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superlative § 24. y. The positive replaces the superlative, espeby positive,

cially in English, our superlative being often awkward in form, and less used; Cato vir justissimus, 'That just man Cato.'

Cf. 21, 84-11; 33, 3; 37, 49 ; 38, 16. or by inten- 8. Latin superlatives mean not only most' but 'very;' cf. $35. optimus='best,' one of the best,'' very good,' or simply

'good.'

Cf. 36, 1; 43, 4; 45, 23; 48, 9. Compari- €. Comparisons are made in Latin usually by simple

co-ordinate clauses, the copula or copulative relative replacing our "as,' than,' &c.; tantus ille quantus ego

' means strictly he is so great, and I am so great;' ille

æque atque ego, ‘he equally, and I equally.' $ 25.

§ 25. a. The Latin present participle active is not so Participles freely used as in English, cf. S$ 18, 22, 31; the English ---when not participle being often replaced (i) by the infinitive; e.g. Latin,

(26) 39, cf. 26, 23; or by (ii) the historic imperfect or infinitive, as in descriptions, cf. (26) 15, and 26, 40; (iii) or by prepositions, cf. § 14; or (iv) by a co-ordinate clause, as in 31, 19;

e.g. (i) mutari omnia videmus, 'we see all things changing.'

(ii) pars arma capere, alii fugere, plerique metu torpebant, 'some seizing arms, others running away, most standing paralyzed with fear.'

(iii) ob haec, de hoc, owing to this, concerning this.'

(iv) caelum est mitissimum : oleas et vites profert;

'the climate is mild, producing both the vine and olive.' Present B. The Lat. pres. part. is strictly present and marks participlere. simultaneous action ; loose English participles, present in cf. 8 29 a.

form only, must be translated by past participle, quum with past subjunctive, postquam with indicative, &c.;

used in

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e.g. so saying, he left the house,' quum haec dixisset e domo exiit.

Cf. 2, 1, 6, 14; 3, 19, 21; 8, 5, 13, &c.

*Pendent' impersonal participles, like "considering, $ 25. “excepting, counting,' and even strictly present parti--pendent'

English ciples, may have to be translated by dum (mostly with pres. part.

. . pres. indic.), si (mostly with fut. perfect), quum and a verb, past. part., ablative absolute, &c. Cf. 24, 40, 41; 31, 3.

$ 25. 7. Subject to these rules the pres. part. may Lat. pres. be used in temporal, causal, conditional, modal, concessive when used,

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senses.

cases,

classes of

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Cf. 2, 14, 24; 3, 4, 22; 7, 29 ; 8, 21; 13, 14, 39; 20, 35; 22, 34–6; 24, 35, 40; 29, 30; 47, 2. d. It is frequently used in oblique cases where we esp, in

oblique use verbal clauses, cogitanti saepe occurrit.

Cf. 3, 9; 38, 30; 39, 15.

€. It is constantly used in oblique cases (rarely in and for the nominative), especially in the genitive plural (as in men or

things. Greek with the article), for classes of men or things. Cf. SS 41 €, 42 a. Cf. Näg. § 29.

Cf. 2, 15; 7, 20; 9, 4; 24, 47 ; 26, 36; 33, 14; 34, 8; 48, 9. &. The present participle passive is wanting in Latin, Pres. part.

passive and is replaced by verbal clause or the past participle wanting in passive in some cases, e.g. 'the besieged' qui obsidentur, (qui obsidebantur). Cf. Näg. $ 28.

Cf. 3, 10; 5, 7; 7, 31; 13, 34. η. The present participle of English neuter verbs Eng. pres.

part. will often have to be replaced by the past participle neuter. passive; e.g. Inde ad suos conversus. Cf. 7, 8; 13, 9.

§ 26. O. The past participle active, being wanting in § 26. Latin except in deponents, is generally expressed by ciples quum, ut qui, &c., with the subjunctive, ubi, postquam, ing in Latin. with the indicative, ablative absolute, or simple adjective,

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$ 27.

§ 27.

a.

---29.

or by past participle passive in agreement with object e.g. vinctos (or quum vinxisset) eduxit,

Cf. § 25 B; 11, 1; 14, 1, &c. English past part.

§ 26. B. The past participle passive is often transLat. prepo. lated by prepositions or the ablative of a noun (“prompted

by'=ex, propter), or omitted altogether. Cf. & 28 €.

Cf. (24), 23; (25) 24. Lat. past

7. The Latin past participle, from want of an article, cannot be so often used as in Greek for a substantive; though occasionally so used as the present 25 ); cf. Näg. $ 28. 8. nor for an adjective. Cf. § 18 y.

The vague English present tense must Verbs, &$ 27

often be replaced by future, futurum exactum, perfect or TensesPresent,&c.

, present subjunctive; and the perfect similarly by the inexact use in English. pluperfect; the future by the futurum exactum ; e.g.

scribes si quid habebis, 47, 10; quae formaveram dicto,

34, 10. cf. § 29 a. B. The English perfect, e.g. 'is written, &c.,'scrip

tum est, must be carefully distinguished from the present of the same form, scribitur.

