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§ 15. a. The so-called indefinite article an' (un, ein, $15;

Articles and uno) is sometimes expressed by unus in early Latin; pronouns,

$$ 15—17. often by quidam; sometimes by aliquis, or is (a man) an,' qui

dam, &c. qui; mostly it is left unexpressed; e.g. inest hominibus vis quaedam (^ a power'). Cf. 21, 11; 31, 14, 24. B. The English 'one' (except as numeral, cf. 3, 4) Indefinite

'one,' is rarely unus, but quidam, (is) qui, quis, aliquis, some- 'some.' times aliusalius; in some senses tu, or rather the verb in the 2nd person; and it is often left untranslated as in $ 11 y, as also the indefinite ‘some;' e.g. is erat qui, 'he was one of those men who;' sunt qui, &c.; Dama ex servis (quidam), “one of his slaves.'

Cf. 3, 16; 9, 24. 7. The = that (cf. le, la, il, lo, le from ille) is a weak The'=hic

ille, &c. or demonstrative, omitted in Latin where the definiteness is omitted. otherwise expressed; or translated by hic, ille, is, iste, or the relative. Cf. 1, 15, 18; 25, 28; 32, 12.

$ 16. a. Is takes up the subject of a previous sentence $18. where we repeat a proper name (s 10); often=a, the,

of: $ 10. such as, such. Cf. 1, 7; 9, 21; 29, 27; 31, 26.

Is'='such.' B. Ille points to a new or different subject; and so Ille. illud generally = róồe (or ékeivo), that which follows. It is often used also of celebrities of the distant past, of the ancients (esp. in oratory), as hic of the moderns.

Cf. 39, 19; 45, 26; 54, 4; 55, 8. 7

With hic, ille means generally the more remote, Hic, ille. i.e. the former, hic the nearer, the last or latter. Hic, in the sense of this last, often takes up the subject of a preceding sentence, like is. Cf. 5, 4; 31, 5, 18.

Hic is used frequently in Cicero of Rome-the Roman world, as if this that you see before your eyes;' just as we say 'our government,' our army. Cf. Cic. Cat. iv. 4.7; Att. XII. 19.1; p. Cæl. vi. 14, &c.; Näg. $ 44.

Is for proper name,




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§ 17.

pronouns, when ex


8. Iste refers to the second person, as ille to third,

and hic (this near me) to the first. Omission of "That' is omitted (cf. § 11 y) in sentences like 'that,' them,” 'it,' 'my wish and that of Cicero,' or the substantive is re

peated as in 1, 24. So also the personal pronouns 'them,' ‘it,' when mere repetitions of an object before expressed; cf. S 9 B, § 10; but not always.

Cf. 13, 14, 19; (15) 10; 21, 17; (36) 13.

§ 17. a. Pronouns in Latin when emphasized or conPersonal

trasted must be expressed, and then sufficiently reprepressed. sent our additions of 'for my part,' 'on the one hand,'

&c. Sometimes quidem, vero, &c. are added. Cf. $ 47, &c.

Cf. 26, 31; (26) 47; 45, 8, 21. Idem;

B. Idem will often express our 'all the same,' ipse.

on the other hand,' at once,' again,' 'very,' &c.; and ipse, our óvery,' 'the fact of, of itself,' with numerals ' exactly :'e.g. hoc ipsum terret, triginta dies erant ipsi, hunc ipsum, tum ipsum.

Cf. 21, 10; 30, 3; 32, 7; 34, 15. Nemo; quis- 7. Nemo and quisquam are substantival, the latter lus; ullus. being used in negative sentences, or questions implying

negation. Nullus and ullus are generally used for their genitive and ablative; e.g. nullo cogente ; nullius te miseret ; nullius avari ; nec prohibente ullo (Livy), not quoquam; est ne quisquam? Otherwise nullus and ullus are adjectival and used in the same kind of sentences.

Nemo and quisquam are also used adjectivally with homo, vir, parens, mulier, and other appellatives.

at leastsome'butunAliquis; d. aliquis, aliquid, substantival quis; qui.

defined, may be called dam, &c. aliqui, aliquod, adjectival

definite indefinites. So nonnullus also and nescio quis.

quam; nul


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quidam, substantival and adjectival, is definite. quivis, adjectival and substantival, า quilibet, adjectival,

indefinite. quis, substantival, qui, adjectival, after

si, ne, or relatives ; alius = arlos, other and different, of many.

alter = črepos, other, second, of two, as neuter, uter, uterque; so quisque of many, uterque of two.

$ 17. 6. The suffix que (orig. quei, indefinite ablative from qui) seems to give the force of 'soever,' otherwise given by repetition; as ubiubirubicunque=ubique ; utut=utcunque =utique, 'howsoever;' 80 quisquis=quicunque =quisque (cf. Tacitus for this usage of quisque), the adjunct being enclitic and indefinite.

The force then of primus quisque is not each first,' but the first whoever he be,' and so all the first;' primo quoque tempore, 'the first opportunity whatever it be;' cf. 13, 6; 26, 53; 43, 16.

