract of its tail behind, which (together with to run out at those wide mouths, and apertures, which the waters, pressed from the sea, and from the great the divine power had made in breaking up the formtains abyss) was enough to cover the face of the whole earth, of the great deep. Thus the waters being poured out for the perpendicular height of three miles.” But (to upon the face of the earth, and its declivity changed by pass by smaller objections) that which seems to destroy the removal of the centre, they could not run down to his whole hypothesis is this— 5 That it is far from being the sea again, but must necessarily stagnate upon the clear, whether the atmosphere of a comet be a watery earth, and overflow it, till upon its return to its old substance or not. The observations of the most curious centre, they in like manner would retreat to their former inquirers make it very probable, that the circle about receptacles. But the misfortune of this hypothesis is, that besides the multitude of miracles required in it, it

3 Kril's Examination of Burnet's Theory.

* Mr Whiston. makes the deluge topical, and confined to our continent only, whereas, according to the testimony of the Spirit ence, vol. 1.

Keil's Answer to Whistun's Theory; and Nicholls's Conferof God in the Holy Scriptures, it was certainly universal. they began to be rarefied, and raised into vapours; which rare

? A very ingenious theorist seems to be of opinion faction made them require more space than they needed before, himself, and labours to persuade others, that the a deluge and finding themselves pent in by an exterior earth, they pressed

with violence against the arch to make it yield to their dilata

tion: and as the repeated action of the sun gave force to these Ray's Physico-Theological Discourse concerning the Deluge. enclosed vapours more and more, so, on the other hand, it % Dr Burnet.

weakened more and more the arch of the earth, that was to resist a To have a more perfect idea of the author's scheme, we them, sucking out the moisture that was the cement of its parts, must remember, that he conceives the first earth, from the and parching and chapping it in sımdry places; so that, there manner of its formation, to have been extemally regular and being then no winter to close up its parts, it every day grew uniform, of a snooth and even surface, without mountains, and more and more disposed to a dissolution, till at length, when without a sca; and that all the waters, belonging to it, were God's appointed time was come, the whole fabric broke; the enclosed within an upper crust, which formed a stupendous vault frame of earth was torn in pieces, as by an earthquake; and around them. This vast collection of waters he takes to have those great portions or fragments, into which it was parted, fell been the great deep, or abyss of Moses, and that the disruption down into the abyss, some in one posture, some in another. of it was the chief cause of the deluge. For he supposes, that the Thus the earth put on a new form, and became divided into earth being, for some hundreds of years, exposed to the continual sea, and land; the greatest part of the abyss constituting our heat of the sun, which, by reason of the perpendicular position, present ocean, and the rest filling up the cavities of the earth. which, as he imagines, the earth's axis then had to the plane of Mountains and hills appeared on the land, islands in the sea, and the ecliptic, was very intense, and not allayed by the diversity rocks upon the shore, so that, at one shock, providence dissolved of seasons, which now keep our earth in an equality of temper; the old world, and made a new one out of its ruin. See the its exterior crust was, at length, very much dried, and when the Universal History, b. 1. c. 1. where this extract out of Burnet's heat had pierced the shell, and reached the waters beneath it, Theory is made.

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A. M. 1656. A. C. 2349; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 2256. A, C. 3155. GEN. CH. vi. 12. TO is. 20 the body of a comet is nothing but the curling or wind-/ hiatus, or apertures, passing between it and the ocean, ing round of the smoke, rising at first to a determinate a is evident from the Caspian and other seas, which reheight, from all parts of the comet, and then making off ceive into themselves many great rivers, and having no to that part of it which is opposite to the sun ; and if visible outlets, must be supposed to discharge the water this opinion be true, the earth, by passing through the they receive, by subterraneous passages into this recepatmosphere of a comet, ran a greater risk of a confla- tacle, and by its intervention, into the ocean again. gration, than a deluge.

