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$ 8.

instead, with the agents as subjects and things subordinate. The so-called impersonal verbs, tædet, &c. occur frequently, but as a rule they shrank from personifying things or ideas as subjects or agents, where not necessary.

Cf. (11) 14; (17) 12, &c.

§ 8. Te rogo. “It is you that I ask.' In English to Emphasis emphasize an object we make it the subject of an auxiliary in English requires use clause, or of a passive, that it may precede the verb. In or auxiliary Latin the object may be placed first. So, generally,

position in Latin answers the effect of our underlining (with voice or pen), our auxiliaries do, &c., or other tricks of emphasis; and therefore auxiliary verbs and relatives (English) will often be suppressed in translation.

Cf. § 5. 6. 7, 28; (7) 7; (8) 6; 10, 13; (10) 12; 39, 3, 8.

$ 9. a. The simple copula is oftener omitted than in Connection English, e.g. redit juvenis, rem narrat, implorat opem (cf. Omission of 1, 2-9; (1) 2-9), and is often replaced by the relative; simple copula.

sometimes by adversative antithetical particles, autem,

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vero, &c.

Cf. § 5; 43, 11; 45, 5.

But a loose aggregation of sentences as in English is avoided, and clauses must (cf. $ 47) be connected by

emphasis of repetition, or particles, &c., cf. SS 34, a; 47. Co-ordinate B. Co-ordinate (English) sentences must constantly replaced by be replaced by (Latin) subordinate clauses (the frequent subordinate,

repetition of and' being thereby avoided); the ablative absolute, deponent and passive past participles, relative, temporal, and other clauses will be used instead.

Cf. 2, 5; (2) 25; 4, 3, 5; (7) 44; 11, 11; 25, 11, 18. keeping the These clauses will as far as possible keep the same subject and ob-ject and object, so that our repetition of pronouns ('him,' ject. cf.s 6.

'it,' &c.) will be avoided ; e.g. Tunc convocatos quum breviter admonuisset, paullisper moratus secum eduxit.

Cf. $ 6; (4) 5, 28; (6) 4, 7; (7) 25, &c.

same sub

§ 9. y. They will be grouped (subordinately to the And by the

, main idea or action) in natural logical order of time, aim, gian, chro

natural, locause and effect, connected by relatives, or antithetically by nological position alone, autem, quidem, vero often coming in where 6.546. we use 'and' or 'while. Cause, object, qualification or manner (causal, final, modal clauses) generally precede the main action, consecutive clauses follow, comparative follow or precede; except where the order is changed for emphasis or connexion of ideas, or where the object of an action is identical with or suggests its consequent result; e.g. faces admovit ut aedem accenderet.

Cf. $ 4 €; 3,8—11; 5, 16–20; 15, 1–5; 17, 4—7.

Long sentences thus grouped, with the main verb The period. reserved till the close, are called periods, and are commoner in history than in oratory or letters. Cf. Livy 1. 6 and 1. 16, &c. 8. In parenthetical clauses, where we use a relative Parentheses

by relatives clause, or a clause in apposition without a verb [e.g. one or appoof them named (or who was named) Manus; &c., Unus English: ex his, Manus ei nomen erat], a co-ordinate sentence ordinates in

Latin. without or with a copula is often found in Latin. 1, 4; 7, 30; 24, 15; 25, 28; 33, 10; 34, 12; 39, 23. . For other parentheses cf. 14,5; 24, 5, 27; 43, 17; 44, 23; 48, 8; 54, 14. For converse cf. 85 8.

§ 10. A proper name, as subject or object, is oftener $10. repeated in English than in Latin. We often vary the tives, &$ 10 repetition by a periphrasis, 'the old man,' the general,' Repetition

of subject. &c. In both cases is, ille (if anything is wanted) will be found generally sufficient in Latin.

Cf. (4) 30; (25) 4, 22, 26; (45) 19.

Where the proper name is so used in Latin it gene- Proper rally comes first, and is emphatic or distinctive.

peated for

emphasis Cf. 1, 14; 4, 11; 15, 1; 18, 17.

only, in Latin.

in

distinct co

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Descriptive Nominatives omitted.

So too when, in English, descriptive nominatives are tacked on to relative clauses, the relative alone will be used in Latin. "The sailors who had jumped down' =qui desiluerant. Cf. 13, 21, 31.

And the same rule holds in the case of other subjects and objects repeated in English to round the sentence, or balance it antithetically.

Cf. (2) 12, 15, 17, 25, 29; (3) 8, 17, 22; (15) 9; (16) 23.

When however, as in § 18, a new idea is thus thrown in allusively, it may be expressed in Latin, but directly, by a separate clause ; e.g. 'the veteran general was not to be deceived so easily:' cf. (14) 7.

Allusive periphras s expressed by separato clause.

nasms. Double

$ 11,

$ 11. a. Double phrases to express single ideas are Substantival pleo:

often used in English, single terms in Latin. • A feeling

of shame' =pudor quidam. phrases.

Of. (2) 8; (9) 21, 25; (10) 2; (16) 28; (22) 34, 35, 39. English B. Effete metaphors, needless synonyms and repeconventional peri- titions, and conventional periphrases (English) will be phrases.

replaced in Latin by the simplest terms, or omitted.

