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one of the best persons, and into the court of one of the best princesses, of the world. Now, though I was here engaged in ways most contrary to the original design of my life, that is, into much company, and no small business, and into a daily sight of greatness, both militant and triumphant (for that was the state then of the English and French courts); vet all this was so far from altering my opinion, that it only added the confirmation of reason to that which was before but natural inclination. I saw plainly all the paint of that kind of life, the nearer I came to it; and that beauty, which I did not fall in love with, when, for aught I knew, it was real, was not like However by the failing of the forces which I to bewitch or entice me, when I saw that it was had expected, I did not quit the design which I adulterate. I met with several great perhad resolved on; I cast myself into it a corps sons, whom I liked very well; but could not perdu, without making capitulations, or taking perceive that any part of their greatness was to counsel of Fortune. But God laughs at a man, be liked or desired, no more than I would be glad who says to his soul, "Take thy ease:" I met or content to be in a storm, though I saw many presently not only with many little incumbran ships which rid safely and bravely in it; a storm ces and impediments, but with so much sicknes would not agree with my stomach, if it did with (a new misfortune to me) as would have spoile my courage. Though I was in a crowd of as the happiness of an emperor as well as mine: good company as could be found any where ; yet I do neither repent, nor alter my course. though I was in business of great and honourable Non ego perfidum dixi sacramentum: nothing trust; though I eat at the best table, and enjoy-shall separate me from a mistress which I have ed the best conveniences for present subsistence loved so long, and have now at last married; that ought to he desired by a man of my condi- though she neither has brought me a rich po.tion in banishment and public distresses; yet I tion, nor lived yet so quietly with me as I hoped could not abstain from renewing my old schoolfrom her : boy's wish, in a copy of verses to the same effect:
Well then 4; I now do plainly see
This busy world and I shall ne'er agree, &c.
And I never then proposed to myself any other advantage from his majesty's happy restoration but the getting into some moderately convenient retreat in the country; which I thought in that case I might easily have compassed, as well as some others, with no greater probabilities or pretences, have arrived to extraordinary fortunes: but I had before written a shrewd prophecy against myself; and I think Apollo inspired me in the truth, though not in the elegance, of
"Thou neither great at court, nor in the war,
Content thyself with the small barren praise,
With Fate what boots it to contend?
The star, that did my being frame,
And some small light it did dispense,
No matter, Cowlev; let proud Fortune see,
Let all her gifts the portion be
-Nec vos, dulcissima mundi
Nor by me e'er shall you,
MARTIAL, Lib. X. Epigr. xlvii.
SINCE, dearest friend, 'tis your desire to see
4 We have these verses, under the name of Let exercise a vigorous health maintain, Without which all the composition's vain. The Wish, in the MISTRESS,
But this is a very pretty ejaculation.-Because I have concluded all the other chapters with a copy of verses, I will maintain the humour to the last.
In the same weight prudence and innocence take, | Hic sparge flores, sparge breves rosas
Vatis adhuc cinerem calentem.
Let mirth and freedom make thy table good.
Be satisfied and pleas'd with what thou art,
MARTIAL, Lib. X. Epigr. xcvi.
ME, who have liv'd so long among the great,
The ground about the house maintains it,
EPITAPHIUM VIVI AUCTORIS.
Hic, o viator, sub lare parvulo
Sorte, supervacuâqe vitâ.
Non indecorâ pauperie nitens,
Divitiis animosus hostis.
A PROPOSITION FOR THE AD-
Possis ut illum dicere mortuum ;
Terra sit illa levis, precare.
THAT the philosophical college be situated within one, two, or (at farthest) three miles of London; and, if it be possible to find that convenience upon the side of the river, or very near it.
That the revenue of this college amount to four thousand pounds a year.
