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A. M. 3935. A. C. 09; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 5342. A. C. 69. JOS. HIST. 6. zii. c. 19-END OF B. XV. Herod, not being able to defend the city, especially made himself master of the greatest part of the country, after he found that Hyrcanus, and his brother Phasael took Joppa, relieved Massada, and, taking the castle were taken by the Parthians, and put in chains, made of Ressa in his way, marched directly to Jerusalem, and his escape by night; and taking his mother Cypros, and there encamped on the west side of the city. Antigonus his sister Salome, Mariamne his bride, and Alexandra had provided the place with all warlike munitions, and the mother of Marianne with him, made the best of his a good garrison, which, with darts and stones from the way to Massada, a prodigious strong fortress, built on walls, and Aying parties frequently making excursions, the top of a very high mountain, near the west side of the very much infested Herod's army. Herod, in hopes lake Asphaltites; and having furnished it with provisions of making easy work of it, sent a herald about the walls, for several months, he there left his mother, and the to proclaim indemnity to all that would submit. Antiother women of quality, whom he had brought with him gonus, on the contrary, directed his speech to Silo and from Jerusalem, under the care and government of Jo- the Romans, complained of the injustice they did him, in seph, another of his brothers, and so took his way to transferring the crown from him, who was of royal dePetra in Arabia, hoping to procure some assistance from scent, to a plebeian, and half Jew, as Herod was : and Malchus, who had succeeded Aretas, as king of that from these, and such like reproaches on both sides, they country: but before he reached Petra, he received a came at length to acts of bostility, wherein Antigonus message from Malchus, desiring him to depart bis domin- and his men behaved themselves so valiantly, that they ions, because he was afraid he should oftend the Par- soon drove the enemy from the walls. thians, who were his neighbours, if he should receive Ventidius, indeed, had left Silo in Judea, to be assishim.

tant to Herod in the reduction of Jerusalem : but in bis The Parthians, when they found that Herod was gone manner of managing the war, which was to get great from Jerusalem, after they had plundered the place, and sums from Herod to promote his interest, and greater the country round about, made Antigonus, as they had from Antigonus to hinder it, he did him more harm than agreed, king of Judea, and delivered to him Hyrcanus and good : for he did not only take all methods to squeeze Phasael in chains. Phasael, knowing that his death was him, but encouraged his soldiers likewise to mutiny, on determined, put a voluntary end to his life and suffer- pretence of wanting forage and provisions, more comings. For not having the liberty of his hands to dis- modious quarters, and better pay; which, when at any patch himself, he beat out his brains against the wall of time Herod endeavoured to remedy, Antigonus, having the prison, and Hyrcanus, to incapacitate him from notice of all that passed, with flying parties and ambusbeing any longer high priest, bad his ears cut off, and cades, frequently intercepted and cut off the conroys was then delivered back again to the Parthians, by them that were designed for the united army: though Herod, to be carried into the east, who, upon their return, left who was as active and diligent as the enemy, very often bim at Seleucia.

came up with them, and pursued his advantage so closely, Herod, having met with this unworthy treatment in that, having with some difficulty recovered all Galilee Arabia, made what haste he could into Egypt, but when from Antigonus, he, after that, betook himself to rid it he came to Rinocorura, he there was informed of his bro- of those gangs e of thieves and banditti, which at that ther's death, and in what manner he had effected it; from tinje very much infested it. thence he went to Pelusium, and so to Alexandria, where All this while the siege of Jerusalem went on but slowhe took ship, and after a voyage of no small danger and ly; and Herod, perceiving that the Roman generals difficulty, landed at Brundusium, from wbence he pro- were very cool to his interest, was resolved to go again ceeded to Rome ; and having acquainted M. Anthony to Anthony, who was then besieging Samosata, a city with the miserable state of his affairs in Judea, he most upon the Euphrates, to make a representation of their earnestly prayed his aid,

behaviour. During his absence, be left his brother Anthony, renembering his friendship which he had Joseph to command in Judea, giving strict orders to put with his father first, and afterwards with him, and being nothing to the hazard until his return; but Joseph forexasperated against Antigonus, whom he always looked getting this, ventured upon an expedition against upo as an enemy to the Roman people, and not a little Jericho, where, being circumvented by the enemy, he affected with the promises which Herod had made, of was slain himself, and most of his forces cut to pieces; giving him a large sum of money, if ever he should be which gave those that were disaffected to Herod, both in reinstated ; not only warmly espoused his cause himself, Galilee and Idumæa, an opportunity of revolting. but engaged likewise Octavianus, who was afterwards Anthony, when he heard that Herod was coming, drew called Augustus, so closely in his interest, that, by the out his arıny to receive him, and, while he staid with help and influence of these two men, the senate unani- him, showed him all the marks of friendship and esteem: mously decreed that Herod should be king of Judea, but, designing himself to go into Egypt, 6 be left the and Antigonus declared an enemy to the commonwealth. a These thieves had so sheltered themselves in the caves, and Having in the short space of seven days dispatched his holes of the mountains, that it was no easy matter to come at affairs thus prosperously, he left Rome, and landing at them, because the steepness and cragginess of the meuntains Ptolemais, began to raise forces, with a design to march made it almost impossible, either to scale them from below, or

