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but will remain on the tree long after it is ripe, and after its leaves are fallen.

212. Stead's KERNEL. Pom. Heref. t. 25.

Fruit a little turbinate, or top-shaped, something resembling a quince. Eye small, flat, with a short truncate, or covered calyx. Stalk short. Skin yellow, a little reticulated with a slight greyish russet, and a few small specks intermixed.

Specific gravity of the Juice 1074.

As a cider apple, this appears to possess great merit, combining a slight degree of astringency with much sweetness. It ripens in October, and is also a good culinary apple during its season.

It was raised from seed by the late Daniel Stead, at Brierly, near Leominster, in Herefordshire.

WINTER PEARMAIN, see No. 161. Ray, 1688. Parmain d'Hiver. Knoof. Pom. p. 64. t. 11. Old Pearmain. Pom. Heref. t. 29.

Fruit middle-sized, regular in shape, and about onefourth part more long than broad. Crown a little narrowed. Eye small, and closed by the shut segments of the calyx. Stalk short. Skin grass green, with a little colour of a livid red on the sunny side, interspersed with a few dark specks.

Specific gravity of the Juice 1079.

This was extensively cultivated in the seventeenth century, and is called by Evelyn and Worlidge the Winter Pearmain. Knoop also calls it Pepin Parmain d'Angleterre, from which it would appear, that on the Continent it was considered of English origin. It is a very good apple, and in a fine season is equally calculated for the press or the dessert.

213. WOODCOCK APPLE. Pom. Heref. t. 10.

Fruit middle-sized, of an oval shape, tapering a little to the crown, which is narrow. Eye flat, with broad segments of the calyx. Stalk three quarters of an inch

long, thick, and fleshy, and curved inwards towards the fruit. Skin yellow, nearly covered with a soft red, and much deeper colour on the sunny side.

Specific gravity of the Juice 1073.

The Woodcock apple has been frequently mentioned by writers of the seventeenth century, as a cider apple of great excellence; but its cultivation seems on the decline. Its name is generally supposed to have been derived from an imaginary resemblance of the form of the fruit and fruit-stalk, in some instances, to the head and beak of a woodcock.

214. Yellow Elliot. Pom. Heref. t. 17.

Fruit of a good size, rather more flat than long, having a few obtuse angles terminating in the crown Eye small, with short diverging segments of the calyx. Stalk short. Skin pale yellow, slightly shaded with orange on the sunny side.

Specific gravity of the juice 1076.

The Yellow Elliot was well known by planters of the seventeenth century. The cider in a new state is harsh and astringent ; but it grows soft and mellows with age. . It is supposed to have derived its name from the person who raised it from seed, as we find it mentioned by Phillips in his poem on cider.

A Selection of Apples for a small Garden in the Southern and

Midland Counties of England.

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Acklam's Russet
Ashmead's Kernel
Barcelona Pearmain
Canadian Reinette
Cornish Aromatic
Court of Wick
Dutch Mignonne
Fearn's Pippin
Golden Harvey

163 Hanwell Souring
- 165 Hubbard's Pearmain
- 118 Margil

76 Martin Nonpareil
78 Norfolk Beaufin
79 Northern Greening
82 Old Nonpareil
87 Ribston Pippin
91 Royal Pearmain

- 139 · 142 . 100 • 174 · 105 · 149 · 175 * 155 - 156

Northern Counties of England, and Southern of Scotland.


Early Red Margaret

13 Oslin
5 Red Quarendon

6 8



Early Nonpareil - 168 King of the Pippins
English Codlin

53 Old Golden Pippin
Franklin's Golden Pippin 24 Padley's Pippin
Hughes's Golden Pippin 29 Pine Apple Russet
Keswick Codlin

56 Wormsley Pippin

24 26

34 - 180


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Blenheim Pippin
72 Northern Greening

149 Canadian Reinette 76 Old Nonpareil

175 Contin Reinette - 77* Piles Russet

- 179 Coul Blush 130* Ribston Pippin

. 155 Fulwood 89 Royal Russet

. 185 Golden Reinette

93 Scarlet Nonpareil - 187 Kinellan Apple

144* Sweeny Nonpareil · 189 Lemon Pippin - 145 Tarvey Codlin

158* Margil

100 Yorkshire Greening - 114 In the Highlands of Scotland winter apples can hardly be expected to arrive at perfection, unless when planted against walls.

The variety of apples cultivated in this country is by far too numerous to attempt any thing like a complete description : even to enumerate them would be a most difficult task, owing to the great uncertainty of their names among nurserymen, gardeners, and orchardists, and the multiplicity of names under which they are known in different parts of the kingdom.

In apples, a greater confusion exists in this respect than in any other description of fruit. This arises not so much from the great number of varieties which are grown, as from the number of growers, some of whom seek to profit by their crops alone, regarding but little their nomenclature. Nurserymen, who are more anxious to grow a large stock for sale than to be careful as to its character, are led into error by taking it for granted that the name of a fruit they propagate is its correct name, and no other: hence arises the frequency of so many of our fruits being sold under wrong names.

Gardeners, who purchase trees, become deceived by this procedure, and do not discover the error, unless they have been imposed upon by the substitution of something worthless, 'wholly and obviously at variance with the character of the fruit that was sold them. This is a serious evil,

to say nothing of the disappointment to the purchaser ; for, unless the mistake be detected at first, the longer the tree grows before it is discovered, the more time will have been lost in its cultivation ; and, be it remembered, this time is irrecoverable.

The foregoing descriptions of many of our most popular apples, it is presumed, will be found sufficiently clear, to enable the pomologist to detect these egregious and every-day blunders, and to ascertain whether he cultivates those fruits that have been sold him, or whether he has had others substituted for them.

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Propagation. There are only two kinds of stocks on which it is desirable to propagate the apple in this country: the Wild Crab, from which our verjuice is obtained, and the Doucin stock. The first is that for our most vigorous and hardy sorts for orchard planting ; the second for our more tender and delicate dessert apples, for dwarf trees, and espaliers for the garden. This last is most generally, in our nurseries, called the Paradise stock, although widely different from the Pomme Paradis of the French, a sort not worth growing in this country.

In the cider counties, the crab is generally trained up standard high, and when grown sufficiently large for the purpose, it is grafted the height at which it is intended the head of the tree should be formed : this is generally from seven to eight feet from the ground. In the nurseries, all the apples intended for standards are grafted about nine inches high only, allowing them to grow up standard high, and forming the head upon the second year's shoot; but, instead of grafting them, a much better method is to bud them, as they make much better trees in the same length of time.

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