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A. M. 1656. A. C. 2349; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 2256. A. C. 3155. GEN. CH. vi. 12. TO ix. 20. of what form and magnitude this mountain is. But in that thereby he might be capable of giving better direc this inquiry some difficulties will arise, by reason of the tions to his family how to disperse themselves, and to different traditions concerning it.

replenish the new world as occasion did require. But The author of the verses " which go under the name besides that there appears little or no authority for all of the Sibylline Oracles, places the mountains of Ararat this; the observation of travellers into those countries in the borders of Phrygia, not far from Celænæ, at the may make it be questioned, whether such a vessel as the head of the two rivers Marsyas and Meander : but it ark is represented, drawing much water, and very unfit appears from good authorities, that there is in reality no for sailing, could be able to reach Mount Caucasus mountain at all in that place, or at most, but a small hill, from the province of Eden (where it is generally thought an eminence made by art, and not by nature ; and there to have been built) in the space of the flood's increase, fore the learned Bochart has happily found out the ground which was no more than 150 days. The most proof this mistake, when he tell us, that not far from this city, bable opinion therefore is, that by the word Ararat, Celænæ, there is another town called Apamea, and sur- the Holy Scriptures denote that country which the named Kards or the ark; not from any tradition that Greeks, and from them other western nations, do call Noah's ark ever rested there, but purely on account of its Armenia. In this sense it is taken by the Septuagint, situation ; because it is encompassed with three rivers, by the Chaldee paraphrase, by the Vulgate, by TheodoMarsyas, Obrimas, and Orgas, which give it the resem- ret and by divers others. The learned Bochart has blance of a chest or ark, in the same manner that the brought together a multitude of arguments, all tending pert of Alexandria was so called, by reason of the bay to the same conclusion; but then the question is, on what which enclosed the ships.

particular mountain it was that the ark landed ? Sir Waller Raleigh,' and from him some later writers 1. The most prevailing opinion for some time was, ' are of opinion, that the mountains of Ararat were those that one of the mountains which divide Armenia on the of Caucasus, towards Bactria and Saga Scythia. This, south from Mesopotamia, and that part of Assyria, which as they imagine, agrees with the general notion, that the is inhabited by the Curds, (from whence the mountains Srythians might contend for the antiquity of their origi- took the name Curdu,) which the Greeks changed into nal with any other nation ; with the Chaldean tradition, Cordiæi, and several other names, was the place where concerning the actions of their great man Xisuthrus, who the ark landed: and what makes for this opinion is, that is commonly supposed to be the same with Noah; with whereas the deluge was in a great measure occasioned the language, learning, and history of the Chinese, who by the overflowing of the ocean, as the Scriptures tell are thought to be Noah's immediate descendants ; and us, that flux of waters which came from the Persian sea, with the journey which some of his other descendants are running from the south, and meeting the ark, would of said to have taken, namely, 3 “from the east to the land course carry it northward upon the Cordiæan mountains, of Shinar.' A modern chronologer has endeavoured to which seems to be voyage enough for a vessel of its bulk prove, that the place where Noah built the ark was called and structure to make in the stated time of the flood's Cyparisson, not far from the river Tigris, and on the increase. north-east side of the city of Babylon ; that while the The tradition which affirms the ark to have rested on Hood continued, it sailed from thence to the north-east, these mountains must have been very ancient, since it is as far as the Caspian sea, and when the flood abated, the tradition of the Chaldeans themselves, and in former the dorth wind brought it back by a southern course, and ages was very little questioned, till men came to inquire Landed it upon Mount Caucasus, east of Babylon, and into the particular part of these mountains whereon it about nine degrees distant from it in longitude ; and that settled, and then the authors seemed to place it out of this opinion, as he imagines, is more agreeable to the Armenia ; Epiphanius on the mount Lubar, between the course which the ark, by meeting with contrary currents, country of the Armenians and Cordiæans; and all the would be forced to make ; to the sense of Scripture, in eastern authors, both Christian and Mahometan, on mount bringing the sons of Noah from the east, and in settling Themanin, or Al-Judi, which overlooks the country of the children of Shem (who went not to Shinar) in this Diarrhabia, or Moussal, in Mesopotamia. place, and to the great conveniency of Noah's landing not To confirm this tradition, however, we are told that too far from the country, where he lived before the flood, the remainders of the ark were to be seen upon these

mountains. Berosus and Abydenus both declare, that History of the World.

