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and cowardly patience of the remaining com- force or policy, but of the divine justice and pres pany, all was abandoned to his pleasure ; with destination ; and, though we see a man, like that the old hulk, and new mis-shapen and dis- which we call Jack of the clock-house, striking, agreeing pieces of his own, he made up, with as it were, the hour of that fulness of time, yet much ado, that piratical vessel which we have our reason must needs be convinced, that the seen him coinmand, and which, how tight indeed hand is moved by some secret, and, to us who it was, may best be judged by its perpetual leak- stand without, invisible direction. And the stream ing.
of the current is then so violent, that the strong. “First then,(much more wicked than those foolest men in the world cannot draw up against it; ish daughters in the fable, who cut their old father and none are so weak, but they may sail down into pieces, in hope by charms and witchcraft to with it. These are the spring-tides of public make him young and lusty again) this man en-affairs, which we see often happen, but seek in deavoured to destroy the building, before he vain to discover any certain causes : could imagine in what manner, with what materials, by what workmen, or what architect, it
Omnia fluminis was to be rebuilt. Secondly, if he had dreamt Ritu feruntur, nunc medio alveo himself to be able to revive that body which he Cum pace delabentis Etruscum had killed, yet it had been but the insupportable In mare, nunc lapides adesos, insolence of an ignorant mountebank; and third- Stirpésque raptas, & pecus & domos ly (which concerns us nearest), that very new Volventis unâ, non sine montium thing, which he made out of the ruins of the old, Clamore, vicinæque sylvæ ; is no more like the original, either for beauty, use,
Cùm fera diluvies quietos or duration, than an artificial plant, raised by Irritat amnes.
Hor. 3 Carm. Xixo the fire of a chymist, is comparable to the true and natural one which he first burnt, that out of “And one man then, hy maliciously opening all the ashes of it he might produce an imperfect si- the sluices that he can come at, can never be militude of his own making
the sole author of all this (though he may be as “Your last argument is such (when reduced to guilty as if really he were, by intending and syllogism, that the major proposition of it would imagining to be so); but it is God that breaks make strange work in the world, if it were receive up the flood-gates of so general a deluse; ed for truth; to wit, that he who has the best and all the art then and industry of mankind parts in a nation, has the right of being king over is not snfficient to raise up dikes and ramparts it. We had enough to do here of old with the against it. In such a time it was as this, that contention between two branches of the same fa- not all the wisdom and power, of the Roman semily: what would become of us, when every man nate, por the wit and eloquence of Cicero, wr in England should lay his claim to the govern- the courage and virtue of Brutus, was able to ment? And truly, if Cromwell should have com- defend their country, or themselves, against menced his plea, when he seems to have begun the unexperienced rashness of a beardless boy, his ambition, there were few persons besides, that and the loosa rage of a voluptuous madman. might not at the same time have put in theirs too. The valour and prudent counsels on the one But his deserts, I suppose, you will date from the side are made fruitless, and the errors and same term that I do his great demerits, that is, cowardice on the other harmless, by unexpect from the beginning of our late calamities (for, ed accidents. The one general saves his life
, as for his private faults before, I can only wish, and gains the whole world, by a very dream; and that with as much charity to him as to the and the other Joses both at once, by a little mispublic that he had continued in them till hisdeath, take of the shortness of his sight. rather than changed them for those of his latter this be not always so, for we see that, in the days); and therefore we must begin the consi- translation of the great monarchies from one tu deration of his greatness from the unlucky era another, it pleased God to make choice of the of our own misfortune ; which puts me in mind most eminent men in nature, as Cyrus, Alex. of what was said less truly of Pompcy the Great, ander, Scipio, and his contemporaries, for his Nostra miseriâ magnus es. But, because chief instruments and actors in so admirable the general ground of your augmentation con- a work (the end of this being, not only to desists in this, that all men who are effecters of ex-stroy or punish one nation, which may be dane traordinary mutations in the world, must needs by the worst of mankind, but to exalt and have extraordinary forces of nature, by which bless another, which is only to be efiected by they are enabled to turn about, as they please, great and virtuous persons); yet, when God so great a wheel; I shall speak first a few words only intends the temporary chastisement of : upon this universal proposition, which seems so people, he does not raise up his servant Cyrus reasonable, and is so popular, before I descend (as he himself is pleased to call him), or an to the particular examination of the eminences Alexander (who had as many virtues to do of that person which is in question.