That the company received into it be as follows: 1. Twenty philosophers or professors. 2. Six. teen young scholars, servants to the professors. 3. A chaplain. 4. A bailiff for the revenue. 5. A manciple or purveyor for the provisions of the house. 6. Two gardeners. 7. A master-cook. 8. An under-cook. 9. A butler. 10. An underbutler. 11. A surgeon. 12. Two lungs, or chymical servants. 13. A library-keeper, who is likewise to be apothecary, druggist, and keeper of instruments, engines, &c. 14. An officer to feed and take care of all beasts, fowl, &c. hept by the college. 15. A groom of the stable. 16. A messenger, to send up and down for all uses of the college. 17. Four old women, to tend the chambers, keep the house clean, and such-like services.
Ingenious men delight in dreams of reformation.—In comparing this Proposition of Cowley, with that of Milton, addressed to Mr. Hartlib, we find that these great poets had amused themselves with some exalted, and, in the main, con• genial fancies, on the subject of education: that, of the two plaus proposed, this of Mr. Cowley was better digested, and is the less fanciful; if a preference, in this respect, can be given to either, when both are manifestly Utopian: and that our universities, in their present form, are well enough calculated to answer all the reasonable ends of such institutions; provided we allow for the un
5 See a translation of this Epitaph among the avoidable defects of them, when drawn out into poems of Mr. Addison.
That the annual allowance for this company be as follows: 1. To every professor, and to the chaplain, one hundred and twenty pounds. 2. To the sixteen scholars, twenty pounds apiece; ten pounds for their diet, and ten pounds for their entertainment. 3. To the bailiff, thirty pounds, besides allowance for his journies. 4. To the purveyor, or manciple, thirty pounds. 5. To each of the gardeners, twenty pounds. 6. To the master-cook, twenty pounds. 7. To the under-cook, four pounds. 8. To the butler, ten pounds. 9. To the under-butler, four pounds. 10. To the surgeon, thirty pounds. 11. To the library-keeper, thirty pounds. 12. To each of the lungs, twelve pounds. 13. To the keeper
that in the middle there be a parterre of flowers and a fountain.
of the beasts, six pounds, 14. To the groom, five pounds. 15. To the messenger, twelve pounds. 16. To the four necessary women, ten pounds. For the manciple's table, at which all the servants of the house are to eat, except the scholars, one hundred and sixty pounds. For three horses for the service of the college, thirty pounds.
All which amounts to three thousand two hundred eighty-five pounds. So that there remains for keeping of the house and gardens, and operatories, and instruments, and animals, and experiments of all sorts, and all other expenses, seven hundred and fifteen pounds.
Which were a very inconsiderable sum for the great uses to which it is designed, but that I conceive the industry of the college will in a short time so enrich itself, as to get a far better stock for the advance and enlargement of the work when it is once begun: neither is the continuance of particular men's liberality to be despaired of, when it shall be encouraged by the sight of that public benefit which will accrue to all mankind, and chiefly to our nation, by this foundation. Something likewise will arise from leases and other casualties; that nothing of which may be diverted to the private gain of the professors, or any other use besides that of the search of nature, and by it the general good of the world; and that care may be taken for the certain performance of all things ordained by the institution, as likewise for the protection and encouragement of the company, it is proposed: That some person, of eminent quality, a lover of solid learning, and no stranger in it, be chosen chancellor or president of the college, and that eight governors more, men qualified in the like manner, be joined with him, two of which shall yearly be appointed visitors of the college,and receive an exact account of all expenses, even to the smallest, and of the true estate of their pub-pleasure, a lodge for the gardener, and a grove of lic treasure, under the hands and oaths of the professors resident.
trees cut out into walks.
That the choice of professors in any vacancy belong to the chancellor and the governors; but that the professors (who are likeliest to know what men of the nation are most proper for the duties of their society) direct their choice, by recommending two or three persons to them at every election: and that, if any learned person within his majesty's dominions discover, or emi-nient neutly improve, any useful kind of knowledge, he may upon that ground, for his reward and the encouragement of others, be preferred, if he pretend to the place before any body else.
That the governors have power to turn out any professor, who shall be proved to be either scandalous or unprofitable to the society.
