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§ 30.

n. In the sequence of subordinate clauses the Sequence of Tenses. present and perfect of a main clause are followed by the

present and perfect subj., the imperfect or the aoristic past-
perfect by the imperfect and pluperfect subj. In these
clauses the imperfect of the subjunctive is also aoristic in
sense : while the perfect is less so than in its indicative
(being used mostly of completed perfect actions); though
in consecutive clauses, aoristic also.
e.g. i. ut veniat dat (dedit) talentum.

ii. ut veniret (or quum venisset), dabat (dederat) dedit (aorist) talentum.

iii. tam stultus erat ut veniret (consecutive), or ut venerit, of one completed or definite action.

Cf. 3, 10; 6, 7; 20, 4, 8, 36, 41; 41, 22.

0. The futurum exactum subjunctive, both in the Subjunc- active and passive, seems to have the same form as the tive.

perfect subjunctive, not that of the futurum exactum indicative; e.g. polliceor me venturum, si potuerim; tam segnis est ut futurum sit ut jam redierim ante quam profectus sit'. Cf. Madvig. 379, and see ß. But it would be more correct to say that in such cases the perf. subj. is used loosely for the future; or that the so-called perf. subj. in -erim is strictly the subj. from the fut. perf. -ero, which however (as the pres. subj.) loses its future meaning generally, except in hypothetical, final and absolute clauses. Cf. 41, 13; 43, 9. Cf. also Cic. Rosc. Am. XLIV. 128: ad Att. VII. 7, 7, and vII. 8, 4; in ad Fam. VI. 12, 3 (confecta futura sit) we have the full form of a future

perf. subj. (Cf. Draeger, $ 141.) Fut. subj.

The simple future is periphrastic, amaturus sim: Passive. for the passive some periphrasis, as non dubium est quin

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i Both the two tenses must be looked upon therefore as identical, sometimes future in meaning, sometimes past; this confusion being due to the fact that the whole mood is used doubly, now to express the idea of the Gk. subj., now that of the optative.

Active and


future of


futurum sit (or in eo futurus sim) ut amer, will have to be used, if the active cannot be used. The periphrastic forms are found with all tenses of sum, with foret as well as esset; more rarely however with fuero, fore.

$ 30. k. This last periphrasis fore, futurum esse ut Periphrastic amem, amer, is often found for the future active and Infinitive

with fore passive infinitive, especially where the simple future forms would be awkward or do not exist. Forms like debellatum fore, absolutum fore, occur in Cic., Liv., &c.; as also dicto audientes fore, habendum fore. § 31. a. The infinitive often replaces our present par- $81.

The Latin ticiple, vidi ruere, 'I saw it falling,' (or “fall'); but vidi Infinitive

for Eng. ruentem, 'I saw it while it was falling.'

part.; Cf. 26, 11; 23; 36, 21; 38, 22.

So in our ceased (began) speaking,'' went on consuming,' &c.

B. The infinitive of surprise ("To think that,' &c.) is of surprise. found in Latin, generally with the enclitic ne; e.g. Te ne nescire! At te Romce non fore! But we find also a direct interrogative with or without ne, and an ellipse of the verb; e.g. Ita ne Brutus ? Cf. 45, 2; (45) 7.

The accusative of exclamation, with adjectives and participles, is more common, and may sometimes be used instead. Cf. 36, 16; 38, 3; 54, 9. y. The English (or Greek) epexegetic infinitive must Epexegetic

Infinitive. be replaced by the supine or gerund, by ut or relative with subjunctive, or by some substantival periphrasis; 'to say the truth,' ut vera dicam; sometimes it


be made the main verb of the sentence. Cf. § 4 B, 28 d, 'I shall be glad to come,' laetus veniam.

Cf. 28, 3; 30, 2; 47, 12; 49, 12, 18, 26; 50, 15.
The final infinitive is expressed by ut or qui with Final Infi-

nitive. subj. or by the part. in rus. Cf. 8, 11, 13, &c.

Lat. Infin.
not used


with prepo

Lat. Gerund.

time and sense of

$ 33.

$ 32. a. The Latin infinitive though substantival

cannot be used with prepositions (as our verbal in ‘ing,' sitions as or the Greek infinitive); the gerund may be, but with our verbalor

some only. Manifold

B. When you come to an expression like 'without

doing,' you must settle by the context whether it is past, verbal in

present, or future, consequence, mode, or condition, and -ing.

translate accordingly, e.g. re infecta, nullo obstante, non coactus abiit; nihil facientem miserum est morari; nisi feceris; vix haec facies, ut non facias et illa , abiit neque fecit. Cf. 33, 17; 36, 16.