there was such a report in their time ; the former observes Heylin's Cosmography; and Shuckford's Connection, b. 2. farther, that several of the inhabitants thereabouts scrap* Gen. xi. 2.

ed the pitch off the planks as a rarity, and carried it • The verses, as they are set down by Gallæus, de Sibyllis, p. about them for an amulet ; and the latter says, that they ärsy, are these:

used the wood of the vessel against several diseases with There is upon the Phrygian borders black,

wonderful success; as the relics of this ark were likeA steep, far-stretching mount, called Ararat,

wise to be seen in the time of Epiphanius, if we may Where rise the founts of Marsyas' mighty streain, Twas on ita lofty ridge where stood the ark.

believe him. The town of Themanin, which signifies But that which shows the spuriousness of these verses, is this:Tlat the Sibyl

, speaking of herself as contemporary with Noah, 6 The Greek and Latin writers name them Carduchi, Cardiei, takes notice of the river Marsyas, which, whatever name it had Cordiæi, Cordueni, Cordi, Cordæi, Curdi, &c. The orientals at first, was certainly, after the death of Midas, called the foun- call them likewise. Cardon, Cordyn, Curud, &c. Bochart sup luta of Mides, and retained that name until the time of Marsyas, poses that they are the same which are called by mistake in by whom it was altered, and this must be long after the death of Josephus, Caron.-See Universal History; and Phalegomena this Sibyl.-- Bedford's Scripture Chronology, b. 2. c. 2. b. 1. c. 3.

A. M. 1656. A. C. 2349; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 2256. A. C. 3155. GEN. CH. vi. 12. TO ix. 20 eight, situated at the foot of the mountain Al-Judi, was of it. ? For they tell us of one traveller, a person of built, we are told, in memory of the eight persons who singular piety, who endeavoured to do it, and had came out of the ark; and formerly there was a monas- advanced as far as the middle of the mountain ; when, tery, called the monastery of the ark, upon the Curdu being thirsty and wanting water, he put up a prayer to mountains, where the Nestorians used to celebrate a fes- God, who caused a fountain to spring out of the ground tival, on the very spot where they supposed the ark for him, and so saved his life ; but at the same time, he stopped ; but in the year of Christ 776, that monastery heard a voice, saying, “ Let none be so bold as to go up was destroyed by lightning, together with the church, and to the top of this mountain.' a numerous congregation in it; and since that time, the How difficult the ascent of this mountain is (without credit of this tradition has in some measure declined, any particular revelation) we may inform ourselves from and given place to another, which at present prevails. the following account which Mr Tournefort gives of it.

2. This opinion places mount Ararat towards the mid- “ About two o'clock in the afternoon,” 3 says he,“ we dle of Armenia, near the river Araxes, or Aras, above began to ascend the mountain Ararat, but not without 280 miles distant from Al-Judi, to the north-east. St difficulty. We were forced to climb up in loose sand, Jerome seems to have been the first who hath given us an where we saw nothing but juniper and goats-thorn. account of this tradition. “ Ararat, says he, is a cham- The mountain, which lies south and south-south-east paign country,incredibly fertile,through which the Araxes from Eimiadzim, or the three churches, is one of the flows at the foot of mount Taurus, which extends so far; most sad and disagreeable sights upon earth; for there so, that by the mountains of Ararat, whereon the ark are neither trees nor shrubs upon it, nor any convents rested, we are not to understand the mountains of Ar- of religious, either Armenians or Franks. All the menia in general, but the highest mountains of Taurus, monasteries are in the plain, nor can I think the place which overlook the plains of Ararat.” Since his time, inhabitable, in any part, because the soil of the mounits situation in this place has been remarked by several tain is loose, and most of it covered with snow other writers ; and all the travellers into these places “From the top of a great abyss, (as dreadful an hole now make mention of no other mount Ararat than what as ever was seen,) opposite to the village of Akurlu, the Armenians call Masis, (from Amasia, the third (from whence we came), there continually fall down successor of Haikh, the founder of their nation,) and rocks of a blackish hard stone, which make a terrible what the Mahometans do sometimes name Agri-dagh, that resound. This, and the noise of the crows that are is, the heavy or great mountain, and sometimes Parmak- continually flying from one side to the other, has dagh, the Finger-mountain, alluding to its appearance ; something in it very frightful; and to form any notion for as it is straight, very steep, and stands by itself, it of the place, you must imagine one of the highest mounseems to resemble a finger, when held up.