from above to get down to them by any passage; and therefore, against Antigonus, who, ever since his departure, had to ferret them out of their dens, Herod was forced to make cerbesieged the fortress of Massada. With these, and such tain large chests, and, filling them with soldiers, to let them Roman auxiliaries as he received from Ventidius, An- down into the entrance of these caves by chains from engines thony's general, and Silo his lieutenant in Palestine, he which he had fixed above ; by which means

, he either destroyed all that jurked in them, or else reduced them to terms of sub

mission.-Joseph. Antig. b. xiv. 1 Lev. xxi, 18–24.

6 Where Cleopatra, at this time, was queen: who, by the A. M. 3935, A. C. 69; OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 5342. A. C. 69. JOS, HIST. b. xiii. c. 19. END Orb. xv. army with Socius, ordering him to assist Herod upon all Antigonus, seeing all lost, surrendered himself to occasions ; and he accordingly gave him two legions for Socius, and, in a submissive and abject manner, fell at the guard of his person, and marched after himself with his feet, imploring mercy: but Socius, insulting his the rest of the forces.

meanness of spirit and want of courage, had himn put in Upon his return from Anthony, Herod, while he was chains; and so leaving Herod in full possession of the at Daphne, had an account of his brother's death and kingdom, took his prisoner along with him to Anthony. defeat, which made him hasten to mount Lebanon, where Anthony, at first, intended to have reserved Antigonus he raised eight hundred of the natives, and with these in order to grace his triumph; but Herod, not thinking and the Roman forces came to Ptolemais, and thence himself safe in his kingdom, as long as this remainder marching by night, he passed through Galilee, subdued of the royal family continued alive, never left soliciting all that caine in his way, and forced the rest into their him, till at length, by a good sum of money, he obtained strongholds. But while he was hastening towards that this poor prince should be put to death ; and, with Jericho, with an intent to avenge his brother Joseph's bim ended the reign of the famous and illustrious house death, a party of six thousand of the enemy came reso- of the Asmonæans ; illustrious in itself, for the long conlutely down the hills, and put the Romans into great tinuance of the regal and sacerdotal succession in it, consternation, beating back the vanguard, and pursuing and no less famous for the many signal services which them home to their camp, where they so warmly engaged they and their ancestors, from time to time, had done them, that Herod himself was wounded in the conflict: the public, after it bad lasted, from the beginning of but, not long after, when Antigonus, Aushed with this Judas Maccabæus to this time, one hundred and twentysuccess, bad sent Pappus his general, with the main nine years. strength of his forces against him, he gave them an en- As soon as Herod had got full possession of the kingtire defeat, slew Pappus in the rout, and, had it not been dom of Judea, he began to revenge himself on all those for the severity of the winter, which was now approach whom he looked upon as his enemies ; and, among these, ing, had gone iminediately to Jerusalem, and so made put all the members of the great sanhedrim to death, an end of the war: but that he was forced to refer to the except Pollio 6 and Simeas, who, during the siege, operations of the next campaign.

were all along for delivering up the city to Herod, When Herod came before Jerusalem, his own army whereas all the rest opposed the motion, and did what consisted of about thirty thousand, to wbich Sociuse they could to excite the people to that fierce and obstibrought eleven legions of foot, and six thousand horse, nate resistance which they made. All this while Hyrbesides the auxiliary troops of Syria. However, the city canus was captive in Parthia ; and, as the people wanted held out several months with a great deal of resolution; a high priest, Herod's business was to choose a man of but, at last, the besieged being beaten out of all their obscurity to that office, who, having no credit or interest places of defence, and the enemy exasperated at the at Jerusalem, might not be capable, notwithstanding his length and tediousness of the siege, all things were in high station and dignity in the church, to interfere with the utmost confusion. Rapine and devastation was the