The 5 Mediterranean in particular, besides the many These are the several expedients which the wit of men rivers that run into it, has two great currents of the have devised, to furnish a sufficient quantity of water, in sea, one at the straits of Gibraltar, and the other at the order to effect a deluge, but all incompetent for the Propontis, which bring in such vast tides of water, that, work. Let us now turn to the sacred records, and see many ages ago, it must have endangered the whole what the two general causes assigned therein, the open-world, had it not emptied itself, by certain secret pasing of the windows of heaven,' and 'the breaking up of sages, into some great cavity underneath. And for this the fountains of the great deep,' are able to supply us reason, some have imagined, that the earth altogether with, upon this occasion

is one great animal, whose abyss supplies the place of 1. By the opening of the windows of heaven,' must the heart in the body of the earth, to furnish all its be understood the causing the waters which were sus- aqueducts with a sufficiency of water, and whose subpended in the clouds, to fall upon the earth, not in terraneous passages are like the veins of the body, ordinary showers, but in floods, or (as the Septuagint which receive water out of the sea, as the veins do blood translate it) in cataracts, which travellers may have the out of the liver, and in a continued circulation, return truest notion of, who have seen those prodigious falls of it to the heart again. water, so frequent in the Indies, and where the clouds However this be, it is certainly more than probable, many times do not break into drops, but fall, with a (because a matter of divine revelation,) that there is an terrible violence, in a torrent.

immense body of water inclosed in the centre of the How far these treasures of waters in the air might earth, to which the Psalmist plainly alludes, when he contribute to the general inundation, we may, in some tells us, that ? God founded the earth upon the seas, messure, compute from what we have observed in a and established it upon the floods ;' that 8. he stretched thunder-cloud, 2 which in the space of less than two out the earth above the waters;' that " he gathered up hours, has sometimes poured down such a vast quantity the waters as in a bag, (so the best translations have it,) of water, as besides what sunk into the dry and thirsty and laid up the deep as in a storehouse.' Nay, there ground and filled all the ditches and ponds, has caused a is a passage or two in the Proverbs of Solomon, (where considerable flood in the rivers, and set all the meadows Wisdom declares her antiquity, and pre-existence to all on float.

the works of the earth,) which sets before our eyes, as it Now, had this cloud (which for ought we know moved were, the very form and figure of this abyss: 10 « When forty miles forward in its falling) stood still, and emptied he prepared the heavens, I was there; when he set a all its water upon the same spot of ground, what a sudden compass upon the face of the deep, and strengthened the and incredible deluge would it have made in the place ? | fountains of the abyss.' Here is mention made of the What then must we suppose the event to have been, when abyss, and the fountains of the abyss; nor is there any the floodgates of heaven were all opened, and on every question to be made, but that the fountains of the abyss part of the globe, the clouds were incessantly pouring here are the same with those which Moses mentions, and out water with such violence, and in such abundance, which, as he tells us, were broken up at the deluge. fer forty days together?

And what is more observable in this text, the word which It is impossible for us indeed to have any adequate we render compass, properly signifies a circle, or circunnconception of the thing, I though the vast inundations ference, or an orb, or sphere: so that, according to the which are made every year in Egypt, only by the rains testimony of Wisdom, who was then present, there was which fall in Ethiopia, and the like annual overflowings of the great river Oroonoque in America, whereby many s Nicholls's Conference, vol. 1. Stillingfleet's Sacred Origins. islands and plains, at other times inhabited, are laid ? Ps. xxiv, ji. & Ps, Cxxxvi. 6. » Ps. xxxiii. 7. twenty feet under water, between May and September, 10 Prov, viii. 27, 28.; Sir Walter Raleigh's History. may give us a faint emblem, and be of some use to cure

a The Caspian sea is reckoned in length to be above 120 our infidelity in this respect.