That the college be built after this, or some such manner: That it consist of three fair quadrangular courts, and three large grounds, enclosed with good walls behind them. That the first court be built with a fair cloister; and the professors' lodgings, or rather little houses, four on each side, at some distance from one another, and with little gardens behind them, just after the manner of the Chartreux beyond sea. That the inside of the cloister be lined with a gravel-riments that can never be experimented), but walk, and that walk with a row of trees; and propose it within such bounds of expense as have
That the second quadrangle, just behind the first, be so contrived, as to contain these parts: 1. A chapel. 2. A hall, with two long tables on each side, for the scholars and officers of the house to eat at, and with a pulpit and forms at the end for the public lectures. 3. A large and pleasant dining-room within the hall, for the professors to eat in, and to hold their assemblies and conferences. 4. A public school-house. 5. A library. 6. A gallery to walk in, adorned with the pictures or statues of all the inventors of any thing useful to human life; as printing, guns, America, &c. and of late in anatomy, the circulation of the blood, the milky veins, and such like discoveries in any art, with short elogies, under the portraitures: as likewise the figures of all sorts of creatures, and the stuft skins of as many strange animals as can be gotten. 7. An anatomy-chamber adorned with skeletons and anatomical pictures, and prepared with all conveniences for dissection. 8. A chamber for all manner of drugs, and apothecaries' materials. 9. A mathematical chamber, furnished with all sorts of mathematical instruments, being an appendix to the library. 10. Lodgings for the chaplain, surgeon, library-keeper, and purveyor, near the chapel, anatomy-chamber, library, and hall.
That the third court be on one side of these, very large but meanly built, being designed only for use, and not for beauty too, as the others. That it contain the kitchen,butteries, brew-house, bake-house, dairy, lardry, stables, &c. and especially great laboratories for chymical operations and lodgings for the under servants.
That behind the second court be placed the garden, containing all sorts of plants that our soil will bear; and at the end a little house of
That the second enclosed ground be a garden, destined only to the trial of all manner of experiments concerning plants,as their melioration, acceleration, retardation, conservation, composition, transmutation, coloration, or whatsoever else can be produced by art, either for use or curiosity, with a lodge in it for the gardener. That the third ground be employed in convereceptacles for all sorts of creatures which the professors shall judge necessary for their more exact search into the nature of animals, and the improvement of their uses to us.
That there be likewise built, in some place of the college where it may serve most for ornament of the whole, a very high tower for observation of celestial bodies, adorned with all sorts of dials, and such like curiosities; and that there be very deep vaults made under ground, for experiments most proper to such places, which will be undoubtedly very many.
Much might be added, but truly I am afraid this is too much already for the charity or generosity of this age to extend to; and we do not design this after the model of Solomon's house in my lord Bacon, (which is a project for expe
often been exceeded by the buildings of private citizens.
an extraordinary), after consent of the other professors.
That all the professors shall sup together in the parlour within the hall every night, and shall dine there twice a week (to wit, Sundays and Thursdays) at two round tables, for the convenience of discourse; which shall be for the most part of such matters as may improve their studies and professions; and to keep them from fal
That the four professors itinerant be assigned to the four parts of the world, Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, there to reside three years at least; and to give a constant account of all things that belong to the learning, and especially natural experimental philosophy, of those parts. That the expense of all dispatches, and all books, simples, animals, stones, metals, mine-quaintance. rals, &c. and all curiosities whatsoever, natu- That the professors resident shall allow the ral or artificial, sent by them to the college, shall college twenty pounds a year for their diet, be defrayed out of the treasury, and an addition- whether they continue there all the time or not. al allowance (above the 1207.) made to them as soon as the college's revenue shall be improved.
into loose or unprofitable talk, shall be the duty of the two arbitri mensarum, who may likewise command any of the servant-scholars to read them what he shall think fit, whilst they are at table; that it shall belong likewise to the said arbitri mensarum only, to invite strangers, which they shall rarely do, unless they be men of learning or great parts, and shall not invite above two at a time to one table, nothing being more vain and unfruitful than numerous meetings of ac
That they shall have once a week an assembly, or conference, concerning the affairs of the college, and the progress of their experimental philosophy.