tains in the world opening its bosom, only to show one The mount Ararat, which the Armenians, as we said, of the most horrid spectacles that can be thought of. call Masis, and sometimes Mesesoussar, (because the ark No living animals are to be seen but at the bottom, and was stopped there when the waters of the flood began to towards the middle of the mountain. They who occupy abate,) stands about twelve leagues to the east (or rather the lowest region, are poor shepherds and scabby flocks. south-east) of Erivan, (a small city seated in the upper The second region is possessed by crows and tigers, Armenia, four leagues from Aras, or Araxes, and ten to which passed by, not without giving us some dread the north-west of Nakschivan; which, because nak, in and uneasiness. All the rest of it, that is, half of it, has Armenian, signifies a ship, and schivan, stopped or set- been covered with snow ever since the ark rested there, tled, is supposed to have its name from the same occa- and these snows are covered half the year with very sion. This mountain is encompassed by several little thick clouds. hills, and on the top of them are found many ruins, which “Notwithstanding the amazement which this frightful are thought to have been the buildings of the first men, solitude cast us into, we endeavoured to find out the who might fear, for some time, to go down into the plains. monastery we were told of, and inquired whether there It stands by itself in the form of a sugar-loaf, in the were any religious in caverns. The notion they have in midst of one of the greatest plains that is to be seen, and the country, that the ark rested here, and the veneration separated from the other mountains of Armenia, which which all the Armenians have for this mountain, (for make a long chain. It consists of two hills, whereof the they kiss the earth as soon as they see it, and repeat less is more sharp and pointed; but the larger (which is certain prayers after they have made the sign of the that of the ark) lies north-east of it, and rears its head far cross), have made many imagine, that it must be filled above the neighbouring mountains. It seems so high with religious. However, they assured us that there and big indeed, that when the air is clear, it does not was only one forsaken convent at the foot of the gulf: appear to be above two leagues from Erivan, and yet that there was no fountain throughout the whole mount ; may be seen some four or five days' journey off; but from and that we could not go in a whole day to the snow, the middle to the top, it is always covered with snow, and down again to the bottom of the abyss; that the and for the space of three or four months in the year, has shepherds often lost their way; and that we might judge its upper part commonly hid in the clouds.

what a miserable place it was, from the necessity they The Armenians have a tradition, that on the summit were under to dig the earth from time to time, to find a of this mountain there is still a considerable part of the spring of water for themselves and their flocks; and in ark remaining, but that it is impossible to get up to the top short, that it would be folly to proceed on our way,

' La Boulaye's Voyages. Isaiah xxxvii.

See his Voyages into the Levant, Letter VII.