German leagues, and in breadth, from east to west, about 90 of 2. The other cause which the Scripture makes mention the same leagues. There is no visible way for the water to run of, is the breaking up of the fountains of the great out: and yet it receives into its bosom near 100 large rivers, deep,' whereby those waters, which were contained in sea for largeness, and supposed to empty so much water into it

and particularly the great river Wolga, which of itself is like a vast quantities in the bowels of the earth, were forced in a year's time, as might suffice to cover the whole earth; and out, and thrown upon the surface of it. *'That there is yet it is never increased nor diminished, nor is observed to ebb a mighty collection of waters inclosed in the bowels of or flow, which makes it evident, that it must necessarily have a the earth, which constitutes a large globe in the interior And accordingly, Father Avril, a modern traveller, tells us, that

subterraneous communication with other parts of the world, or central part of it; and that the waters of this globe near the coast of Xylam there is in this sea a mighty whirlpool

, communicate with that of the ocean, by means of certain which sucks in every thing that comes near it, and consequently

has a cavity in the earth into which it descends.-See Moll's

Geography et the end of Persia in Asia, p. 67; Stillingfleet's 'Patrick's Commentary. Ray on the Delugr. Sacred Origins, b. 3. c. 4.; and Bedford's Scripture Chronology, * Patrick's Commentary.

Woodward's Natural History.

c. 12,

A. M. 1656. A. C. 2349; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 2256. A. C. 3155. GEN. CH. vi. 12. TO ix. 20. in the beginning a sphere, orb, or arch, set round the But whatever solutions we may gather, either from abyss, by the means of which, the fountains thereof were sacred or profane authors, it seems necessary, after all, strengthened; for we cannot conceive, how they could to call in the divine power to our assistance. For have been strengthened any other way, than by having a though the waters which covered the earth at the creation strong cover or arch made over them.

might be sufficient to cover it again ; yet how this could If such then be the form of this abyss, that it seems to be effected by mere natural means, cannot be conceived. be a vast mass or body of water lying together in the Though the waters, suspended in the clouds, might fall womb of the earth, it will be no hard matter to compute in great torrents for some time, yet, when once their store what a plentiful supply might have been expected from was exhausted, (as at this rate it could not last long.) thence, in order to effect an universal deluge. "For, if nothing but an almighty voice could have commanded a the circumference of the earth (even according to the fresh supply of forty days' continuance from those other lowest computation) be 21,000 miles, the diameter of it planetary spaces where he had settled their abode ; and (according to that circumference) 7000 miles; and con- though the subterraneous stores did certainly contain a sequently from the superficies to the centre, 3500 miles; fund sufficient to complete the deluge, yet there wanted and if (according to the best account) a the highest on this occasion an almighty hand, either to break down mountain in the world (taking its altitude from the plain the arch which enclosed the abyss, or by some secret it stands upon) does not exceed four perpendicular miles passages to force the waters out of it upon the surface in height; then we cannot but conclude, that in this abyss of the earth; and so stopping the reflux, suspend them there would be infinitely more water than enough, when for such a determinate time, at such an elevation. There drawn out upon the surface of the earth, to drown the needed some almighty hand, I say, to do this: and earth to a far greater height than Moses relates. In a accordingly we may observe, that though Moses makes word, since it is agreed on all hands, that in the time of mention of two natural causes that might be conducive the chaos, the waters did cover the earth, insomuch that to the work, yet he introduces God as superintending nothing of it could be seen, till God was pleased to their causes, and assuming indeed the whole performmake a separation: why should it be thought so strange ance to himself: forbehold I, even I, do bring a flood a thing, that, upon a proper occasion, they should of waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh wherein is be able to cover the earth again ; * especially when the the breath of life, from under heaven, and every thing waters above the firmament came down to join those that is on the earth shall die.' below, as they did at the beginning ?