That at their going abroad, they shall take a solemn oath, never to write any thing to the college, but what, after very diligent examination, they shall fully believe to be true, and to confess and recant it as soon as they find themselves in
That, if any one find out any thing which he conceives to be of consequence, he shall communicate it to the assembly, to be examined, experimented, approved, or rejected.
That, if any one be author of an invention that may bring in profit, the third part of it shall ma-belong to the inventor, and the two other to the society; and besides, if the thing be very considerable, his statue or picture, with an elogy under it, shall be placed in the gallery, and made a denison of that corporation of famous
OF THE PROFESSORS, SCHOLARS, CHAPLAIN,
THAT of the twenty professors four be always travelling beyond seas, and sixteen always resident, unless by permission upon extraordi-ling nary occasions; and every one so absent, leaving a deputy behind him to supply his duties.
That the sixteen professors resident shall be bound to study and teach all sorts of natural experimental philosophy, to consist of the thematics, mechanics, medicine, anatomy, chymistry, the history of animals, plants, minerals, elements, &c.; agriculture, architecture, art military, navigation, gardening; the mysteries of all trades, and improvement of them; the facture of all merchandizes; all natural magic of divination; and briefly all things contained in the catalogue of natural histories annexed to my lord Bacon's Organon.
That once a day, from Easter till Michaelmas, and twice a week, from Michaelmas to Easter, at the hours in the afternoon most convenient for auditors from London, according to the time of the year, there shall be a lecture read in the hall, upon such parts of natural experimental philosophy, as the professors shall agree on among themselves, and as each of them shall be able to perform usefully and honourably.
That all the professors shall be always assigned to some particular inquisition (besides the ordinary course of their studies), of which they shall give an account to the assembly: so that by this means there may be every day some operation or other made in all the arts, as chymistry, anatomy, mechanics, and the like; and tha the college shall furnish for the charge of the operation.
That the master shall command all the offieers of the college, appoint assemblies or conferences upon occasion, and preside in them with a double voice; and in his absence the treasurer, whose business is to receive and disburse all mopics by the master's order in writing (if it be
That there shall be kept a register under lock and key, and not to be seen but by the profes sors, of all the experiments that succeed, signed by the persons who made the trial.
That two of the professors, by daily, weekly, or monthly turns, shall teach the public schools, according to the rules hereafter prescrioed.
That all the professors shall be equal in all respects (except precedency, choice of lodging, and such-like privileges, which shall belong to seniority in the college); and that all shall be masters and treasurers by annual turns; which two officers, for the time being, shall take placement of the foundation) the college shall give an of all the rest, and shall be arbitri duarum
That every third year (after the full settle
account in print, in proper and ancient Latin of the fruits of their triennial industry.
That the popular and received errours in experimental philosophy (with which, like weeds in a neglected garden, it is now almost all over-grown) shall be evinced by trial and taken notice of in the public lectures, that they may no longer abuse the credulous, and beget new ones by consequence or similitude.