6 They are so named by Josephus; but the Jewish writers general work; and death and slaughter raged every generally call them Hillel and Shammai; and of Hillel, in parwhere, without distinction of age or sex. In vain did ticular, they give us this account, namely, that he was born in Herod endeavour to put a stop to this rage and cruelty. Babylonia, and there lived till he was forty years old ; that when The spoils of the city, he was told, were the soldiers' he came to Jerusalem, he betook himself to the study of the law,

in which he grew so eminent, that, after forty years more, he due, as a reward for their labour and valour in taking

became president of the sanhedrim, and that in this office he it.” So that, with a large sum of money, he was forced continued forty years after; so that according to this account, to preserve and redeem it.

he lived full a hundred and twenty years; but the Jewish writers, for the sake of a round number, are frequently negligent

whether they are exact or not in their chronological computacharms of her beauty and wit, had drawn him into those snares tions. Of Shammai they likewise tell us, that he was for some which held him enslaved to her as long as he lived, and, in the time the scholar of Hillel, and upon the removal of Manahem end, caused his ruin. She was a woman of great parts, and into Herod's service, was made vice-president of the sanhedrim spoke several languages, as well as Latin and Greek, very in his room; and that of all the Tannaim or Mishnical doctors, fluently; but then she was a person of great vices, and, among he came nearest to his master io eminenco of learning, though others, of such insatiable avarice and ambition, that she made & in many points he differed in opinion from him.

What we are conscience of nothing if she could but get by it. Her brother, chiefly to observe in relation to these two men at present is,& youth of about fifteen years of age, she caused to be dispatched, that Herod should thus generously forgive them both, though and prevailed with Anthony to have her sister Arsinoe cut off Shammai, or Simeas, was the person who appeared so intrepid at Ephesus, even in the temple of Diana. Anthony indeed was against him at his trial before the sanhedrim, and Hillel, or a man of a sweet temper, and great generosity, an eloquent Pollio, had all along warmly espoused the party of Hyrcanus. speaker, and a complete master in all military abilities: but then It must be presumed, however, that these two great men, whom he was a great libertine in his way, and so eager in the pursuit he not only spared above all the rest, but took into his especial of his unlawful pleasures, that he stuck at nothing to attain favour and confidence, had, during the siege, taken care to mako them; by which means he brought himself so absolutely under their peace with him, by exhorting the besieged to a surrender: the command of this wicked and voluptuous woman, that, as for while the contrary faction was encouraging the people with Josephus expresses it, “she seems, not only to have captivated, crying out, “The temple of the Lord, the temple of the Lord,' but bewitched him.”- Prideaus's Connection, anno 30, and and making them expect some miraculous deliverance, these Joseph. Antiq. b. xv. c. 4.

two wise politicians, foreseeing that the city could not hold out « It is generally thought, that a legion was composed of ten much longer against such a vigorous siege, and under the excescohorts; a cohort, of fifty maniples; a maniple, of fifty men, and sive want of all provisions, told them, in short, that all resistance consequently that a legion was a body of six thousand soldiers; was in vajn, since God, for their sios, was now bringing them but others are clearly of opinion, that it was an uncertain num- into subjection to this foreigner; and this piece of service, had ber, and contained sometimes four, sometimes five, and some- Herod been of a more vindictive temper than he really was, times six thousand men.-Calmet's Dictionary, under the word, could not well fail of reconciling them to his favour.—Prideaux's and Prideaur's Connection, anno 37, in the notes.

Connection, anno 37; and Joseph. Antig. b. X8. c. 1.

A. M. 3935. A. C. 69: OR, ACCORDING TO HALES, A. M. 5342. A. C. 69. JOS. HIST.b. xiii. c. 19-END OF B. sv. the regal authority; and accordingly he sent for one their journey stopped. Herod, however, for fear of Ananel from Babylon, who was of the pontifical family Cleopatra, was forced to suspend bis resentment, and indeed, but of no farther merit, than that he was an making a virtue of necessity, prètended with great acquaintance of Herod's, and put him into the office. clemency to pardon in both what he could not well

Mariamne, his best beloved wife, had then a brother, punish in either : but in a short time he had his revenge. whose name was Aristobulus, to whom by right of birth At the approach of the feast of tabernacles, Aristothe high priesthood did belong; and, as she was con- bulus was to officiate as high priest. He was a very tinually soliciting him in behalf of her brother, so her beautiful person, tall and well shaped, and in the eighmother Alexandra, who was the daughter of Hyrcanus, teenth year of his age. In the time of his officiating he and a woman of a high spirit, wrote to Cleopatra queen discharged himself with so becoming a reverence, and of Egypt, who had an absolute ascendant over Anthony, the splendour of the pontifical robes added such a lustre to incline him to bestow the pontifical honour upon her to the gracefulness of his person, that by both these be son: so that for fear of offending Anthony, more than captivated the affections of the people, and every man's for gratifying of the ladies, he deposed Ananel, and mouth was full of his praises ; which raised the tyrant's inade Aristobulus, who was then but a youth of seven- jealousy to such a degree, that as soon as the festival teen years old, high priest in his stead.