$ 33. Generally the English verbal in -ing may be Verbals in rendered: ‘ing,' how translated

i. In the nominative or accusative by the Latin infinitive or quod with indicative; e. g. quod abes aberas, dc. (te abesse) tamdiu, mirum est (or miror).

ii. In the other cases by the finite verb with ex (ob, dc.), eo (id) quod; e.g. ex eo quod abes aberas, &c. *from your being away.'

iii. Or by the gerunds with and without prepositions; e.g. certus eundi ; ad eundum paratus.

iv. Or by the gerundive and noun, with or without prepositions ; e.g. ex (de, &c.) re agenda ; sometimes even with pronoun, offerendi mei. Cic. c. Rull. 11. 5, 12.

Or by verbal clauses with quum, ubi, &c.; or participial clauses as above, § 32 ß; or by adverbs; e.g. inscienter, without knowing.'

Cf. 6, 20; (14) 10; 15, 10; 29, 5, 30; 49, 9, 12, 33, 41.

In all cases the time of the verbal must be expressed; if the action be past or present, then use quod &c. with past or present indic.; if future or final, use ut, ne, quo minus, &c. with subjunct. past or present (cf. $ 30 m). Cf. Näg. $ 37.


$ 34. Particles, when omitted,

§ 34. In its use of particles, connecting and others, Latin is more simple and realistic than English ; and un

no sooner





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necessary particles must be omitted in translation, es-
pecially when used for emphasis, where position alone
suffices in Latin.
Cf. SS 4, 8, 17; 49, 26, 38; 53, 20; 56, 20.

$ 34.
sometimes are rendered by etet, simul

Particles, ---simul, or the past participle passive, qualifying,

connecting scarcely-when; just as

captum statim occidit; sometimes by

vix...quum; (dixerat)...quum.
on the one hand- }ut-ita; quum-tum.
on the other;

you but I,' ego non tu ;
by this time,' jam ; 'from the first, jam tum ;

,' idem or etet (et bonus et strenuus);
at all events,' at least,'' in any case,' certe, omnino;
“positively,' actually,' quidem, or unexpressed; e. g.
facere voluit et fecit (quidem); quamvis sit felix

sicut est;
quite,' omnino, valde, plane;
of course,' quidem, vero, sane; profecto.
'good,'' very well,' optime, esto;
'yes,' etiam, maxime, aio, sic, ita, immo (with or

without vero);
'no,' non, minime, nego;
'not,' ne, of a purpose, non otherwise; minus (sin
quo dc minus).

Both English and Latin particles have widely different Ambiguous

particles. meanings according to position and the accents of the sentence, which must be carefully marked ;

e.g. still'=(i) nihilominus, tamen, (ii) adhuc, (iii)

Usque ;
'indeed' = (i)

(i) sane quam (dolui), (ii) sane, quidem




(uev) answered by sed (8e), &c., (iii) ita ne?

(iv) (minime) vero, (v) re vera ; "well'=(i) bene, (ii) quid igitur ? (iii) at, atqui, (iv) jam, jam vero, resumptive, (v) often left

) unexpressed. Quidem, vero, tamen, enim sometimes enimvero,

-nam, -dum are enclitics. Particles of

Unconnected sentences are not so frequent in Latin connexion. cf. $$ 9a and as in writers like Macaulay ; jam, tum, inde, doc., often

have to be introduced. But very often they are connected not by particles, but by some word brought emphatically forward which serves as a connecting idea; or by the relative. At other times quod, quod contra, quod si, quanquam, ergo, itaque, quare, proinde, autem, nempe, scilicet, porro, jam vero, quid? quid quod, &c., will be used.

In descriptive clauses, like 'It was now getting dark,' the 'now' will disappear or be replaced by tunc, as our descriptive' here' is by ibi, illic, hence,' by inde. Adhuc, similarly, is used less frequently of the past time, though found in that sense occasionally, as also nunc tunc, &c. Ibi, ibidem are also used for hic in its strict sense to avoid repetition of hic, or to intensify it: cf. hic ibidem. Cic. Rosc. Am. 13.

Cf. (1) and (8); (10) 1; (11) 12; (25) 13, 22; and 15, 18; 25,

23, 28; 26, 3, 19, 33; 45, 1–16; 46, 1–6. $ 35.

§ 35. English writers use for effect 'such,' so,' so Intensive prefixes great, oftener than is done in Latin. Translate by the such', 'so', PES 24 8. superlative, comparative, or simple positive; often also cf. &

by adeo, tam, tantus, &c. (not sic or ita), sometimes by the relative ; e.g. qua munditia homines ! quae est tua bonitas. Yet we often find tantus where the "so' would be dropped in English, and toties for over and over again.' Cic. c. Rull. 11. 7, 17.

Cf. (7) 14; (26) 21; (36) 2; (37) 4, 5, 20; 37, 21; 44, 6; 49, 9; 51, 22.

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