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vero, &c.;

34 sub. fin.

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Similarly the English imperative is sometimes too $ 47.

fac, cura, abrupt for Latin : and fac, cura, vide, noli, or the simple &c. future or fut. perfect may have to be used : e.g. fac scribas ; scribes ; ne scripseris, noli scribere.

Cf. 13, 36; 30, 6; 38, 8, 14; 40, 22.

So also sentences really inferential will be introduced autem,sane, by igitur, &c., adversative and antithetical, by autem, f. 59a and vero, &c.; concessive, by sane, profecto, quidem; epexegetic, by et quidem, etiam porro, &c. Cf. 7, 12, 14; 14, 20; 18, 16; 24, 41; 42, 8; 45, 7; (46) 6, 9; (47) 2, 13; (49) 2, 12; (51) 10, 15. § 48. Ambiguities arise in the use of common words $ 48,

Ambiguous from the fact that they do not cover exactly the same use of words. ground in both languages.

Omnis is not only 'all,' the whole' (as totus), Omnis. every' (but not in sense of quisque), but also is constantly equivalent to our 'any;' cf. omnino, in any case;' in expressions like omnium cum dolore, it may often be translated 'general,' 'universal.' Cf. 22, 31; 25, 19.

B. Once—or 'on one (i.e. an) occasion'—is simply Once. expressed by quum if that can be introduced, at other times forte may express it, or it is left untranslated; 'once,' 'on a former occasion,' 'formerly,' quondam, olim (once on a time); or, more indefinitely, 'at least once,' 'before now,' aliquando; 'once' numerically, and similarly 'once for all,' semel; e.g. forte ludebam quum, &c.; quondam ludebam ; aliquando lusi; semel lusi.

y. 'No' where meaning 'not,' and in expressions No, not, like ‘no sun, no moon,' will often be translated by non, not by nullus. On the other hand nullus is occasionally found in the sense of 'not at all,' e.g. is non modo nullus venit sed, &c. Nullus with ablative is used for

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* Tell.'

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$ 49.
‘May,'

as auxiliaries.

'without,' e. g. nullo ordine, cf. (13) 17, without the cum that usually niarks attendant circumstance. Cf. § 50, Näg. $ 82, and Madv. § 257. Cf. 2, 23; 11, 10; (22) 2; (53) 14.

8. So 'tell' may have to be translated by dicere, nuntiare, scribere, jubere, certiorem facere; ever' by unquam, semper, aliquando, quando; as' by quum, ut, sicut, quam, &c.

§ 49. Care must be taken to distinguish between might, &c. might,' would,''could,' should,' used as auxiliaries in

subjunctive clauses, and the same used as perfects of
‘may,' 'will,' 'can,' 'shall.' These (like 'ought' from
‘owe') are coupled with a past or perfect subordinate
tense in English (necessary only because their own past
or perfect sense has got obscured), e.g. might, &c., have
done, have been doing; but in Latin the present must
be used: licuit, voluit, potuit, debuit (debebat, debuerat,
&c.), facere.

Cf. 12, 2, 15, 19; 26, 38; 32, 5; (37) 10; 37, 33; (45) 16;

48, 21. Latin perf.

The Latin perfect infinitive is sometimes used after may,'

these verbs to mark a completed action, but never to ‘might,' &c.

mark the past time of the power or duty, &c., of doing it, as in English ; e.g. potuerat fecisse, ‘he might have done

it already.' 'May, Similarly 'may,' 'will,''shall,' are not always win Ac, auxiliaries, but main verbs with an infinitive following.

Such words vary in meaning according to their accent, and may have to be expressed as above by posse, &c.,

or by the fut. in -rus; by the gerund; statuo; opus est, &c. Must,'. Must,' like 'ought,' is properly a past tense, but is 'ought,' &c.

used in a present and future sense, as 'ought' also. 'Would, “Would' is also used in a frequentative sense, e.g.

he would often say,' solebat dicere, dicebat. The con

infin. with

rare.

verbs,

'should.

ditional use of 'would,' should,' must be carefully distinguished from their use as futures; e. g. veniret si posset ; dixit se venturum.

Where the above are used as auxiliaries to mark the subjunctive mood it is due to their future' meaning, and the quasi-future sense of subjunctive conceptions.

$50.

$ 50. a. Before translating English prepositions para reposi

. phrase their meaning; sometimes the substantive will tions. disappear; if not, distinguish first the case to which the idea belongs (accusative of motion, limitation, extension, &c., dative of recipient, &c., ablative of manner, cause, &c.), and then, if necessary, prefix the preposition most suitable.

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E. g. 'of' may be translated by the simple genitive of origin, 'Op.' possession, quality, part, without preposition; by the ablative of quality, of locality, of subject, of material, of distance; vir magna virtute, Turnus (ex) ab Aricia, de te, (e) saxo murus : intra mille passuum ab hoste aberant.

* From may mean source (ex); beginning, distance, departure, 'From.' absence (ab); sequence, time (ab, ex); cause, ex, prae, with ablative, or ob, propter, with accusative. Sometimes a possessive pronoun may be used, sine tuis litteris, 'letters from you.'