As instances may be given the words object, point, feature, circumstance, instance, capacity, relation, terms, person, expression, elements, incident, purport, idea, substance, theory, step, view,

department, sphere, contingency, emergency, consideration, issue. Latin stock A few stock terms or phrases are found in Latin : the various phrases.

meanings of ars, res, locus, studium, genus, ratio, vis, sententia, may be compared. Cf. Näg. $ 8. The frequency of them in English is due partly to the want of genders in adjectives, which necessitates the use of neuter substantives, partly to the love of variety, partly to the composite elements of the language, which provide synonyms in abundance.

The want of such synonyms in Latin often makes it impossible to reproduce some of our finer shades of thought and expression; and words like res, ratio, &c., become too vague and indefinite.

Cf. 2, 1, 12, 22; (2) 2, 14, 24; (4) 3, 16; (6) 4, 6; (7) 48; (11) 2, 7, 17, &c.

of nouns

lents avoid

$ 11. 7. The repetition, in comparisons and other Repetition connexions, of the substantive or its equivalent, or of the and equivaword ‘one,' ones,' is unnecessary in Latin ; e.g. magnae ed. majora sunt vitia quam parvo urbis; such substantive when referring to two adjectives, &c., generally comes after the second, in the singular if the two ideas are singular and separate, in the plural if they are joined as a plural idea ; cf. 16, 15.

Cf. § 16 €. 5, 12,; 25, 30; 26, 41, 62; 44, 3.

Less fre

substan.

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§ 12. Substantives are not used so much in Latin as $ 12. by us, and must often in translation be (a) taken into the quent use of verb, replaced by (B) adverb, (y) adjective, (8) participle, tives in

Latin. (€) gerundive, relative or other verbal clauses.

In such cases the qualifying adjective will often become an adverb. Cf. (2) 9; (11) 17; (25) 6.

Facta quae imperavit. Cf. 1, 26; 7, 19; 9, 22.

B. Haec saepius dicta, 'the frequent repetition of these remarks.' Cf. (2) 27; (3) 7; 7, 37.

7. Trepidi coeunt, “in alarm.' Cf. (4) 3; (6) 3; 7, 9; 8, 9.

8. Pauca locutus, after a few words.' Cf. (1) 10; (5) 26; 7, 11; 8, 26.

Nescis quid possint, quid sit agendum, their power,' 'line of action ;' quanti esset, emerit, .value, 'purchase-money. Cf. Näg. $$ 36—9.

So also the site,'scene'=qua; 'the question'=-ne, num ; the reason for'=cur; "amount'=quantum ; 'time'=quum ; 'limit,' "maximum'=quo ne longius, pluris, &c. or quoad with verb.

Cf. (6) 2; (12) 15; 23, 8.

It should be specially noticed that the English substantive is used for definite times of action without expressing it, where a tense form must therefore be used in Latin: e. g.'non-payment'may be quod non solvitur, solvebatur &c., ne solvatur &c. in any tense.

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$ 13. Abstract

concrete nouns,

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Person preferred to

§ 13. In Latin substitute the concrete reality for the replaced by abstract idea ; the thing or person (qualified or not) for

the quality or characteristic of it; e.g. aperte adulantem nemo non odit, open flattery all hate,' and, generally, matter-of-fact phrases for idealisms or mental conceptions: as the top of the mountain,' summus mons ; "the capture of the city,' capta urbs; 'the rest of the booty,' reliqua præda; "all of us,' 'three hundred of us, nos omnes, nos trecenti ; city of Rome,' urbs Roma; “Rome,' Romani; "the hour of nine,' hora nona ; sometimes on the contrary we find vox voluptatis, 'the word pleasure,' &c., but rarely; cf. Madvig, $ 286.

Cf. (2) 10, 23; (4) 12; (5) 3; (6) 11; (7) 53.

The nominative case will often have to be changed to thing as avoid making an idea the subject; cf. $ 7. subject. cf. 88 7, 14.

Cf. (3) 10; (17) 19; (19) 9; (25) 9.

Cf. Näg. SS 9—19, on the usage of the Speeies for the Genus. Realism of § 14. The same tendency to realism and matter of

fact is shown in such direct personification of ideas as aures for 'ear, oculi the 'eye,' corpus for ‘self.' Cf. scribere sua manu, “to write oneself.'

Cf. 2, 11; 15, 12; 17, 13; 26, 53; 52, 10. cf. $ 13. Write Marcus fertur dixisse, rather than fertur Mar

cum dixisse, thereby making a person rather than a sentence or idea the subject. Cf. 8, 9; 17, 7; 20, 26.

, The (English) tendency to the use of substantives sitions appears in prepositional terms: in spite of, tamen, nihilomi

nus; in consequence of, ob, ex, propter ; in the midst of, cf. $ 50.

inter; in accordance with, ex, secundum; in return for, pro; on condition that, ita ut; in proportion as, prout; by the side of, propter ; as we often use present participles also (e.g. owing to,' respecting,' 'pending,' 'touching, according to') as prepositions, cf. 25 B.

Latin,

Substantival prepo

ra rer in Latin.

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