good, as vices to do harm); but he makes "I have often observed(with all submission and the Massanellos, and the Johns of Leyden, tbs resignation of spirit to the inscrutable mysteries instruments of his vengeance, that the poset of Eternal Providence) that when the fulness and of the Almighty might be more evident by the maturity of time is come, that produces the great weakness of the means which he chooses to de confusions and changes in the world, it usually monstrate it. He did not assemble the set. pleases God to make it appear, by the manner pents and the monsters of Africa, to corrent of them, that they are not the effects of human the pride of the Egyptians; but called for his
armies of locusts out of Æthiopia, and formed those who are born for the erection of new emnew ones of vermin out of the very dust; and pires. because you see a whole country destryed by “ And, I confess, I find nothing of that kind, these, you will argue from thence they must no not any shadow (taking away the false needs have both the craft of foxes, and the courage light of some prosperity) in the man whom of lions ?
you extol for the tirst example of it. And " It is easy to apply this general observation to certainly, all virtues being rightly divided into the particular case of our troubles in England : moral and intellectual, I know not how we can and that they seem only to be meant for a better judge of the former, than by men's actemporary chastisement of our sins, and not tions; or of the latter than by their writings for a total abulishment of the old, and introduc- or speeches. As for these latter (which are tion of a new government, appears probable to least in merit, or rather which are only the me from these considerations, as far as we instruments of mischief, where the other are may be bold to make a judgment of the will wanting) I think you can hardly pick out the of God in future events. First, because he name of a man who ever was called great, has suffered nothing to settle or take root in besides him we are now speaking of, who never the place of that, which hath been so un- left the memory behind him of one wise or wisely and unjustly removed, that none of witty apophthegm even amongst his domestic these untempered mortars can hold out against servants or greatest flatterers. That little in the next blast of wind, nor any stone stick to print, which remains upon a sad record for a stone, till that which these foolish builders him, is such, as a satire against him would have refused, be made again the head of the not have made him say, for fear of trans
For, when the indisposed and long-tor-gressing too much the rules of probability, mented commonwealth has wearied and spent I know not what you can produce for the jusitself almost to nothing, with the chargeable, tification of bis parts in this kind, but his various, and dangerous experiments of several having been able to deceive so many partimounte-banks, it is to be supposed, it will cular persons, and so many whole parties ; have the wit at last to send for a tre physi- which if you please to take notice of for the cian, especially when it sees (which is the se- advantage of his intellectuals, I desire you cond consideration) most evidently (as it now to allow me the liberty to do so too when I begins to do, and will do every day more and am to speak of his morals. The truth of more, and Inight have done perfectly long since) the thing is this, that if craft be wisdoin, and that no usurpation (under what name or pre- dissimulation wit, (assisted both and improved text soever) can be kept up without open force, with hypocrisies and perjuries) I must not nor force without the continuance of those op- deny him to have been singular in both ; but pressions upon the people, which will at last so gross was the manner in which he made tire out their patience, though it be great even use of them, that, as wise men ought not to to stupidity. They cannot be so dull (when po
have believed him at first, so no man was fool verty and hunger begins to wet their under- enough to believe him at last : neither did any standing) as not to find out this no extraor- man seem to do it, but those who, thought dinary mystery, that it is madness in a na- they gained as much by that dissembling, as tion to pay three millions a year for the he did by his. His very actings of godliness maintaining of their servitude under tyrants, grew at last as ridiculous, as if a player by putwhen they might live free for nothing under ting on a gown, should think he represented their princes.