A. M. 1656. A. C. 2349; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 2256. A. C. 3155. GEN. CH. vi. 12. TO ix. 20. because they were satisfied our legs would fail us ; nor as much as we had a mind for, and so, by consent, would they be obliged to accompany us for all the trea- resolved to advance no farther. It cannot be imagined sures of the king of Persia.

how much the eating of snow revives and invigorates : “When we considered what the shepherds had told we therefore began to descend the mountain with a great 13, we advised with our guides; and they, good men, deal of alacrity; but we had not gone far, before we unwilling to expose themselves to the danger of dying came to sands, which · lay behind the abyss, and were for thirst, and having no curiosity, at the expense of full as troublesome as the former; so that about six in their legs, to measure the height of the mountain, were the afternoon we found ourselves quite tired out and at first of the same sentiments with the shepherds; but spent. At length, observing a place covered with afterwards concluded, that we might go to certain rocks, mouse-ear, whose declivity seemed to favour our dewhich were more prominent and visible than the rest, and scent, we made to it with all speed, and (what pleased so return by night to the place where we were ; and with us mighty well) from hence it was that our guides that resolution we went to rest. In the morning, after showed us (though at a considerable distance) the that we had ate and drunk very plentifully, we began to monastery, whither we were to go to quench our thirst. travel towards the first ridge of rocks, with one bottle of I leave it to be guessed, what method Noah made use of water, which, to ease ourselves, we carried by turns; to descend from this place, who might have rid upon so but notwithstanding we had made pitchers of our bellies, many sorts of animals, which were all at his command : in two hours' time they were quite dried up; and as but as for us, we laid ourselves upon our backs, and slid water shook in a bottle is no very pleasant liquor, our down for an hour together upon this green plat, and so hopes were, that when we came to the snow, we should passed on very agreeably, and much faster than we eat some of it to quench our thirst.

could have gone upon our legs. The night and our “It must be acknowledged, that the sight is very thirst were a kind of spurs to us, and made us make the much deceived when we stand at the bottom, and guess greater speed. We continued therefore sliding in this at the height of a mountain ; and especially, when it manner, as long as the way would permit; and when we must be ascended through sands as troublesome as the met with small Aints which hurt our shoulders, we turned Syrtes of Africa. It is impossible to take one firm step and slid on our bellies, or went backwards on all-four. upon the sands of mount Ararat; in many places, in- Thus by degrees we gained the monastery ; but so disstead of ascending, we were obliged to go back again ordered and fatigued by our manner of travelling, that to the middle of the mountain ; and, in order to continue we were not able to move hand or foot." our course, to wind sometimes to the right, and some- I have made my quotation from this learned botanist times to the left.

and most accurate traveller the longer, not only because "To avoid these sands, which fatigued us most in- it gives us a full idea of the mountain, so far as he tolerably, we made our way to the great rocks, which ascended, but some distrust likewise of the veracity of were heaped upon one another. We passed under a certain Dutch voyager, who seems to assure us, that them, as through caverns, and were sheltered from all he went five days' journey up mount Ararat to see a the injuries of the weather, except cold, which was here Romish hermit; that he passed through three regions of so keen and intense, that we were forced to leave the the clouds, the first dark and thick, the next cold and place, and come into a very troublesome way, full of full of snow, and the third colder still; that he advanced large stones, such as masoris make use of in building, five miles every day, and when he came to the place and were forced to leap from stone to stone, till I, for where the hermit had his cell, he breathed a very serene my part, was heartily weary, and began to sit down, and and temperate air; that the hermit told him, he had perrepose myself a little, as the rest of the company did. ceived neither wind nor rain all the five and twenty

“ After we had rested ourselves, we came about noon years that he had dwelt there; and that on the top of to a place which afforded us a more pleasing prospect. the mountain there still reigned a greater tranquillity, We imagined ourselves so near, that we could have even which was a means to preserve the ark without decay or touched the snow (we thought) with our teeth; but our putrefaction. joy lasted not long; for what we had taken for snow, There is one objection which may be made to all that proved only a chalk-rock, which hid from our sight a we have said concerning the situation of this famous tract of land above two hours' journey distant from the mountain, and that is,—Whereas the sons of Noah, when snow, and which seemed to have a new kind of pave- they quitted the country where the ark rested, are said ment, made of small pieces of stones broken off by the to 2 journey from the east into the land of Shinar,' it is frost, and whose edges were as sharp as flints. Our plain, that if they removed from any part of Armenia, guides told us, that their feet were quite bare, and that they must have gone from the north or north-west; but ours in a short time would be so too; that it grew late, this we shall take occasion to examine when we come to and we should certainly lose ourselves in the night, or treat of their migration. In the mean time, it is worthy of break our necks in the dark, unless we would choose to our observation, and some argument of our being in the sit down, and so become a prey to the tigers. All this right, 3 that the situation of Ararat, as we have supposed seemed very feasible; and therefore we assured them, it, whether it be mount Masis, or the mountain of Curdu, that we would go no farther than the heap of snow, was very convenient for the journey of the sons of Noah, which we showed them, and which, at that distance, ap- because the distance is not very great, and the descent peared hardly bigger than a cake; but when we came to it, we found it more than we had occasion for; the heap