was over, he had him drowned at Jericho, though, to When Phraortes came to be king of Parthia, and was make his death pass for an unhappy accident, wherein informed of Hyrcanus's character and quality, he treated he had no hand, he acted the part of chief mourner, and him with great courtesy : for he ordered him to be expended a large sum in a splendid funeral for him : but released from his chains, and allowed him to reside at bis hypocrisy was seen through, and detested by all. Babylon, which was then part of the Parthian empire, Alexandra, in particular, was inconsolable for the loss and where a great number of Jews dwelt, who paid him of her son; nor could she have survived it, but for the both the reverence due to a high priest, and the honour hopes of having an opportunity of being revenged. To due to a king.

this purpose, having acquainted Cleopatra with the mur. In this condition Hyrcanus might have lived and der, she so represented Herod's villany, and her own ended his days very happily; but, being desirous of distress, as moved the queen's compassion, and engaged returning to his native country, he began to entertain her to do her utmost to revenge her cause : for she never great hopes of Herod's friendship, as having been once left soliciting Anthony, till, at length, she prevailed with the preserver of his life, when he was arraigned before him to call Herod to an account for this wicked fact the sanhedrim, and the founder indeed of all his for. But when Herod appeared before him, by fair word tunes. Herod, on the other hand, was as desirous to and large presents, he so effectually wrought upon An have Hyrcanus in his power as the other was to come : thony, that instead of condemning, he seemed to vindi and therefore he not only invited him with great earnest-cate him for what he had done : whereupon, returning ness and greater promises, but sent an embassy to with much joy, and in triumph as it were over his ac Phraortes to solicit his return. Thus having obtained cusers, he grew more tyrannical than ever, and in a shor the king's dismission, the unfortunate old prince was time shut up Alexandra in close confinement. carried back to Jerusalem, and, for some time, treated When he went to appear before Anthony, he left bi by Herod with all the outward tokens of kindness and uncle Joseph in the administration of the government respect.

and gave him particular charge, that in case Anthonj His daughter Alexandra having, by her interest with should put him to death, he should not suffer Mariante Cleopatra, obtained the high priesthood for her son, his best beloved wife, to survive the first news of it, tha thought that (as it was his right) she might by the same none, as he proceeded, e might enjoy so rare a beauty means procure him the crown, and therefore went on but himself. In bis absence, some words had passel intriguing with Cleopatra, which when Herod came to between Marianne and his sister Salome, wherein thi understand, he contined her to the palace, and set spies queen reproached her with the meanness of her original upon her. This she resented with great indignation, as in comparison of the royal stock of the Asmongan being inade a prisoner, and therefore formed a design from whom she descended. This the other was resolve to make her escape, and to carry her son with her into Egypt to Cleopatra, who, upon this occasion, had in

6 Herod had invited him to an entertainment at Jericho, ay vited them thither. But the design was discovered, and when after dinner several of his attendants bathed themsein

in a fish pond, Aristobulus was prevailed upon to bear that a This is the third person that had been deposed from the company; but no sooner was he plunged into the water, pontifical dignity since the time of the return from the Babylon- those that were in it before, according as they were direction ish captivity; and Herod was so sensible of the illegality of it

, by Herod, ducked and dipped him, by way of sport and play, that when Anthony sent to him to desire him to put Aristobulus they pretended, so long under water, that at length he was ach into Ananel's place, at first he excused himself, by alleging, ally drowned. — Jewish. Antiq. b. xv. c. 3. that such depositions were contrary to the Mosaic law, which c This he did, not so much that none else might have the e enjoined that the dignity should last as long as the life of the pos- joyment of the beautiful Mariamne, as that none might be i sessor, unless some defect happened to disqualify him. The first alive of the Asmonæan family to claim the crown, in opposite instance we meet with of this kind is that of Jason's supplanting to that disposal which he had made of it to his brother Pheran his brother Onias, and by a larger sum of money, buying that Alexandra, the mother of Mariamne, he knew very well *3 office of Antiochus, in prejudice of the incumbent. The other crafty and aspiring woman; and, therefore, being apprebeast was that of Hyrcanus, by his nephew Aristobulus, who wrested that the scheme which he had laid for the succession, could that dignity from him by main force. But these deposi- take place, if either she, or her daughter were left alive uit tions became afterwards so frequent, that there was hardly any him, he ordered that both of them

should be put to death

, other way of coming into that office, but by the expulsion of the case he should miscarry in his application to Anthony. Ja incumbent.-Universal History, b. ii. c. 11.

Antiq. b. xv, c. II.

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