'This, I say, will not always lie excellently a woman, though his beard at the hid, even to the slowest capacities; and the same time were seen by all the spectators. If next truth they will discover afterwards is, you ask me, why they did not hiss, and exthat a whole people can never have the will, plode him off the stage; I can only answer, that without having at the same time the power, they durst not do so, because the actors and the to redeem themselves. Thirdly, it does not door-keepers were too strong for the company. lo k (me thinks) as if God had forsaken the I must confess that by these arts (how grossly family of that man, from whom he has raised soever managed, as by hypocritical praying and up five children, of as eminent virtue, and all silly preaching, by unınanly tears and whinother commendable qualities, as ever lived ings, by falsehoods, and perjuries even diabliperhaps (for so many together, and so young) cal) he had at first the good-fortune (as men in any other family' in the whole world. Es- call it, that is, the ill-fortune) to attain his pecially, if we add hereto this consideration, ends ; but it was because his ends were that by protecting and preserving some of unreasonable, that no human reason could foiethem already through as great dangers as ever see them ; which made them, who had to do were past with safety, either by prince or with him, believe, that he was rather a wellprivate person, he has given them already meaning and deluded bigot, than a crafty and (as we may reasonably hope it to be meant) malicious impostor: that these arts were a promise and earnest of his future favours. helped by an indefatigable industry, (as you And lastly (to return closely to the discourse term it) I am so far from doubting, that l'infrom which i have a little digressed) because tended to object that diligence, as the worst of his I see nothing of those excellent parts of na- crimes. It makes me almost mad, when I hear ture, and mixture of merit with their vices, in a man commended for bis diligence in wickedthe late disturbers of our peace and happi- ness. If I were his son, I should wish to ness, that uses to be found in the persons of God he had been a more lazy person, and that
he might have found him sleeping at the hours the empire; it was boldly done, to set the me when other men are ordinarily waking, rather tropolis of the whole world on fire, and undauntthan waking for those ends of his when other edly play upon his barp whilst he saw it burning; men were ordinarily asleep. Ilow diligent the I could reckon np five hundred bolduesses of that wicked are, the Scripture often tells us, “ Their great person (for why should not be, too, be callfeet run to evil, and they make haste to shed ed so?) who wanted, when he was to die, that innocent blood," Isai. lix. 7. “ He travels with courage which could hardly have failed any woman iniquity,” Psal. vii. 14.“ He deviseth unischief in the like necessity. upon bis bed,” Psal. xxxiv. 4. " They search “It would look (I must confess) like envy,or too out iniquity, they accomplish a diligent search,” much partiality, if I should say that personal Psal. Ixiv. 6. and in a multitude of other places. kind of courage had been deficient in the man we And would it not seem ridiculous, to praise a speak of ; I am confident it was not : and yet wolf for his watchfulness, and for his inde- I may venture, I think, to affirm, that no man fatigable industry in ranging all night about the ever bore the honour of so many victories, at the country, whilst the sheep, and perhaps the rate of fewer wounds and dangers of his own body; shepherd, and perhaps the very dogs too are all and though bis valour might perhaps have given asleep;
ajust pretension to one of the first charges in an
army, it could not certainly be a sufficient ground The chartreux wants the warning of a bell for a title to the command of three nations. To call him to the duties of his cell ;
“What then shall we say? that he did all this by There needs no noise at all t' awaken sin, witchcraft ? He did so, indeed, in a great measure, Th’ adulterer and the thief his larum has by a sin that is called like it in the scriptures. within.
