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$ 51. Mille.

tive numerals.


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N.B. Mille in the singular is indeclinable and either substantival or adjectival : millia is declinable and substantival ; e.g. duo millia hostium caesa.

Cf. 16, 7, 15, 28; 17, 27; 24, 7, 24; 26, 7; 33, 21; 37,53; 39, 21.
Distribu- $ 51. B. Distributive numerals, singuli, bini, septeni,

dc., mean '1, 2, 7 a-piece;' except when joined with plural
noun-forms of singular meaning, when they give simply
a plural meaning, binae litterae, trina castra ; but unae
litterae, not singulae. In compound numerals, as ter deni,

vicies centena, they are used without a distributive sense. Per-centage. These distributives may be used to translate per

centage; e.g. terni in millia aeris. Livy xxxix. 44.

But per-centage of interest on money is expressed as
a fraction of the principal.
E.g. unciarium fenus = 19, i.e. 8} per cent. per year

of 10 months, which is for our year of 12
months “10


cent.” Semunciarium="5


Usurae centesimae =īdo per month = "12 per

So binae centesimae = 24 per cent.
Usurae quincunces = f of the centesimae, i.e.

5 per cent.
Usurae deunces = 11


cent. Unciarium fenus =“1 per cent."

Cf. 1,5; 10, 12; 29, 2; 43, 17.
Particles 7. Amplius, plus, minus may be prefixed to numerals
numerals, (whatever case they are in or are joined with), quam being

omitted; e.g. umbram non amplius VIII pedes longam.
Similarly we find (Livy XXXVIII. 38) obsides ne minores octo-
num denum annorum neu maiores quinum quadragenum;
quam being omitted. Under thirty' may be translated

by minus triginta annos natus, minor triginta annis,
minor triginta annos natus, minor triginta annorum..

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Ad (about) is found prefixed to numerals with all $ 51.

Ad: ipse, cases adverbially, ad duo millia et trecenti occisi, Liv. x. admodum,

fere, &c. 17; but not in Cicero. The following are also found added or prefixed to numerals; admodum, about,' or quite;' ipse, 'exactly;' numero, 'in all,' or unexpressed in English; minimum (quum minimum, Plin.) at least;' and si (quum) maxime, fere, ut plurimum, &c.

$51. 8. Multiplicatives (duplex, triplex, dc.) are used Multiplicawith quam; pars mea duplex quam tua; forms in -plus are also used, quadruplus, duplus, and their neuters as substantives. But generally (sex) partibus major, minor, is found for our · (six) times as great ; e.g. sol amplius duodeviginti partibus maior quam terra (Cic. Acad.); duabus partibus or (duplo) amplius (Cic. Verr.); ‘18 times greater or as great,''twice as much :' where notice, that the XVIII partibus is the full measure of the thing that exceeds, not of the excess as might have been expected. This may be compared with their inclusive method of reckoning

Fractions are expressed by use of the 12 divisions Fractions. of the as (especially for land, inheritance, interest); or of the numerals (cardinal, ordinal, and distributive) with partes or pars. Often the fraction is split into two. Heres ex besse (f), exc deunce et semuncia (Gl); duae partes (3), tres partes (?) (as in Greek); or duae tertiae (3), tres septimae (f); tres cum semisse (31); tertia pars et octava paulo amplius, 'a little more than 27ths'; Sicilicus eth (of as, or {th of uncia); scrupulus of uncia = 7th of jugerum.

Cf. 17, 21; 20, 19.

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1 288

&. Though momentum (like punctum and articulus) Fractions of is used for a small portion of time (horae momento nullo, momentis horarum, Plin. N. H. vii. 161, 172; momento

temporis, Liv. XXI. 33 ; parvo momento, Caes.), yet our divisions of the hour were unknown to the Romans, and must be expressed by fractions, as in the following, (mainly taken from Pliny N. H.); dimidia hora ; dodrans horae; quintae partes horae tres ; bis quinta pars horae ; semuncia horae ( = 24 minutes); dodrans semuncia horae, 471 min.; partes octo unius horae ; sesquihora (1į hr.); horae quattuordecim et dimidia cum trigesima parte unius horae (1438 hrs.). This last will form a useful model; as of course sexagesima pars could be used similarly. Cf. 9, 22; 48, 15. We find also scrupulus (in inscriptions) for 4th of hour = 24 minutes; sicilicus for sth of hour = 14 minute.


