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imitations of Greek

Asyndeton. $ 42. Omission of conjunctive and disjunctive


Cf. 11, 7, 15, 17. Zeugma, &c. n. Union or confusion of incongruous ideas and con


Cf. 2, 10; 8, 10, 16; 9, 7; 10, 14; 11, 10—12; 16, 5, 37; 18,

17; 22, 27. Infinitives 0. Free use of infinitives (i) as substantives both as vally, epeze- subject and object (as in Greek with the article), (ii) getically.

epexegetically as in Greek; (iii) with ellipse of verb, to express habit, inception, &c., even after quum, ubi; e.g. legionibus cum damno labor, et fodere rivos. An. XI. 20. auferre, trucidare, rapere, falsis nominibus imperium...

appellant. Agr. 30. Tacitean

Imitation of Greek and of poetical forms, as in

the use of the genitive (for ablative), of the objective and poet.

genitive, of the subjective dative for ablative; of adjectives or participles for substantives and for adverbs : in the use of the positive for the comparative; in the variety of periphrases for common ideas (as death, suicide, &c.): e.g. volyus mutabile subitis ; adrogans minoribus; sermonis nimius; vehementius quam caute, dc.

Cf. 2, 2; 22, 11, 14, 23; 23, 28. Brevity:

General tendency to brevity, condensation, and Ellipse:

ellipse of prepositions and nouns as well as verbs (as in

Y); frequent usage of verbs in peculiar senses, e.g. verbs in agere, to continue, live, stay; tendere, to encamp; impuspecial

tare, expedire, &c.; or with peculiar constructions, e.g. fungor, potior, with accusative.

Cf. 4, 14; 10, 8; 11, 2, 11; 22, 4,

Generally it will be seen that most of the peculiarities involve, either imitation of Greek—often as if the (Greek) article or participle û were understood—or an affectation of brevity, or a preference for a subjective


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$ 43.




turn of thought suggestive rather than explicit, or, lastly,
a desire for singularity or variety of expression.
In English we often follow the train of $ 43.

English thought in another's mind, his reasonings, or statements, oratio

obliqua. and state them directly with or without a prefatory 'he said,' 'he advised,' &c. This is our oratio obliqua, marked only by the use of the past for the present, pluperfect for perfect (would, could, &c., for will, can). Ambiguities often occur in consequence.

Cf. (6) 12; (7) 10; (8) 15; (11) 5, &c.; (15) 7, 17.

B. In Latin the verb cannot be thus left in the in- Latin dicative mood, but is thrown into the infinitive or sub- obliqud. junctive. The subject becomes an accusative, the verb an infinitive, both in the main and in the co-ordinate clauses; while subordinate or dependent verbs become or remain subjunctives, in present or past tenses accordingly as the original main verb is present, past, or historic present. $ 30 y, vi. 41 a.

Cf. 4, 10—19; 6,5—21; 11, 3—7; 12, 15.

y. Words introducing this oratio obliqua, 'urging,' Ellipse of saying,' he exclaimed,' he continued,' are omitted generally; dixit, respondit, videbatur, apparebat, ferebatur, &c., are sometimes used.

Commands and exhortations, dependent on monet, monuit ut, dc. suppressed, are put in the present or imperfect subjunctive.

Cf. 1, 6; 8, 15; 11, 3, 14; 12, 15; 24, 20.

8. Independent questions when put in oratio obliqua, Questions as other main clauses, are expressed by the accusative obliqua. with the infinitive (being dependent on dicit, &c. not on rogat, &c.), e.g. Quem non videre ? except where the second person of the oratio recta has to be expressed, when to avoid confusion the subjunctive is mostly used, as if it were a dependent clause. So nonne vides

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in oratio

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$ 43. Indirect

becomes nonne videret; but nonne video, videmus ? become nonne (se) videre? and nonne videt, vident? nonne videre eos ? &c. See Madvig, $ 405. Cf. 6, 11; 10, 3, 4; cf. also Cic. Rosc. Am. 23. 64.

The indirect interrogative however approximates to a interroga- simple dependent clause (when attached to a main verb tive.

expressed), and is treated as such (see B); quaerit ubi esset

Cato, ubi tu esses, ubi ipse esset. Questions $ 43. e. Questions origiually in the subjunctive (like subj. subordina-" other dependent clauses) when put in oratio obliqua re

main in the subjunctive with a change of tense according to B, or $ 30 $; e.g. utri paream ? becomes utri pareret ? or utri parendum esset ? in oratio obliqua; in both cases equally a main governing verb or a condition being



Here, as in § 30 %, the rule holds good that the subjunctive cannot do double duty. Quid faceres ? (conditional) becomes quid facturus esset ?

Qui copulative with infin.