But, truly, and unpassionately reflecting upon
the advantages of his person, which might be " And, if the diligence of wicked persons be so thought to have produced those of his fortune, much to be blamed, as that it is only an em- I can espy no other but extraordinary diligence phasis and exaggeration of their wickedness, I and infinite dissimulation ; and believe he was see not how their courage can avoid the same exalted above his nation, partly by his own faults,
If the undertaking bold, and vast, but chiefly for ours. and unreasonable designs can deserve that ho- “We have brought him thus briefly(not through nourable name, I am sure, Faux and his fel- all his labyrinths) to the supreme usurped autholow gun-powder friends, will have cause to rity; and because you say it was great pity be pretend, though not an equal, yet at least the did not live to command more kingdoms, be next place of honour : neither can I doubt but pleased to let me represent to you, in a few words, if they too had succeeded, they would have how well I conceive he governed these. And we found their applauders and admirers. It was will divide the consideration into that of his fubold unquestionably for a man in defiance of reign and domestic actions. The first of his foall human and divine laws (and with so little reign, was a peace with our brethren of Holland probability of a long impunity) so publicly (who were the first of our neighbours that God and so outrageously to murder his master; chastised for having had so great a hand in the it was bold with so much insolence and affront encouraging and abetting our troubles at home): to expel and disperse all the chief partners who would not imagine at tirst glimpse that this of his guilt, and creators of his power; it was had been the most virtuous and laudable deed, bold to violate so openly and so scornfully that his whole life could have made any parade all acts and constitutions of a nation and af- of? but no man can look upon all the circumterwards even of his own making; it was bold stances, without perceiving, that it was purely to assume the authority of calling, anel bolder the sale and sacrificing of the greatest advanyet of breaking, so many parliaments: it was tages that this country could ever hope, and was bold to trample upon the patience of his own ready to reap, from a foreign war, to the private and provoke that of all neighbouring countries; interests of his covetousness and ambition, and it was bold, I say, above all boldnesses, to usurp the sccurity of his new and unsettled usurpation. this tyranny to bimself: and impudent above No sooner is that danger past, but this Beatus all impudences, to endeavour to transmit it to Pacificus is kindling a fire in the northern world, his posterity. But all this boldness is so far and carrying a war two thousand miles off westfrom being a sign of manly courage, (which wards. Two millions a year (besides all the rails dares not transgress the rules of any other vir- of his protectorship) is as little capable to suffice tue) that it is only a demonstration of bratish now either bis avarice or his prodigality, as madness or diabolical possession. In both which the two hundred pounds were, that he was last cases there used frequent examples to ap- born to. He must have his prey of the whole pcar of such extraordinary force as may justly Indies both by sea and land, this great alligaseem more wonderful and astonishing than the To satisfy our Anti-Solomon (uho has actions of Cromwell ; neither is it stranger to made silver almost as rare as gold, and gold believe that a uhole nation should not be able as precious stones in his new Jerusalein) we to govern bim and a mad army, than that five must go, ten thousand of dis slaves, to fetch him for six men should not be strong enough to bind a riches from his fantastical Ophir. And, because distracted girl. There is no man ever succeeds his flatterers brag of bim as the most fortunate in one wickedness, but it gives him the boldness prince (the Faustus, as well as Sylla, of our bato attempta greater. It was boldly done of Nero tion, whom God never forsook in any of his unto kill his mother, and all the chief nobility of dertakings) I desire them to consider, bov,
since the English name was ever heard of, it never that the whole nation had given, and all private received so great and so infamous a blow as un. capitulations which himself had made, as the na. der the imprudent conduct of this unlucky Faus- tion's general and servant, that can be found out tus ; and herein let me admire the justice of (I believe) in all history, from any of the most God in this circumstance, that they, who had barbarous generals of the most barbarous people. enslaved their country (though a great army, Which, because it has been most excellently and which I wish may be observed by ours with trem- most largely laid open by a whole book written bling) should be so shamefully defeated by the upon that subject, I shall only desire you here to hands of forty slaves. It was very ridiculous to see remember the thing in general, and to be pleased how prettily they endeavoured to hide this ignomi- to look upon that author, when you would recolny under the great name of the Conquest of Ja- lect all the particulars and circumstances of the maica; as if a defeated army should have the iniquity. The other design, of raising a present impudence to brag afterwards of the victory, be- sum of money, which he violently pursued, but cause, though they had fled out of the field of durst not put in execution, was by the calling in battle, yet they quartered that night in a village and establishment of the Jews at London; from of the enemy's. The war with Spain was a ne- which he was rebuked by the universal outcry of cessary consequence of this folly; and how the divines, and even of the citizens too,who took it much we have gotten by it let the custom-house ill, that a considerable number at least amongst and exchange inform you; and, if he please to themselves were not thought Jews enough by boast of the taking a part of the silver fleet, their own Herod. And for this design, they say, (which indeed nobody else but he, who was the he invented (oh Antichrist ! Tomgày and ó Torneos sole gainer, has cause to do) at least, let him to sell St. Paul's to them for a synagogue, if their give leave to the rest of the nation (which is the purses and devotions could have reach'd to the only loser) to complain of the loss of twelve hun- purchase. And this indeed, if he had done only dred of her ships.