Thus, with the help and concurrence of God, we have 3 Seneca, treating of that fatal day (as he calls it) found a sufficient quantity of water for the destruction when the deluge shall come, (for he supposed that the of the old world : let us now consider the make and world was to be destroyed alternately, first by water, capacity of the vessel wherein the several animals that and after that by fire,) and questioning how it might be were to replenish the new were to be preserved. effected, whether by the force of the ocean overflowing 5 Could we but imagine, that by some strange revoluthe earth, by perpetual rains without intermission, by the tion the whole art of shipping should come to be lost in swelling of rivers, and opening of new fountains, or this part of the world, and that there happened to remain (what he rather supposes) by a general concourse and such a short account of one of our largest ships (the combination of all these causes, concludes his inquiry at Royal Anne, for instance) as that it was so many feet last with these remarkable words, There are vast long, broad, and deep; could contain in it some hunlakes,” says he, “which we do not see, much of the dreds of men, with other living creatures, and provisions sea which lies hidden and concealed, and many rivers for them all during several months ; and that the strength which glide in secret; so that there may be causes of a of it was such, that it was not broken in pieces all the deluge on all sides, when some waters flow under the time that the great storm endured; would it not be very earth, others flow round about it, and being long pent pleasant for any one to conclude from hence, that this up, may overwhelm it. And as our bodies sometimes ship, according to the description of it, was nothing but dissolve into sweat, so the earth shall melt, and, without an oblong square, without any more contrivance than a the help of other causes, shall find in itself what shall common chest made by the most ignorant joiner? And drown it.—There being in all places, both openly and yet such are some men's inferences when they talk of secretly, both from above and from beneath, an eruption this noble structure. of waters ready to overflow and destroy it.”

Moses indeed makes mention of little else but the

dimensions of the ark, its stories, and capacity to hold I Patrick's Commentary.

. See b. 1., c. 1. p. 6. the things to be placed in it; but it does not therefore * Natural Inquiries, 3. c. 27. a lf we measure mountains from the plain on which they stand, follow, but that it might have the convexity of a keel, as proposed by the learned author, the above will be found rather (as many large flat-bottomed vessels have,) as well as a to exceed than to be below the truth; as no mountain has yet prow, to make it cut the waters more easily. The design been discovered of such an height. If, however, we measure them from the level of the sea, which is the proper method, it

* Universal History, b. 1. c. 1. will be found that there are many which exceed this height. s Bibliotheca Biblica; Occasional Annotations, 13. When our author wrote, the Peak of Teneriffe was esteemed the Illimanni, 24,250, or between four and five miles above the level highest mountain in the world, but subsequent discoveries have of the sea. The highest mountains in the world yet discovered, completely disproved that opinion. The English mile contains are in the Himalayan range, between Hindostan and Thibet, in 5280 feet, so that the Peak of Teneriffe being 12,672 feet above Asia; the highest peak of which is 29,000 feet, or between five the level of the sea, was little more than two miles high. In and six miles above the level of the sea. In the same range the Andes, in South America, however, there are mountains there are the Dhawalaghiri, 28,104 feet, Swetachar, 25,261 fuet, wolis in hic...

E am Arnt, the and various others above 20,000 feet.-Ev.