Cf. 29, 33; 34, 2; (36) 10; (38) 5, 15, 19, 24, 26; (42) 3; (46)

16; (49) 12, 21; 52, 5; (53) 12. Verbal pleo- § 28. a. In verbs as in nouns, (English) conventional periphrases periphrastic expressions and obsolete metaphors must be

replaced by simpler and more direct terms.

'He observed, remarked, replied, continued' = inquit (often omitted) “I repeat,' inquam; and so ago, capio, esse, habere, ire, posse, facere, will often translate more artificial terms like “manage,'' discuss,' embrace,' 'exist,' constitute,' deliver,' &c. The verbs 'to avail one's self,' 'assure,' represent,' allude,' 'qualify,' "convey,' "coinmunicate,' enhance,' will furnish other instances in some of their uses.

nasms and

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Cf. 6, 1; 12, 21; 14, 3, 9; 15, 11; 25, 19; 31, 17; 35, 5; and (1) 26; (2) 2; (4) 6: (5) 10; (6) 13; (7) 31 ; (9) 24 ; (22) 25, 30, 34, 39. $ 28. B. Antithetical repetitions of the verb (or of : 28,

Verbal pleoits equivalent) are mostly suppressed in Latin where un- nasms, and

antithetical emphatic, one verb serving for two or more clauses. repetitions.

cf. § 19 B. Cumulative repetitions however are common in oratory.

Cf. (2) 13, 29; 7, 21. 7. Where the Latin verb is repeated, we, in English, English

synonyms use a synonym for variety, or the auxiliaries 'did,' 'had,' or auxili.

aries replace &c., to represent the verb; but cf. 10, 15; 21, 16, 17; verb. (24) 47.

8. Many verbs disappear altogether in translation, as Quasi-auxsucceeded in,' 'managed to,' 'failed to,' 'refrain,' con- (English)

iliary verbs tinued to,' ended in,' 'keep,'cease,'' begin,' 'get,'find, disappear; ; &c. (cf. § 29 y), or are only represented by adverbs, or the negative. § 36.

Cf. (15) 19 ; 23, 3, 14; (23) 16; (26) 4, 13, 35, 75; 44, 9. €. So also participles, marked with cruelty,' 'attended so too parti

ciples. by circumstances,' &c.; a slave called Dama, Dama quidam.

Cf. § 21 ; 23, 3, 14; (24) 8.

$ 29. a. Tenses (Latin) keep their strict time; use § 29. therefore for continued incomplete actions the imperfect, tenses in

Latin (cf. $$ for single complete acts the aorist perfect (where we use the 25 B, 27 B)

imperfect, same tense for both); and the pluperfect where the action has preceded that of the perfect or imperfect, as you use the perfect when the action has preceded that of a present. B. Remember that scripsi is eypaya, yeypapa, perfect and

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aorist. ypayas exw, (scriptum habeo); that erat is not the same as fuit which (as vixit) conveys an idea of completed (sometimes terminated) existence, and is less often used; erat standing as an aorist instead, owing to the intrinsic idea of verbs of existence. Cf. (24) 51. N.

d

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Strict use of

&c.;

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$ 30.

а.

their one

All mere

Latin im- § 29. y. The Latin imperfect is often best translated perf. paraphrased by the periphrastic proceed' keep,' continue,' 'get,' &c., in English.

when the auxiliary was' (speaking, &c.) is not sufficient; or by adverbs like constantly,' often,' still,' 'gradually;' generally by our loose aorist.

Cf. 7, 33–6; 25, 3, 5, 15, &c. (25) 4, 21, &c. ; (26), 13.

$ 30. a. Wherever a fact is stated directly, or referred Subjunctive and in- to objectively, the indicative must be used; where it is dicative:

alluded to merely as an idea of the mind, or stated leading idea. indirectly as in oratio obliqua, the subjunctive. All mere

conceptions, then, belong to the subjunctive, and a mental conceptions belong to

conception is implied in all its uses. Aims and objects subjunctive. are conceptions : so also causes not realized as facts: and

wishes, and conditions—(though a condition may form such an obvious fact that it is expressed as such, e.g. si lucet, lucet). Cf. 1, 20; 3,6; 27, 8, 15; 37, 40; 46, 5.

Of the six so-called pure uses of the conjunctive junctives (Potential, Conditional, Concessive, Optative, Dubitative, cal and mere Hortative, cf. the Primer, p. 141), five are strictly ellipconception.

tical, dependent on verbs (as fac ut, suadeo ut, &c.) suppressed: such dependent clauses as mere conceptions naturally belong to the subjunctive. The "conditional pure use' (as in 19, 14; 26, 38) is of course also a conception (vellem ire) dependent on a condition often unexpressed. Cf. 19,14; 40, 1, 4, 33; 44,10; 53, 19.

B. The future too it may be said is strictly pure future indic. conception, and should belong to the subjunctive. It conception. may be seen indeed that etymologically it is closely

connected with the subjunctive; both the future and fut.

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i The subjunctive has never the sense of possibility or potentiality. What can I do?' is only an inexact interchange of idiom for quid faciam? Petunt ut eant' no more proves a latent idea of licet or potest in the subj. than 'placet ire,' censeo esse,' shew a latent debere in the infinitive.

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