to reward that nation, which had given the first “But because it may here perhaps be answered, noble example of crucifying their king, it might that his successes nearer home have extinguished have had some appearance of gratitude: but he the disgrace of so remote miscarriages, and that did it only for love of their mammon; and would Dunkirk ought more to be remembered for his wave sold afierwards for as much more St. Peter's glory, than St. Domingo for his disadvantage; (even at his own Westminster) to the Turks for a I must confess, as to the honour of the English mosquito. Such was hisextraordinary piety to God, courage, that they were not wanting upon that that he desired he might be worshipped in all occasion (excepting only the fault of serving at manners, excepting only that heathenish way of least indirectly against their master) to the up- the Common-prayer book. But what do I speak holding of the renown of their warlike ancestors.
of his wicked inventions for getting money ; But for his particular share of it, who sate still when every penny, that for almost five years he at home, and exposed them so frankly abroad, I took every day from every man living in England, can only say, that, for less money than he in the Scotland, and Ireland, was as much robbery, as short tiine of his reign exacted from his fellow- if it had been taken by a thief upon the highsubjects, some of our former princes (with the ways ? Was it not so? or can any man think daily hazard of their own persons) have added that Cromwell, with the assistance of his forces to the dominion of England, not only one town, and moss-troopers, had more right to the combut even a greater kingdom than itself. And mand of all men's purses, than he might have this being all considerable as concerning his en- had to any one's whom he had met and been too terprizes abroad, let us examine in the next strong for upon a road? And yet, wben this place, how much we owe him for his justice and came, in the case of Mr.Coney3, to be disputed by good government at home.
a legal trial, he (which was the highest act of ty“And, first, he found the commonwealth (as they ranny that ever was seen in England) not only then called it) in a ready stock of about 800,000 discouraged and threatened, but violently impripounds; he left the commonwealth (as he had soned the counsel of the plaintiff'; that is, he the impudent raillery still to call it) some two shut up the law itself a close prisoner, that no millions and an half in debt. He found our trade man might have relief from, or access to it. very much decayed indeed, in comparison of the And it ought to be remembered, that this was golden times of oor late princes; he left it as done by those men, who a few years before had much again more decayed than he found it : so bitterly decried, and openly opposed, the king's and yet not only no prince in England, but no regular and formal way of proceeding in the trial tyrant in the world, ever sought out more base or of a little ship-money. infamous means to raise monies. I shall only But, though we lost the benefit of our old instance in one that he put in practice, and ano- courts of justice, it cannot be denied that he set ther that he attempted, but was frighted from the up new ones; and such as they were, that as no Execution (even he) by the infamy of it. That virtuous prince before would, so no ill one durst, which he put in practice was decimation ? ; which erect. What, have we lived so many hundred was the most impudent breach of all public faith years under such a form of justice as has been
able regularly to punish all men that offended . By decimation, is here meant, not the putting against it; and is it so deficient just now, that to death of every tenth man (which is the usual we must seek out new ways how to proceed sense of this term), but the levying of the tenth penny on the estates of the Royalists. The word 3 Which the reader may see in lord Clarenis so used by sir John Denham. HURD.