That every professor resident shall have his scholar to wait upon him in his chamber and at table; whom he should be obliged to breed up in natural philosophy, and render an account of his progress to the assembly, from whose election be received him, and therefore is responsible to it
schools, employing or rather casting away six or seven years in the learning of words only, and that too very imperfectly:
That a method be here established, for the infusing knowledge and language at the same time into them; and that this may be their apprenticeship in natural philosophy. This, we conceive, may be done, by breeding them up in authors, or pieces of authors, who treat of some parts of nature, and who may be understood with as much ease and pleasure, as those which are commonly taught; such are, in Latin, Varro, Cato, Columella, Pliny, part of Ce'sus and of Seneca, Cicero de Divinatione, de Naturâ Deorum,and several scattered pieces, Virgil's Georgies, Grotius, Nemesianus, Manilius: And the truth is,because we want good poets │(I mean we have but few), who have purposely treated of solid and learned, that is, natural matters (the most part indulging to the weakness of the world, and feeding it either with the follies of love or with the fables of gods and heroes), we conceive that one book ought to be compiled of all the scattered little parcels among the ancient poets that might serve for the advancement of natural science, and which would make no small or unuseful or unpleasant volume. To this we would have added the morals and rhetorics of Cicero, and the institutions of Quinctilian; and for the comedians, from whom almost all that necessary part of common discourse, and all the most intimate proprieties of the language, are drawn, we conceive, the boys may be inade masters of them, as a part of their recreation, and not of their task, if once a month, or at least once in two, they act one of Terence's Comedies, and afterwards the most advanced) some of Plautus's; and this is for many reasons one of the best exercises they can be enjoined, and most innocent pleasures they can be allowed. As for the Greek anthors, they may study Nicander, Opianus, (whom Scaliger does not doubt to prefer above Homer himself, and place next to his adored Virgil) Aristotle's history of animals,and other parts, Theophrastus and Dioscorides of plants, and a collection made out of several of both poets and other Grecian writers. For the morals and rhetoric, Aristotle may suffice, or Hermogenes and Longinus be added for the latter. With the history of animals they should be showed anatomy as a divertisement, and made to know the figures and natures of those creatures which are not common among us, disabusing them at the same time of those errours which are universally admitted concerning many. The same method should be used to make them acquainted with all plants; and to this must be added a little of the ancient and modern geography, the understanding of the globes, and the principles of geometry and astronomy. They should likewise use to declaim in Latin, and English, as the Romans did in Greek and Latin, and in all this travail be rather led on by familia. rity, encouragement, and emulation, than driven by severity, punishment, and terrour. Upon festivals and play-times, they should exercise themselves in the fields, by riding, leaping, fenc ing, mustering, and training, after the manner
both for the care of his education and the just and civil usage of him.
That the scholar shall understand Latin very well, and be moderately initiated in the Greek, before he be capable of being chosen into the service; and that he shall not remain in it above seven years.
That his lodging shall be with the professor whom he serves.
That no professor shall be a maried man, or a divine, or lawyer in practice; only physic he may be allowed to prescribe, because the study of that art is a great part of the duty of his place, and the duty of that is so great, that it will not suffer him to lose much time in mercenary practice.
That the professors shall, in the college, wear the habit of ordinary masters of art in the universities, or of doctors, if any of them be so.
That they shall all keep an inviolable and exemplary friendship with one another; and that the assembly shall lay a considerable pecuniary mulet upon any one who shall be proved to have entered so far into a quarrel as to give uncivil language to his brother-professor; and that the perseverance in any enmity shall be punished by the governors with expulsion.
That the chaplain shall eat at the master's table (paying his twenty pounds a year as the others do); and that he shall read prayers once a day at least, a little before supper-time; that he shali preach in the chapel every Sunday morning, and catechize in the afternoon the scholars and the school-boys: that he shall every mouth administer the holy sacrament; that he shall not trouble himself and his auditors with the Controversies of divinity, but only teach God in his just commandments, and in his wonderful works.
THAT the school may be built so as to contain about two hundred boys.
That it be divided into four classes, not as others are ordinarily into six or seven; because we suppose that the children sent hither, to be initiated in things as well as words, ought to have past the two or three first, and to have attained the age of about thirteen years, being already well advanced in the Latin grammar, and some authors.
That none, though never so rich, shall pay any thing for their teaching; and that, if any professor shall be convicted to have taken any money in consideration of his pains in the school, he shali be expelled with ignominy by the governors; but if any persons of great estate and quality, finding their sons much better proficients in learning here, than boys of the same age commonly are at other schools, shall not think fit to receive an obligation of so near concernment without returning some marks of acknowledgment, they may, if they please, (for nothing is to be demanded) bestow some little rarity or curiosity upon the society, in recompense of their trouble.
And, because it is deplorable to consider the loss which children make of their time at most