Struy's Voyages, c. 17.

· Gen, xi. 2. was above thirty paces in diameter. We every one eat

Universal History, b. )., c. 1., p. 110.

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A. M. 1656. A. C. 2349; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 2256. A. C. 3155. GEN. CH. vi. 12. TO ix. 20. easy, especially from the latter, into the plains of Meso- midst of the continent, might serve, as it were, for alempotamia, whereof Shinar is a part. Nor should we for- bics, to distil fresh water for the use of man and beast; get, that the neighbourhood, which the sacred history, and their heights to give a descent to those streams by this means, preserves between the land of Eden, which run gently, like so many veins of the microcosm, where man was created; that of Ararat, where the remains to be more beneficial to the creation." of mankind were saved; and that of Shinar, where they Nay, we may appeal to the sense of mankind, whefixed the centre of their plantations, is much more natu- ther a land of hills and dales has not more pleasure and ral, and seems to have a better face and appearance of beauty both, than any uniform flat, which then only truth, than to place these scenes at so vast a distance, aftords delight when it is viewed from the top of an hill. as some commentators have done.

For what were the Tempe of Thessaly, so celebrated One inquiry more, not concerning mount Ararat only, in ancient story for their unparalleled pleasantness, but every other mountain that is dispersed over the but a vale divided by a river, and terminated with hills ? whole earth, is this,—Whether they were in being before are not all the descriptions of poets embellished with the induction of the flood? The ingenious author of such ideas, when they would represent any places of the Theory, so often quoted, is clearly of opinion, that superlative delight, any blissful seats of the muses and the face of the earth, before the deluge, was smooth, nymphs, any sacred habitations of gods and goddesses ? regular, and uniform, without mountains, and without a They will never admit that a wild flat can be pleasant, sea; and that the rocks and mountains which every where no not in the a Elysian fields: they too must be diversinow appear, were made by the violent concussions which fied. Swelling descents and declining valleys are their then happened, and are indeed nothing else but the ruins chief beauties; nor can they imagine beven paradise a and fragments of the old world. But all this is confuted place of pleasure, or heaven itself to be heaven without by the testimony of Divine Wisdom, who declaring her them. So that such a place as our present earth is, own pre-existence, ?" I was set up from everlasting,' distinguished into mountains, rivers, vales, and hills, says she, “from the beginning, or ever the earth was ; must, even in point of pleasure, claim a pre-eminence when there were no depths, I was brought forth; when before any other, that, presenting us with no more than a there were no fountains abounding with water, before the single scene, and, in one continued plain superficies, mountains were settled, before the hills was I brought must of necessity pall the prospect. But then, if we forth ; while as yet God had not made the earth, nor the consider farther the riches that are reposited in these fields, nor the highest part of the dust of the world.' So mountains, the gold and precious stones, the coal, the that, according to this declaration, not only the foun-lead, the tin, and other valuable minerals that are dug tains of waters which we see upon the face of the earth, out of their bowels, all useful in their kinds, and fitted but even mountains (which some have accounted its for the accommodation of human life, we shall be apt to greatest deformities) and all hills, were part of the ori- overlook the fantastical pleasantness of a smooth outginal creation, and contemporary with the first founda- side, and to think with Moses, the man of God, that tions of the earth; and though a deluge can scarce be

6. Blessed of the Lord is any land for the chief things supposed to overspread the globe, without making some of the ancient mountains, and for the precious things of transmutation in it, yet that it could not shock the pillars the lasting hills.' of the round world, or cause a total dissolution in nature, we have the same divine testimony assuring us, that at the time of the first creation, 3«God laid the foundation of the earth so sure, that it should not be removed for

CHAP. V.-Of Mount Ararat. ever.'