$ 52.
The hour.

$ 52. To mark the hour of the day, write prima, secunda, &c., from 7.0 A.M. to 6.0 P.M., adding noctis from 7.0 P.M. to 6.0 A.M. inclusive ; but remember that prima (the line one on the dial) marks both the period 6.0 to 7.0, and the conclusion of the same, i.e. 7.0. [Cf. our 'in his 20th year' with 20 years old.']

Cf. 33, 10, 19; 34, 3, 11 ; 41, 21, 27, 30 ; 56, 1.

Hora, its length.

Hora (like pa, of the year only, till about 150 B.C.) meant merely a division of the day. As they divided their as into 12 parts, they divided their day, and eventually their night also, into 12 hours. At first the hora was 17th of a natural day or night, and varied in length from 14 hr. to hr. It must soon however have been found expedient to make hora a fixed time, 1th of what Pliny calls an equinoctial day; still the fact of his distinguishing them in his calculations (horae nunc aequinoctiales, non cuiuscunque diei significantur, xvIII. 221) shows that the old meaning of hora was in use then (probably side by side with the new, and both marked on dials). His remark in N.H. 11. 79 is worth quoting. Ipsum diem alii aliter observavere. Babylonii inter duos Solis exortus ; Athenienses inter duos occasus : Umbri a meridie in meridiem : vulgus omne a luce ad tenebras : sacerdotes Romani et qui diem difiniere civilem, item Ægyptii et Hipparchus a media nocte in mediam.'

Horae sometimes was used for the dial itself, horologium. Dials. Videt iudicem oscitantem mittentem ad horas, Cic. Brut. 54. Moveri horas videmus, Cic. N. D. 11. 38. And often for the quarters of the heavens corresponding with the sun's position at certain hours (cf. meridies). Plin. N. H. vi. 32, 37 ; XVII. 11, 16.

Remember that the Romans, not having our minute accurate Divisions of divisions of the hour, marked time less exactly. The following hour.

day and are common expressions : mane, bene mane, multo mane, hodie mane, cras mane, postridie mane, hesterno die mane (or vesperi similarly): sexta · hora diei, Pl. N. H. 11. 180, or meridies; hora diei inter septimam et octavam ; inter horam diei decimam et undecimam ; noctis tertia hora ; prima, secunda, tertia, quarta, vigilia ; nocte concubia, media, intempesta : diluculo, &c. The following passages also may be of use as illustrations :

Ut illum Di perdant primus qui horas reperit
Quique adeo primus statuit hic solarium.

Plaut. ap. Gell. 111. 3. 5. Tunc Scipio Nasica primus aqua divisit horas aeque noctium et dierum, idque horologium dicavit anno urbis Dxcv.

Plin. N. H. VII. 60. cf. 11. 78. Quinta dum linea tangitur umbra. Pers. III. 4. Quum post horam primam noctis occisus esset, primo diluculo nuntius hic Ameriam venit: decem horis nocturnis, sex et quinquaginta millia passuum cisiis pervolavit. Cic. Rosc. Am. VII. 19.

Cf. Martial iv. 2, and Becker's Gallus.

$ 53. We cannot mark the day of the week in Latin. § 53. We can the days of the month by expressing the date as so months, &c.

Days and many days (reckoning inclusively) before the Nones (the 5th or 7th), the Ides (the 13th or 15th), or the Kalends; e.g. a.d. vi. Kal. Jun. (May 27th), or ante diem sextum Kal.; or the original form, sexto (die ante), or vi. Kal. Pridie, postridie Kal., are also found.

We may express the year in modern dates, either The year.

1 In March, July, October, May,

The Nones are on the seventh day.

simply as A.D.; or as A.U.C., in this case adding on the year A.D. to the date of the building of Rome, 753.

The period of a week may be marked roughly by nundinae, nundinum, 'market-day' = eight days; trinum nundinum, trinundinum (i.e. 17 days, or from the first to the third market-day), and biduum, triduum, quatriduum, may

also be found useful. Cf. 23, 11; 29, 17; 41, 3, 30; 44, 21; 46, 14,

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