& The relative qui is often treated as a copula

१. ( = et is) and followed by the infinitive mood, the relative sentences being then co-ordinate and not dependent. However the subjunctive is oftener found, so that the sentence becomes a qualifying clause. See Madvig, $ 402. E. g. esse illi pecuniam et eloquentiam queis multos anteiret (or anteire).



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§ 44. Short speeches in English are generally exSpeeches in

pressed in oratio recta ; in Latin by oratio obliqua: but obliqua.

not always : e.g. 26, 35; (15) 18; 30, 2. As a rule oratio obliqua is oftener used in Latin than in English for all speeches.

Cf. (1) 26; (7) 37; (10) 4; 16, 26; (28) 7; (30) 1.

45. Metaphors:

$ 45. a. Metaphors are less frequent in Latin than

When not

English, and where used are used more consciously and consistently'. Cf. 3, 15; (4) 18; (9) 23, &c.

$ 45. B. English is thickly strewn with buried $ 45. metaphors—fossils of bygone ages, Greek, Roman, Saxon, reproduced: Norman; they need not be reproduced in Latin, if dead and unmeaning in the English, and will otherwise often require simplifying; e.g. "agony,' afflicted,' redundant,' * redound,' affluence,'' inured,' "despond,' astonished.' Cf. § 11 ß. On the other hand, their Latin originals can often no longer be expressed in English by such effete derivatives, but will require the substitution of other words and more lively metaphors.



noun, &c.


7. Metaphors may often in translation be shifted Shifted from the verb or adjective to the noun, or vice versa ; verb to e.g. magna vis telorum volabat; defluxit salutatio; signa non fucata sed domesticis inusta notis veritatis.

The most ordinary Lat. metaphors it will be noticed sources of come from the ideas of gushing and flowing, burning, flame or heat. In attempting to translate a metaphor Rule for

translating first grasp the main leading idea of it, whether extent, metaphors. swiftness, rest, development, &c., discarding at first incidentals. Then choose an essential equivalent suiting the idiom of the language, afterwards working in the incidentals harmoniously.

from nation

8. Where we use similes taken from nautical (as in Metaphors Greek) or commercial matters, or our old national pur- al habits,

pursuits : suits, as archery, the Romans take theirs from legal or military matters, and from their own peculiar habits,

1 Not always however: cf. Cic. in Catilin. IV. 3, 6. Latius opinione disseminatum est hoc malum; manavit non solum per Italiam, verum etiam transcendit Alpes; et obscure serpens multas provincias occupavit. Id opprimi sustentando et prolatando nullo pacto potest.

pursuits, and institutions; they will often use similes where we do not, and vice versa; e. g. Epicuri castra ; tirocinium; in ordinem cogi; vita mancipio nulli datur; columen reipublicae; 'two strings to one's bow;' 'to hit, miss, overshoot, &c., the mark;' 'to draw the long bow,' &c., 'mainstay,' 'to launch a scheme,' 'to tack,' 'to weather,' 'to draw upon the imagination,''to endorse,' 'to credit with,' &c.

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more material in Lat.

$ 45. €. English similes and figurative expressions are more idealistic, Latin more material and matter-offact : e.g. cedant arma togae ; nervi reipublicae ; succus et sanguis oratorum.

See Cic. de Oratore, III. 38, 153 sqq.; Quintil. Inst. Orat. Bk. VIII.

Cf. 6, 7; (10) 9, 15; (14) 14; (15) 10, 19; (22) 4; (32) 5, 7; (35) 16; (36) 10; (39) 9, 16; and 14, 6; 22, 7; 26, 34, 50, 72; 37, 36, 60; 46, 12; 49, 14—19; 53, 7; 55, 5, 11.


stead of

§ 46.

§ 46. Jubes me venire; veniam, ‘you ask me to come; Repetitions I will' (cf. § 28), is a difference of idiom due to the use Latin in

of auxiliaries in English and not in Latin, and to our equivalent. love of variety. We seldom repeat the same verb

; sometimes we say “I will do so,' to avoid the repetition; and in Latin faciam can be similarly used, though not so frequently. Cf. id quod fit, factum est, 'as it does, did.' In Latin the verb is sometimes omitted altogether. Cf. 55, 18.

Cf. 11, 13; (38) 23; 43, 5, 7, 14, 16; 52, 24; 56, 9. $ 47.

§ 47. A story is often introduced by ferunt in Latin, Abruptness of English. where in English it begins abruptly : cf. 39, 20; (39) 18. Connecting Sometimes factum est ut, accidit, accedit, evenit, ut, Latin acci- will be found useful in introducing incidents, or results, quod, &c. e forte being often added, or beginning the story. So adde

quod, accedit quod, with indicative, in all tenses.

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