don, H. Po vol. iii, fol. p. 596. HURDA
against offenders? The reason, which can only | day, you should see him ranting so wildly, that be given in nature for a necessity of this, is, be nobody durst come near him: to morrow, linging cause those things are now made crimes, which of cushions, and playing at snowballs, with his were never esteemed so in former ages; and there servants. This month, he assembles a parlia. must needs be a new court set up to punish that, ment, and professes himself with humble tears which all the old ones were bound to protect and to be only their servant and their minister; the reward. But I am so far from declaiming (as you next month, he swears by the living God, that call it) against these wickednesses (which if I he will turn them out of doors, and he does so, should undertake to do, I should never get to the in bis princely way of threatening, bidding them, peroration), that you see I only give a hint of " Turn the buckles of their girdles behind them." some few, and pass over the rest, as things that The representative of whole, nay of three whole are too many to be numbered, and must only nations, was in his esteem so contemptible a be weighed in gross. Let any man show me (for, meeting, that he thought the affronting and exthough I pretend not to much reading, I will pelling of them to be a thing of so little conse. defy him in all history) let any man show me quence, as not to deserve that he should advise (I say) an example of any nation in the world with any mortal man about it. What shall we (though much greater than ours) where there call this? boldness or brutishuess? rasliness (T have, in the space of four years, been made phrensy? There is no name can come up to it; so many prisoners, only out of the endless jea- and therefore we must leave it without one. lousies of one tyrant's guilty imagination. 1 Now a parliament must be chosen in the new grant you, that Marius and Sylla, and the ac- manner, next time in the old forin, but all cashcursed triumvirate after them, put more people iered still after the newest mode. Now he will to death; but the reason, I think, partly was, govern by major-generals, now by one house, because in those times that bad a mixture of some now by another house, now by no house; now honour with their madness, they thought it a the freak takes him, and he makes seventy peers more civil revenge against a Roman, to take away of the land at one clap (extempore, and stans his life, than to take away his liberty. But truly pede in uno); and, to manifest the absolute in the point of murder too, we have little reason power of the potter, lie chooses not only the to think that our late tyranny has been deficient to worst clay he could find, but picks up even the the examples that have ever been set it in other dirt and mire, to form out of it his vessels of countries. Our judges and our courts of justice honour. It was said anciently of Fortune, that, have not been idle: and, to omit the whole reign when she had a mind to be merry and to divert of our late king (till the beginning of the war), herself, she was wont to raise up such kind of in which no drop of blood was ever drawn but people to the highest dignities. This son of Forfrom two or three ears, I think the longest tune, Cromwell, (who was himself one of the time of our worst princes scarce saw many primest of her jests) found out the true haut goust more executions, than the short one of our of this pleasure, and rejoiced in the extravagance blest reformer. And we saw, and smelt in our of his ways, as the fullest demonstration of his open streets (as i marked to you at first) the uncontroulable sovereignty. Good God! What broiling of human bowels as a burnt-offering of a have we seen and what hare we suffered ? what Sweet savour to our idol ; but all murdering, and do all these actions signify? what do they say all torturing (though after the subtilest invention aloud to the whole nation, but this (eren as of his predecessors of Sicily) is more humane and plainly as if it were proclaimed by heralds through more supportable, than his selling of Christians, the streets of London), “ You are slaves and Englishmen, gentlemen; his selling of them (oh fools, and so I will use you!" monstrous! oh incredible) to be slaves in America. “ These are brictly a part of those merits which If his whole life could be reproached with no you lament to have wanted the reward of more other action, yet this alone would weigh down all kingdoms, and suppose that, if he had lived the multiplicity of crimes in any of our tyrants ; longer, he might have had them: which I am sa and I dare only touch, without stopping or insist- far from concurring to, that I believe his season. ing upon, so insolent and so execrable a cruelty, able dying to have been a greater good-furtune for fear of falling into so violent (though a just) to him, than all the victories and prosperities of passion, as would make me exceed that temper his life. For he seemed evidently (methinks) to and moderation, which I resolve to observe in be near the end of his deceitful glories; his own this discourse with you.
army grew at last as weary of him as the rest of “ These are great calamities; but even these the people; and I never passed of late before his are not the most insupportable that we have en- palace (bis, do I call it? I ask God and the king dured; for so it is, that the scorn, and mockery, pardon) but I never passed of late before Whiteand insultings of an enemy, are more painful hall, without reading upon the gate of it, “Mene than the deepest wounds of his serious fury. Mene, Tekel Upharsin's.” But it pleased God This man was wanton and merry (unwittily and to take him from the ordinary courts of men, and ungracefully merry) with our sufferings: be juries of his peers, to his own high court of justice; loved to say and do senseless and fantastical which being more merciful than ours below, there things, only to show his power of doing or saying is a little room yet left for the hope of his friends, any thing
It would ill befit mine, or any civil if he have any ; though the outward unrepentance mouth, to repeat those words which he spoke of his death afford but small materials for the concerning the most sacred of our English laws, work of charity, especially if he designed even the Petition of Right, and Magna Charta 4. To then to entail his own injustice upon his children, In the case of Coney, before mentioned.
Dan, v. 25.