“With' may mean the manner, instrument (vi, gladio, per- "With.' cussus); quality (senex promissa barba) of the simple ablative; or the attendant circumstance (or person), generally requiring cum with the ablative, e.g. tecum, cum gaudio, but also magno studio; see Madv. $ 257; also ‘at the house of,' apud. • Without' is sometimes expressed by absque, sine; by nullus,

Without.' $ 48 y; by adj., or verb, expers, careo, vaco, &c.; by phrase, as in § 33.

* For’may mean the simple dative of recipient or advantage, &c.; ‘For.' the simple ablative or genitive of price, Quanti emptum ? tribus assibus; or the objective genitive, e. g. amor patris; or the simple accusative of duration of time, without or with in (tres menses, in aevum); or the ablative of amount of time, e.g. novem annis, cf. 37, 53; or the ablative (originally local) with pro, pro te; or 'as,’ ‘in place of' =vice, pro, e.g. vice consulis, pro praetore; or purpose, tendency, destination (in or ad with accusative); or causa, &c. with

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Under.'

By.'

gen., e.g. honoris causa; or prae expressing a preventive cause, e. g. prae lacrumis,

*In' (when not used loosely for into ') is confined to the ablative, but will not be translated by in except in strictly local senses, but by the simple ablative.

To'may mean the dative; the ablative of'attendant circumstance (cum omnium gaudio); but will usually be expressed by the accusative; ad will give the further idea of up to ;' in of 'into;' versus of towards ;' 'up to,' tenus..

• Under' may mean place (sub, subter); inferiority of age, rank, number (minor); subjection (substantive or adjective) ; condition, • under these circumstances' (ablative or phrase).

By' may mean proximity (accusative with apud, juxta, prope, ad, propter); or motion near or past (trans, praeter with accusative) ; or the agent or instrument, ab, per; or the instrumental or modal ablative; or distribution, e.g. in dies, day by day.

‘On’ is used of place, with motion (in, super with accusative); of rest (in, super with ablative, and supra with accusative); of direction, ab ortu, ab sinistra ; of time (ablative), Kal. Juniis ; or in sense of after' (ex with ablative, post with accusative).

Through' may mean agency (per); instrumentality (ablative); motion (per, trans, super with accusative).

At,'ad, apud, of place, or the locative (Romae) &c.; or against,' in; or gen, or ablat. of price.

Similarly after," " before,' 'near,' about,' &c., have various meanings that must be carefully distinguished. They must not be confused with adverbs and conjunctions of the same form.

'On.'

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"Through.'

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'At, &c.

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Prepositions repeated in Latin.

§ $ 50. B. Prepositions in Latin must be repeated with succeeding substantives, except where these latter form one idea ; 'in peace and war, in bello et in pace. Nor can two prepositions be as a rule used with the same substantive as in English ; e.g. 'with or without thee,' vel tecum vel sine te,

Cf. 3, 21, 23 ; 15, 8, 18; 21, 14, 21; 35, 14, 18; 36, 22.

7. Prepositions immediately precede the substantive or substantival phrase that they belong to ; except where emphasis requires part of the latter to come first, multis de causis, ad recte faciendum.

Position of prepositions.

ز

tions some

enclitic or

with en

tions de

verb in

ز

This is the case even with relatives. However, both Preposiwith relatives and other pronouns, some (as cum, contra, times quasiinter, propter) follow occasionally; tenus and versus regu- pro-clitic. larly; e. g. quos inter; te propter; hactenus, &c.

As regards enclitics like enim, quidem, que, that come Position as the second word of the clause, the substantive or clitics. phrase is generally regarded as one word with its preposition when the latter is a monosyllable (cf. the fact that in Greek some monosyllabic prepositions have no accent); e. g. de te enim; per me quidem, in reque tanta, though sometimes inque re tanta.

$ 50. 8. Carefully distinguish when the preposition Preposibelongs to the verb and when to the substantive. In tached from phrases like the book I asked for,' the preposition may English. belong to a verb governing a suppressed relative; in the friend I went with, to the relative suppressed. The meaning will often depend on the accent. Cf. (10) 15; (35) 9–17, &c.

Prepositions with verbals where the gerund and Eng. prepogerundive are not used are replaced by the conjunction placed by and verb, ut, quin, &c., e. g. kept from falling,' &c.; junctions. cf. § 33. § 51. a. The arrangement of compound numerals $51.

Compound is the same in Latin as in English : seventeen is sep- numerals tem decim (occasionally decem et septem); viginti septem, twenty-seven, or septem et viginti, seven and twenty; and so with the Latin ordinals, vicesimus primus, or primus et vicesimus (where English is different). After 100 the larger number precedes, with or without et in Latin, with 'and' in English. Numbers beyond 100,000 are expressed as multiples of that number by the adverbs bis, ter, decies, dc. (centena millia). Cf. This property of six millions of sesterces,' haec bona sexagies. Cic. Rosc. Am. 21,

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Lat. con

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