A, M. 1656. A. C. 2349; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 2256. A. C. 3155. GEN, CH. vi. 12. TO ix. 20. of the vessel however was not to make way, (as they call | every thing that was to be contained in it. For it apit at sea,) but to preserve its inhabitants; and this it was pears from the sacred text, that the form of the ark was more capable of doing (as a may be proved to a demon- rectangular; "and being intended only for a kind of stration) than if it had been built according to the most float to swim above the water, the flatness of its bottom modern model, even supposing the waters, from the first did render it much more capacious. It appears from to the last, to have been never so boisterous. But this the same text, that this ark consisted of three stories, they were not: whatever storms and convulsions there and the whole height of it being 45 feet, it may well be might be in particular places, when the floodgates of supposed that this height was equally divided among the beaven were at first opened, and the fountains of the three stories, and so each story was 15 feet high, only great deep broken up, (and then the ark was not afloat,) deducting a foot and a half, or one cubit, for the slopo the sacred text takes no notice of any rough weather till of the roof, or the cover of the upper story. ? It is after the 150 days of the flood's gradual increase, when, likewise pretty well agreed by interpreters, that the upon the ceasing of the rains from above, and the waters lowest story was appointed for four-footed animals, as from beneath, God sent forth a strong driving wind, but most commodious for them; the middle story for their then the ark was at rest. So that all the time that the provender, and what they were to live upon; and the ark was afloat, or (as the Scripture expresses it) while upper story partly for the birds, and what they were to it' went on the face of the waters,' the winds were asleep, eat, and partly for Noah and his family, together with and the weather, though rainy, was free from all “storms their utensils: and that each of these stories was spacious and angry commotions. Upon the whole, therefore, we enough to receive what was to be put therein, will apmay conclude, that, be the structure of the ark what it pear to any one who will give himself the trouble cof will, it was certainly suited both to the burden it was to making a geometrical calculation. carry, and the weather it was to live in; and on this, He who looks upon the stars, as they are confusedly and sundry other accounts, 6 upon experiment, perhaps scattered up and down in the firmament, will think them it may be found to be the most complete and perfect to be (what they are sometimes called) innumerable, and model that ever was devised.

above the power of all arithmetic to count; and yet, Had we never seen a ship, and should be told what a when they are distinctly reduced to their particular conbumber of men, and what a quantity of provision and stellations, and described by their several places, magmerchandise one of the largest rates will carry, it would nitudes, and names, it appears, that of those which are seem no less incredible to us than what Moses tells us visible to the naked eye, there are not many more than of the things which were contained in the ark. The 1000 in the whole firmament, and few more than half so ark, according to his account, was 300 cubits in length, many (even taking in the minuter kinds of them) to be 50 in breadth, and 30 in height; and if we suppose the seen at once in any hemisphere. And in like manner, cubit, here mentioned, at the lowest computation, to be he who should put the question, How many kinds of but a foot and a half long, yet was the length of it beasts or birds there are in the world ? would be an(according to that proportion) 450 feet, the breadth 75, swered, even by such as in other respects are knowing and the beight 45; and consequently the whole capacity and learned enough, that there are so many hundreds of 1,580,750 cubical feet, which was space enough, in all them as cannot be enumerated; whereas, upon a distinct conscience, to receive every thing, and much more than

" Wilkins's Essay towards a Real Character. . For let us suppose, that without any addition of art, it was

Wells's Geography, vol. 1. c. 2.; Lamy's Introduction. nothing more than an oblong square, whose length was sextuple c Buteo has plainly demonstrated, that all the animals conto the breadth, and decuple to the height; it is demonstrable, tained in the ark could not be equal to 500 horses; (the learned that a piece of wood of that proportion being lighter than the Heidegger, from Temporarius, makes them 400 oxen ;) and yet water, will be always supported by it. For instance, take a it is not to be questioned, but that a building very near as long plank of oak exactly square, let it be one foot broad, six feet as St Paul's church, and as broad as the middle isle of that ling, and seven or eight inches thick, answering the proportion church is high within, is capable of affording stabling for such a of the ark; there is nobody, I believe, will say, that any waves number of horses.- See Dr Bundy's translation of Lamy's Inor winds will be strong enough to break this piece of timber, troduction. Kircher (in his Ark of Noah, c. 8.) has given us Dotwithstanding its right angles. Now, let any solid of this large calculations of the dimensions of the ark, and from thence fashion be multiplied in a decuple, centuple, or millecuple pro- concludes, that this vessel was capacious enough to receive, not portion, and let the force of the waves, and the invasive power of only Noah and his family, all other creatures and their food, but the wind, be multiplied also with it in the same proportion, the even an entire province likewise. Wilkins, in his Essay toresistance of a rectangular solid (which is perfectly impenetrable, wards a Real Character), and from him Wells (in his Geography and exactly the case of the ark) will be proof against any given of the Old Testament) have both entered into a large detail of force whatever.- Bibliotheca Biblica, vol. 1.; Occasional Anno- things, and given us an exact and complete idea of the capacity lætions, 13.

