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The small figures in the Extracts refer to these Notes : the references in the Notes to the number and line of the Extracts.

Order and



7, 8.

§ 1. THE natural order of a Latin sentence is $ 1. (i) subject, (ii) predicate, or (i) subject, (ii) object, (iii) connexion of verb, each with its own qualifying clauses closely at- $$ 1–9. tached.

When the subject is contained in the verb, the verb will gene- Verb con. rally precede the object; e.g. Dixit te otare; dedi litteras ject pro

taining subKal. Jun.; but Kal. Jun. Cicero litteras dedit; cf. 29, 1; 31, 1; 37, 51–54. Where this order is changed, as it constantly is, it is Emphasis.

cf. $$ 4, 5B, changed purposely for

a. emphasis, as in 3,1; 22, 15, 19; 29, 26, so as to throw the subject, verb, or object into light or shade. B. connexion of ideas, as 1, 22; 4, 2; 9,1 ; 20, 22; Connecting

particles. 21, 27; so that particles signifying sequence of thought of. $$9 a, 84,

47, 50, y. or time stand first; a few, like quidem, autem, vero, and other quasi-enclitics, take the second place.

7. antithesis, as 1, 12; 17, 2; 25, 26; 39, 4, 6. Antithesis. esp. in chiasmus, cf. 23, 14, 17, 20; 39, 4, 8, 14.


. 8. euphony, rhythm, or variety, 1, 23; 3, 6, 12; Euphony. 7, 38; 11, 17; 19, 29; 22, 28; 24, 1, 19, 26.

Mark well these changes in Latin, and emphasize accordingly in English translation ; accustom your ear to catch the emphasis in English and reproduce it by the


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1 The rules given refer mainly to Latin, but may often be read conversely for English prose.

order in Latin. It will be found useful to accentuate English passages accordingly before translation ; e.g. 'I' am the man;' 'I am not the man ;' he will go ;' 'they may' come,' &c.; and even the feet of some rhythmical clauses may be marked as if verse, e.g. (1) 26;

(2) 22; 36, 4, &c.; 37, 21, &c. $ 2.

§ 2. a. When two words form one combined idea (as Arrangement of adjective + substantive, or substantive + governed genicompound terms, tive) the most emphatic or prominent idea comes first in

Latin, e. g. 3, 1, 2; 26, 34, 36 ; except when euphony (as in the case of monosyllables coming last) or other

reasons (S 1) forbid it, e.g. 26, 39. attributes.

Accordingly, mere attributive adjuncts of a word or idea follow, essential modifications precede. In English attributes generally precede.

• The senator Cicero' becomes then "Cicero senator,' i.e. ·Cicero who was also a senator.' Senator Cicero' would mean rather "a senator, viz. Cicero. Cf. 43, 4.

Cf. 6, 6, 14, 20; 19, 23; 23, 2; 24, 29; 25, 1; 26, 25; 53, 3.

B. Where more than two words are thus combined in one idea, enclose those that are less obviously connected between those that are more so; e.g. tua in me pietas, populi ob haec facta indignatio. See $ 3 B.

Cf. 37, 21; 49, 23, &c. $ 3.

§ 3. a. Qualifying words or clauses in Latin (especially Qualify. ing words adverbs and negatives) are placed near (and mostly beand clauses.

fore) what they qualify ; when qualifying a clause they precede the clause'; when only a word, they precede the word; e.g. recte haec scribis, haec recte scribis; non haec timeo, haec non timeo; ne quod timeat quidem habet.

Cf. 9, 3; 20, 27; 26, 29, &c.

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Similarly quidem (ne-quidem) and other enclitics follow closely the word or the clause that they qualify. Cf. 8, 15; 22, 6; 39, 27; 45, 7; 54, 18.

§ 3. B. Such qualifying words and clauses as would otherwise naturally drift to the main verb, must often in Latin be tied down to other members of the sentence to which they belong, by artificial collocation (as in $ 2B), or by the use of a participle or relative clause, -where in Greek the article would be used; e.g. milites qui in urbe erant (not in urbe alone) manserunt- Vox e templo missa revocavit. Cf. g 58.

Cf. 1,5; 2,5; 13, 30; 14, 11, 13; 16, 11; 24, 2, 3.

For exceptions (not uncommon) cf. Nägelsbach, pp. 22 and 204. SS 3 and 75. § 4. a. Search out the real subject and bring it for

Emphatic forward, whether in the nominative or oblique cases; e.g. subject.

position of Marcum nihil horum fefellit.

cf. 8. Cf. 3, 1; 5, 1; 12, 1; 23, 13.