(CONTINUED BY THE EDITOR.) It is a groundless imagination, then, to ascribe the origin of mountains and other lofty eminences to a cer- The following interesting account of Mount Ararat is tain disruption of the earth in the time of the deluge; taken from the description of the recent journey of when God, from the very first beginning, designed them Professor Parrot to that mountain. for such excellent purposes. For, besides that several “ Ararat has borne this name for 3300 years: we find of these rocks and mountains (as well as the broad sea) it mentioned in the most ancient of books, the History are really an awful sight, and fill the mind with just of the Creation, by Moses, who says, 'the ark rested in notions of God's tremendous majesty, which a small the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, river or a smooth surface does not do so well; and upon the mountains of Ararat.' In other passages of besides, that they yield food for several animals formed the Old Testament, written several centuries later, in by nature to live upon them, and supply us from without Isaiah xxxvii. 38., 2 Kings xix. 37., we find mention of with many wholesome plants, and from within with many a land of Ararat, but in Jeremiah li. 27., of a kingdom useful metals ; by condensing the vapours, and so pro- of Ararat; and the very credible Armenian writer, ducing rain, fountains, and rivers, they give the very Moses of Chorene, states that this name was borne by a plains and valleys themselves the fertility which they boast of. For this seems to be the design of hills, (says

Bentley's Sermons at Boyle's Loct. 6 Deut. xxxiii. 13, 15.

a But father Anchises 'midst a valley green*a learned inquirer into the original of springs and

Climb that ridge--a rising ground he gains. fountains,) “ That their ridges, being placed through the 6 Flowers worthy of paradise, which not wise art,

In beds and curious knots, but nature's boon,

Pour'd forth profuse, on hills, and dale, and plain. · Burnet's Theory b 1., c. 5. * Prov. viii, 23, &c.

c For earth hath this variety from heaven * Ps. civ. 5.

* Dr Halley.

of pleasure, situate on hill or dale. — Milton's Paradise Lost, in de


A. M. 1656. A, C. 2349; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 2256. A. C. 3155. GEN. CH. vi. 12. TO ix. 20. whole country, and that it was so called after an old, ous, and many a sensitive and intelligent traveller has Armenian king, Arai the Fair, who lived about 1750 endeavoured, with glowing pen and skilful pencil, to years before Christ, and fell in a bloody battle against describe this impression; and in the feeling, that no the Babylonians on a plain of Armenia, which is hence description, no delineation, can come up to the sublime called Arai-Arat, that is, the ruin of Arai. It was for- object before him, every one who has made such an nerly called Amnasia, after the ruler Amassis, the sixth attempt, must certainly have experienced how difficult descendant from Japhet, and from him Mount Massis it is to avoid, both in language and in sketching, everyalso derives its name. This is the only name by which thing that is poetical in expression or exaggerated in it is now called among the Armenians, for though the form, and to keep strictly within the bounds of the truth. Årmenian translation of the Old Testament always calls All the Armenians are firmly persuaded that Noah's it Mount Ararat, yet the people (to whom the Bible can ark exists to the present day on the summit of Mount be no authority, since they do not read it) have retained Ararat, and that in order to preserve it, no person is the name of Massis, and do not know it by the other; permitted to approach it. We learn the grounds of this so that if we were to ask an Armenian, even if he came tradition from the Armenian chronicles in the legend of from the Holy Mountain itself, respecting Mount Ararat, a monk of the name of James, who was afterwards he would be as ignorant as if we were to ask a European patriarch of Nisibis, and a contemporary and relative respecting Mount Massis as a place of note. To the of St Gregory. It is said that this monk, in order to Tuks and Persians, the name of Ararat is of course settle the disputes which had arisen respecting the creunknown. By the first it is called by the Arabic name dibility of the sacred books, especially with reference Agridagh, that is, Steep Mountain, and as the Arabic is to their account of Noah, resolved to ascend to the top almost a universal language in those parts, it is known of Ararat to convince himself of the existence of the ark. to the Koords, Persians, and even the Armenians, by At the declivity of the mountain, however, he had several this name. It is said that some of the Persians call it times fallen asleep from exhaustion, and found on awakKuhi-Nuh, that is, Noah's Mountain, but on this I am ing that he had been unconsciously carried down to the not competent to decide, as I spoke to only a few point from which he first set out. God at length had Persians, and these invariably called it Agridagh. compassion on his unwearied though fruitless exertions,