of the ark, and of its proportion, together with what it might About the beginning of the last century, Peter Janson, a contain. Le Peletier (in his Essay on the Ark of Noah) follows Duteh merchant, caused a ship to be built for him, answering another English author, Bishop Cumberland, who, in his Disin its respective proportions, to those of Noal's ark, the length covery of the weights and measures of the Jews, has proved, that of it being 120 feet, the breadth of it 20, and the depth of it 12. the ancient cubit of the Jews was the old derah of Memphis; At first this ark was looked upon no better than as a fanatical whereupon Peletier allows 1,781,377 cubical feet of Paris for the rision of this Jansoo, (who was by profession a Menonist,) and, whole contents of the ark, so that it might hold (as he pretends) whilst it was building, he and his ship were made the sport of 42,413 tons of lading. But certain anonymous author has the seamen, as much as Noah and his ark could be. But after-published a dissertation upon the same principles, wherein he wards it was found that ships built in this fashion were, in the compares the ark to our modern ships, and computes its measure time oí peace, beyond all others most commodious for commerce : according to the tons it might contain, and thereupon makes it because they would hold a third part more, without requiring any larger than forty ships of 1000 tons each.—See Dissertation, more hands, and were found far better runners than any made Historical, Chronological, Geographical, &c. d. 2.; Journal of belore. - Bibliotheca Biblica, vol. 1.

Paris for January, 1712, vol. 51. p. 9.

Beasts which live on Hay.

On Flesh,














A. M. 1656. A. C. 2349; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 2256. A. C. 3155. GEN. CH. vi. 12. TO ix. 20. inquiry into all such as are yet known, or have been given every green herb for meat:' a Nor do there want described by credible authors, it will appear, that they instances in history of some very ravenous creatures that are much fewer than is commonly imagined, not an have been brought to live upon other kind of food than 100 sorts of beasts, and not 200 of birds.

flesh. So that there was no necessity for Noah's proAnd yet, out of this number, as small as it is, we must viding so many supernumerary sheep (as some would have except all animals that are of equivocal generation, as it) to feed the carnivorous animals for a whole year. * The insects; all that are accustomed to live in water, as fish same divine providence which directed all the animals, of and water-fowl; all that proceed from a mixture of dif- whatever country, to make towards the ark, which took ferent species, as mules ; and all that, by changing their from them their fierceness, and made them tame and climate, change their colour and size, and so pass for gentle upon this occasion, might likewise beget in them a different creatures, when in reality they are the same. loathing of flesh, (supposing they eat it before,) and an We must observe farther, that all creatures of the ser- appetite for hay, corn, fruits, or any other eatables that pentine kind, the viper, snake, slow-worm, lizard, frog, were most obvious in this time of distress. And as they toad, &c., might have sufficient space for their recep- were shut up, and could not spend themselves by motion, tion, and for their nourishment in the hold or bottom of l but might have their stomachs palled with the continued the ark, which was probably three or four feet under | agitation of the vessel, they may well be supposed to the floor, whereon the beasts are supposed to stand: stand in need of less provision than at other times. and that the smaller creatures, such as the mouse, rat, If then (to make our computation) we should say, that mole, &c., might find sufficient-room in several parts of all the beasts in the lower story of the ark were equal, the ark, without having any particular places or cells in their consumption of food, to 300 oxen (which is more appointed for them: so that the number of the several by a great deal than some calculations have allowed) species of animals to be placed in the first, or lowest that 30 or 40 pounds of hay are ordinarily sufficient for story, upon the foot of this deduction, stands thus : an ox for one day; and that a solid cubit of hay, well