B. Find the real predicate and state it directly, not Put real preallusively or subordinately, or in a relative clause as main verb. often happens in English (see 8 5 € and $ 8); as, sedens legebam, I was seated reading.

Cf. (3) 19; (10) 9, 12; (26) 3; (29) 32; (31) 4.

r. Mark and emphasize antithetical ideas, by change Antithetical of order, so as to reproduce the force of the Greek jèv or without

emphatic and dè, or of our 'on the one hand,' 'on the other,' particles.

while, respectively,' &c., whether you add or omit quidem, autem, vero, &c. Cf. 2, 1; 4, 14, &c.; 25, 16. On Chiasmus cf. Potts' “ Hints,” p. 46.

d. We often use actually,' 'indeed, or some such word to emphasize, when the emphasis of order suffices in Latin. Cf. 7, 26; 43, 14; (43) 8. €. Arrange clauses in Latin chronologically ; e. g. can arrange

Chronologi. put the aim before the action, the cause before the ment,

cf. Oy effect. Cf. § 9 r.

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and usage. As connect

$ 5. Relatives,

§ 5. a. The relative in Latin will come at the beginand relative ning of its clause, the antecedent as near it as possible, their place before or after, as if the relative clause were an adjective.

The Latin relative (as subject or object) often stands ing links they come first in a sentence to connect it with a previous senfirst,

tence, where we use a demonstrative or personal pronoun with or without the copula ; e.g. Tum milites vocat ; quos quum monuisset, dc.

Cf. 25, 17; 37, 4; 45, 5; 48, 2.

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as emphatic B. The antecedent is often attracted into the relative also with antecedent clause, often repeated in it—to prevent ambiguity (as in attracted,

83 B) or to emphasize by repetition ; e.g. quae urbs te unice coluit hanc urbem deles.

Cf. 5, 15; 23, 4; 36, 2. in apposi- 7. Relative clauses (or their equivalents) in apposition,

tion to another idea will usually come first in Latin, last in English ; except where fact follows on hypothesis, or realization on conception: metuens ne veniret,id quod factum est.

Cf. 6,5; 14, 8; 22,9; 26, 16. in antithe- So, too, in comparisons (quo fortior eo felicior, cf. 12,

12), where we invert the order : and generally. Relatives 8. Relatives (e.g. that) omitted in English must be Latin where expressed in Latin, cf. (10) 9, 12; (32) 12 ; (37) 49; in English. (49) 9; and prepositional or adverbial clauses (e.g. the

scene before us,''the house close by') often be replaced by relative clauses. For converse cf. & 9 8.

Cf. 5,11; (10) 15; 24, 2.

Where in English (as in Greek with the article) the participle is used substantivally for a class, the relative with clause must be used in Latin as a rule, except where, as in $ 25, the plural present participle is used.


used in


used for


$ 5. €. Relative clauses in Latin are essentially ad- Relative juncts, whether adjectival, adverbial, or co-ordinate, and must not be must not stand for the main predicate. In English they main predioften do so, some conventional or subordinate idea occupying the main place (cf. § 4 B); e. g. clades nova afflixit urbem, 'a fresh blow came that crushed the city.'

Cf. (13) 34; (24) 3.

& Where you have two relative clauses consecutively, Consecutive do not join them, as is often done in English, by a copula (except where they refer to different antecedents; e.g. 1, 15; 3, 18); but either make one relative serve for both clauses, or change the latter clause into a co-ordinate clause and the relative into a demonstrative or personal pronoun; e.g. quod ego probo, tu autem non [id] improbas.

Cic. however, Leg. II. 2, has patria pro qua mori, et cui nos totos dedere et in qua nostra omnia ponere debemus by way of an accumulative intensive (polysyndeton).

Cf. (23) 2 ; (36) 19; (53) 6.

n. Double relatives in the same clause are common Double in Latin, rare in English ; e.g. quod qui dat, &c.

$ 6. Do not unnecessarily change the nominative $6. case of co-ordinate and successive clauses as is often done sary change

of subject. in English. To avoid this you may use the ablative abso- cf. $ 9B. lute, subordinate clauses, active for passive, participles, &c.

Cf. (3) 1–5; (22) 5, 6; (31) 1.
§ 7. a.
The passive occurs oftener in English than $ 7.

Passives rein Latin, except in the past participle : cf. 3, 1; 9, 1; placed by (11) 8. The Latin passives are more cumbrous, less (But of. $s

25, 26.) needed (cf. § 4 and § 8), less suited on the whole to the objective simplicity and directness of the language. It is especially perhaps in cases where we make things, Esp. to give

prominence that are virtually objects, subjects of a (passive) verb, to living and the agents subordinate, that they use the active agents.



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