** The mountains of Ararat rise at the southern extre- and during his sleep sent an angel with the message, mity of a plain, which the Araxes traverses in a consid- that his exertions were unavailing, as the summit was erable bend, and which is about 50 wersts in breadth, inaccessible, but as a reward for his indefatigable zeal, and more than 100 in length. Ararat consists of two he sent him a piece of the ark, the very same which is mountains, namely, the Great Ararat, and its immediate now preserved as the most valuable relic in the cathedral neighbour, the Little Ararat, the former lying to the of Etschmiadsin. The belief in the impossibility of north-west, the latter to the south-east, their summits ascending Mount Ararat has, in consequence of this traten wersts and a half apart from each other in a right dition, which is sanctioned by the church, almost become line, and the base of both mountains united by a broad an article of faith, which an Armenian would not renounce level valley. This is occupied by the herdsmen for the even if he were placed in his own proper person upon pasturage of their flocks, and was formerly used as a the sunimit of the mountain.” sale retreat by the predatory Koords, by which they On the 27th of September, 0. S., 1829, this intrepid were enabled to keep up an easy and safe communica- traveller stood on the summit of Mount Ararat. tion between the northern and southern provinces. We have lately received an account of an ascent of

“The suminit of the Great Ararat is situated in 39° Mount Ararat, in the middle of August, 1834, accom4% north latitude, and 61° 55' east longitude from Ferro; plished by a Mr Antonomoff, a young man holding an its perpendicular height is 16,254 Paris feet, or nearly office in Armenia, who was induced to make the attempt fire wersts above the level of the sea, and 13,530 Paris partly to satisfy his own curiosity, and partly out of feet, or rather more than four wersts, above the plain of regard for the reputation of professor Parrot; whose the Araxes. The north-eastern declivity of the moun- having actually reached the summit of the mountain is tain may be estimated at twenty, its north-western at still obstinately denied, particularly by the inmates of thirty wersts in length. In the former we recognise, at the convent, who fancy that the truth would lower the some distance, the deep black chasm, which many have opinion of the people with regard to the sanctity of their compared to an extinct crater, but which has always mountain. Mr Antonomoff succeeded in reaching the appeared to me to resemble a cleft, as if the mountains summit; the large cross set up by Mr Parrot was nearly had once been split from above. From the summit, for covered with snow; the smaller cross planted on the about one werst in a perpendicular, or four wersts in an sumnit was not to be found, and was probably buried in oblique direction, it is covered with a mantle of eternal the snow. One of his guides, who had also accompanied show and ice, the lower edge of which is indented Mr Parrot, showed him the spot where it had been set according to the elevation or depression of the ground. up. He asked some persons to look while he was at This is the hoary head of Ararat. The Little Ararat the top, and try if they could see him. On his coming lies in 39° 39' north latitude, 62° 2' east longitude from down, however, nobody would admit having seen him Ferro. Its summit is elevated 12,284 Paris feet, above there; they all affirmed that to reach the summit was the level of the sea.

impossible; and though he and his guides agreed, the “ The impression which the sight of Ararat makes on magistrates of the village refused not only to give him every one whose mind is capable of comprehending the a certificate of his having ascended the mountain, but stupendous works of the Creator, is awful and mysteri-even of his guides having declared that he had done so.

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