The usage of quisquis and quicunque for every'is noticeable in phrases such as quidquid progredior, 'at every step;' quidquid increpat, at every noise ;' cf. Näg. $ 36. $ 18. a. In English, adjectives or participles (or Adjectives,

&c.,$$18—24. other words) are prefixed to substantives for pure word- Attribu

tives or epipainting, as attributives, or to suggest allusively class, thets, when

superfluous. quality, cause, condition, &c. In Latin either omit them or express the cause, condition, &c., separately and directly, by participle, adjective, or verbal clause, placed after the substantive; e.g. 'the disappointed adventurers murmured,' milites elusi fremere. The participle is also omitted in such expressions as 'a man named Cotta,' Cotta quidam.

B. Where in English they are artificial or meta- Simplified phorical, simplify.

Cf. (9) 18; (15) 2, 8, 11; (16) 23; (25) 15, 18, 20; (42) 2. y. The English participial adjective must be ex- Participial

adjectives, pressed by a simple adjective; or treated separately as rarer in

Latin, a verbal predicate, as above; or expressed by a relative

in Latin.

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clause. There are but few participial adjectives in Latin, as prudens, sapiens, amans, potens, tutus, doctus, expeditus (found with comparative and superlative forms and adjectival usage). In English most participles (present act. and past pass.) are used as adjectives; e.g. 'a lost cause,' a dazzling sight.' For instances of Lat. adjectival participles, cf. Näg. $ 72.

Cf. (2) 11, 27, 29; (3) 7; (31) 1; (32) 5; (48) 15.

§ 19. a. The practice, common in many English Adjectival pleonasms. authors, of giving each substantive its epithet, or group

ing substantives, adjectives, or verbs in couples, (cf. g 28 B.) must generally be avoided in Latin, though occasionally it occurs, especially in ornate oratory; cf. 32, 5-15; (32) 4-16.

B. So too antithetical repetitions of synonyms to repetitions.

balance clauses. Cf. SS 11 y; 28 B.

Cf. (2) 10—13, 23, 29; (9) 12; (10) 6; (12) 13, 15, 18; (17) 8. Double ad

yi Where (in English) several adjectives are prefixed jectives, &c.

to substantives without copula, connect them (in Latin) and place them after their substantives ; e.g. oculos habuit claros ac nitidos, but also nigris vegetisque oculis, 20, 27; 21, 41.

Cf. (9) 3; (13) 8; (18) 6; 22, 2; (32) 1.

§ 20. a. The (Latin) adjective or participle, as in Adjectives as clauses ; English, may often represent a minor clause by itself, as

the Greek adjective with wv, especially in Tacitus (where it often stands for a main clause); e.g. inops ac desertus quid poterat facere ?

Cf. 2, 1, 10; 4, 22; 5, 12; 11, 7, 17; 13, 14; 24, 36; 49, 38. replaced by B. However the relative or some other verbal clause verbal clause. will often have to be used instead; e. g. naturally cruel

and passionate he now gave full play to his passions, quum (ut qui) natura sævus. et impotens esset, libidinibus se totum dedidit.

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$ 21. The adjective or participle in one language $ 21, often replaces the adverb in the other; e. g. Invitus veni, adjectives

replaced by 'I came unwillingly;' sero veni, ‘I was late in coming.' adverbs, or

Simple Latin adjectives, especially those in -osus, are tives.
used for English substantival expressions; e.g. difficilis,
periculosus, &c., 'attended with difficulty, danger,' &c.;
saevum, ‘marked with cruelty;' cruentus, stained with

Cf. (4) 24; 8, 9; 36, 25, 27.
$ 22. Many (English) adjectives, like 'useless,' pos- $ 22.


English sible,' 'impracticable,' 'usual,' have to be rendered by adjectives

by verbs, verbal clauses ; e. g. qua soles lima, with your usual or substan. criticism ;' rem et posse et debere fieri, 'that the measure was both practicable and expedient;' and Latin adjectives, also, by English substantival or verbal clauses; e.g. impotens, capax, &c. So also English participles when equivalent to clauses; As also par

ticiples. Cf. $ 18. $ 25. (49) 32.

Cf. (14) 20, 21; (20) 4, 15; (22) 7.

§ 23. The adjective is constantly used as the main $ 23; predicate with verbs in Latin ; e.g. Primus abiit; no- Adjectives

as predivissima exuitur laudis cupido. a. Superlatives in one language replace com- $ 24,

Superlaparatives in the other;

tives, como

paratives, e. g.

Uter horum doctior ? Which of these is the and posicleverest ?? Prior ego, 'I was first to speak.'

changed. quo nihil iniquius, 'a most unfair course.' Cf. 3, 16; (6) 5; (32) 2; 36, 2. B. The Latin comparative is often rendered by our Lat. com.

parative • too,' as in 'too great,' majus quam quod fieri possit; “too rendered

by 'too,' great for lightning,' majores fulguribus, or quam fulgura, rather

'so,' &c., (26, 27); often by our rather' or 'so:' or by a simple positive ; e.g. in the Latin, fortior quam felicior.

Cf. 7, 13; 19, 32; 22, 2, 16; 33, 14; 36, 2; 45, 26; 51, 15.



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tives inter



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