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ever succeeded better in Pastoral than Theocritus, excepting some pieces where he has quitted his own province. But yet, would you choose to be Apollonius or Theocritus rather than Homer? Is the poet - Eratosthenes, whose Erigone is a complete and delicate performance, and not chargeable with one fault, to be esteemed a superior poet to Archilochus, who flies off into many and brave irregularities ; a godlike spirit bearing him forwards in the noblest career, such spirit as will not bend to rule, or easily brook controul! In Lyrics, would you sooner be Bacchylides than Pindar, or ' Io the Chian,





his judgment, Instit. orat. l. x. c. i. “ He published a

performance, which was not despicable, but had a cer“ tain even mediocrity throughout.”—DR. PEARCE.

Eratosthenes the Cyrenean, scholar of Callimachus the poet. Among other pieces of poetry, he wrote the Erigone. He was predecessor to Apollonius, in Ptolemy's library at Alexandria.

Bacchylides, a Greek poet, famous for lyric verse; born at Tulis, a town in the isle of Ceos. He wrote the A podemics, or the travels of a deity. The emperor Julian was so pleased with his verses, that he is said to have drawn from thence rules for the conduct of life. And Hiero the Syracusan thought them preferable even to Pindar's, by a judgment quite contrary to what is given here by Longinus.-- DR. PEArce.

* Io the Chian, a dithyrambic poet, who, besides Odes, is said to have composed forty Fables. He is


than the great Sophocles? Bacchylides and Io have written smoothly, delicately, and correctly, they have left nothing without the nicest decoration; but in Pindar and Sophocles, who carry fire along with them through the violence of their motion, that very fire is many times unseasonably quenched, and then they drop most unfortunately down. But yet no one, I am certain, who has the least discernment, will scruple to prefer the single : Oedipus of Sophocles, before all that Io ever composed.

SECTION XXXIV. If the beauties of writers are to be estimated by their number, and not by their quality or grandeur, then Hyperides will prove far superior to Demosthenes. He has more harmony and a finer cadence, he has a greater number of beauties, and those in a


called by Aristophanes, The Eastern Star, because he died whilst he was writing an Ode that began with those words.- -DR. PEARCE.

The Oedipus Tyrannus, the most celebrated tragedy of Sophocles, which (as Dr. Peurce observes) poets of almost all nations have endeavoured to imitate, though in my opinion very little to their credit.


degree almost next to excellent. He resembles a champion, who, professing himself master of the five exercises, in each of them severally must yield the superiority to others, but in all together stands alone and unrivalled. For Hyperides has in every point, except the structure of his words, imitated all the virtues of Demosthenes, and has abundantly added 'the graces and beauties of Lysias. When his subject demands simplicity, his style is exquisitely smooth; nor does he utter every thing with one emphatical air of vehemence, like Demosthenes. His thoughts are always just and proper,

* The graces-of Lysias.] For the clearer understanding of this passage, we must observe, that there are two sorts of graces; the one majestic and grave, and proper for the poets, the other simple and like railleries in comedy. Those of the last sort enter into the composition of the polished style, called by the rhetoricians γλαφυρον λογον; and of this kind were the graces of Lysias, who in the judgment of Dionysius of Halicarnass, excelled in the polished style; and for this reason Cicero calls him, venustissimum oratorem. We have one instance of the graces of this pretty orator: Speaking one day against Æschines, who was in love with an old womnan, “ He is enamoured (cried he) with

a lady, whose teeth may be counted easier than her “ fingers." Upon this account Demetrius has ranked the graces of Lysias in the same class with those of Sophron, a farce writer.




tempered with most delicious sweetness and the softest harmony of words. His turns of wit are inexpressibly fine. He raises a laugh with the greatest art, and is prodigiously dexterous at irony or sneer:

His strokes of raillery are far from ungenteel; by no means far-fetched, like those of the depraved imitators of Attic neatness, but apposite and proper. How skilful at evading an argument! With what humour does he ridicule, and with what dexterity does he sting in the midst of a smile! In a word, there are inimitable graces in all he says. Never did any one more artfully excite compassion; never was any more diffuse in narration; never any more dexterous at quitting and resuming his subject with such easy address, and such pliant activity. This plainly appears in his little poetical fables of Latona; and besides, he has composed a funeral oration with such pomp and ornament, as I believe never will, or can, be equalled.

Demosthenes, on the other side, has been unsuccessful in representing the humours and characters of men; he was a stranger to diffusive eloquence ; aukward in his address ; void of all pomp and show in his language; and, in a word, for the most part deficient



in all the qualities ascribed to Hyperides. Where his subject compels him to be merry or facetious, he makes people laugh, but it is at himself. And the more he endeavours at raillery, the more distant is he from it. Had

he * Hyperides, of whom mention has been made already, and whom the author in this section compares with Demosthenes, was one of the ten famous orators of Athens. He was Plato's scholar, and thought by some to have shared with Lycurgus in the public administration. His orations for Phryne and Athenogenes were very much esteemed, though his defence of the former owed its success to a very remarkable incident, mentioned by Plutarch. (Life of the ten orators, in Hyperides.)

Phryne was the most famous courtezan of that age ; her form so beautiful, that it was taken as a model for all the statues of Venus carved at that time throughout Greece: yet an intrigue between her and Hyperides grew so scandalous, that an accusation was preferred against her in the court of Athens. Hyperides de fended her with all the art and rhetoric which experience and love could teach him, and his oration for her was as pretty and beautiful as his subject. But as what is spoken to the ears makes not so deep an impression as what is shewn to the eyes, Hyperides found his eloquence unavailing, and effectually to soften the judges, uncovered the lady's bosom. Its snowy whiteness was an argument in her favour not to be resisted, and therefore she was immediately acquitted.

Longinus's remark is a compliment to Hyperides, but does a secret honour to Demosthenes. Hyperides was a graceful, genteel speaker, one that could say


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