compressed, will weigh about 40 pounds; then will this On Fruits and

second story, being of the same dimensions with the other, that is, 225,000 solid feet, not only allow a space for a

sufficient quantity of hay, but for other repositories of Antelope


such fruits, roots, and grain, as might be proper for the Porcupine

nourishment of those animals that live not upon bay ; and Hedge-hog Civet-cat Squirrel


for such passages and apertures in the floor as might be Guinea-pig Polecat

necessary for the putting down hay and other provender Sheep Camelopard

Caraguya. Strepsiceros Hare

to the beasts in the lower story.

Upon the whole therefore it appears, that the middle Now, concerning these creatures God gives Noah this

Heidegger's History of the Patriarchs, Essay 17. injunction ; 2. Of every clean beast thou shalt take to thee

Wilkins's Essay, part 2. c. 5. by sevens, the male and the female ; and of beasts that

a It is not to be denied, but that several learned men have taken are not clean, by two, the male and the female. Taking great pains to provide flesh for the carnivorous animals shut up the words then in their highest acceptation, namely, that in the ark, when it is beyond all controversy that the stomachs of Noah was to receive into the ark one pair of every spe- that such food would be more salutary both for them and their

such animals are fitted for the digestion of fruits and vegetables: cies of unclean animals, and seven pair of every species keepers, and would create a less demand of drink throughout the of clean; yet, considering that the species of unclean course of so long a confinement; and yet there is not the least animals, which were admitted by pairs only, are many in foundation from the text to suppose, that any such provision was comparison of the clean, and the species of large animals made for creatures of such an appetite, but several instances in

history do show, that even the most rapacious of them all may be few in comparison of the smaller ; we cannot but perceive brought to live upon other diet than flesh. Thus Philostratus, in (as by a short calculation it will appear) that this lower his Apollonius, b. 5, tells us of a lion in Egypt, which, though it story, which was ten cubits high, three hundred long, and went into the temple constantly, would neither lick the blood of fifty broad, that is, 225,000 solid feet in the whole, would | sacrifices, nor eat any of the flesh when it was cut in pieces, but

fed altogether on bread and sweet-meats; and Sulpitius Severus be capable of receiving with all manner of conveniency, [Dial. i. c. 7.] gives us this account of a monk of Thebais. not only all the sorts of beasts that we are acquainted " When we came to the tree, whither our courteous host led us, with, but probably all those other kinds which are any we there perceived a lion, at the sight of which I and my guide where to be found under the copes of heaven.

began to tremble; but as the holy man went directly up to it, It is a pretty general opinion, and what seems to be we, though in no small fright, followed after. The beast at our

approach modestly retired, and stood very quiet and still, wlule founded on Scripture, that before the flood, both men, the good man gathered it some branches of apples, and as he held beasts, and birds fed only upon fruits and vegetables. them out, the lion came up and eat them, and so went off.” The 3. Behold I have given you every herb,' says God, bear like story is told by Phocas in his Description of the Holy Land, ing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and

c. 13, of some lions beyond the river Jordan, whom an Ancho

rite, named Iberus, fed with pulse and crusts of bread; and to every tree in which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed, to the animals in the ark, feeding in this manner, the prophet you it shall be for meat; and to every beast of the earth, Isaiah, speaking of the times of the Messiah, (ch. xi. 6, 7,) is and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that supposed by our author to allude. "The wolf shall dwell with creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life; I have the lamb, and the leopard lie down with the kid, and the calf,

and the young lion, and the fatling together, and a little child

shall lead them; and the cow and the bear shall feed, their young "Wilkins's Essay.

? Gen. viii, 2.

ones shall lie down together, and the lion shall eat straw with the Gen. i. 29, 30.

ox.'-Heidegger's History of the Patriarchs, Essay 17.






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