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lenced, hath sent it over on his message to many beyond the seas. For when Mr. Elliot had printed all the Bible in the Indians' language, he next translated this my. Call to the Unconverted,' as he wrote to us here; and though it was here thought prudent to begin with the Practice of Piety,' because of the envy and distate of the times against me, he had finished it before that advice came to him. Yet God would make some further use of it; for Mr. Stoop, the pastor of the French church in London, being driven hence by the displeasure of superiors, was pleased to translate it into elegant French, and print it in a very curious letter ; and I hope it will not be unprofitable there, nor in Germany, where it is printed in Dutch."*
The work is too well known, and too extensively useful at the present day, to need either description or eulogy. I may add, however, to what the author has said in the paragraph just cited, that it has been translated into most of the languages of Europe; and that the men who in the spirit and power of Elliot are now carrying the gospel to every nation, will probably find themselves constrained to imitate his example, till Baxter's Call, “ that small book which he set so light by,” shall be read in every language of mankind.
24. “The crucifying of the World by the cross of Christ. With a preface to the nobles, gentlemen, and all the rich, directing them how they may be richer." 4to. published in 1658. This was originally an assize sermon preached at Worcester on the request of his early friend Mr. Thomas Foley, then high sheriff of the county. In preparing it for the press, he enlarged it into a treatise of about three hundred pages, which deserves a place among his most eloquent and finished productions.
25. “A Treatise of Saving Faith.” 4to. published in 1658. In some of his former publications he had been understood as maintaining “ that saving faith differeth not in kind but in degree, from common faith.” Dr. Barlow, then provost of Queen's College Oxford, and afterwards bishop of Lincoln, had published, anony
* Narrative, Part I. pp. 114, 115.
mously, some strictures on this supposed opinion of Baxter's. To these strictures Baxter replied in this work on Saving Faith.
26. “ Confirmation and Restauration, the necessary means of Reformation and Reconciliation ; for the healing of the corruptions and divisions of the churches. Submissively, but earnestly tendered to the consideration of the Sovereign Powers, Magistrates, Ministers, and People, that they may awake, and be up and doing in the execution of so much as appeareth to be necessary; as they are true to Christ, his Church and Gospel, and to their own and others' souls, and to the peace and welfare of the Nations; and as they will answer the neglect to Christ at their peril.” 12mo. published in 1658. A Mr. Hanmer had written a work on confirmation, urging the necessity of some solemn introduction of persons at adult age to the privileges of church membership, and at bis request, Baxter had prefixed to that work an Introductory Epistle. The inquiries which that publication occasioned, led Baxter to take up the subject again, and to discuss it more at large, presenting the testimony of the scriptures. The design of the book is simply to show that no person ought to be admitted to the privileges of adult membership in any church, save on the public profession of his conversion and faith, and that of the satisfactoriness of such profession the pastor ought to be the judge.
27. “ Directions and Persuasions to a Sound Conversion, for prevention of that Deceit and Damnation of Souls, and of those Scandals, Heresies, and desperate Apostasies, that are consequents of a counterfeit or superficial change.” 8vo. published in 1658. This was designed as a sequel to his “Call to the Unconverted.” “ After the Call, I thought,” he says, “that according to Bishop Usher's method, the next sort that I should write for is those that are under the work of conversion, because by half-conversions, multitudes prove deceived hypocrites.”* He oppears to have valued this work more highly than the call, probably he bestowed more labor on it. Yet, owing as he thought to the bad management of the booksellers, it passed through only two or three editions.
* Narrative, Part I. p. 115.
28. “Five Disputations of Church Government and Worship.” 410. published in 1658. “I published these,” he says, 'in order to the reconciliation of the differing parties. In the first I proved that the English diocesan prelacy is intolerable, which none hath answered. In the second, I have proved the validity of the ordination then exercised without diocesans in England, which no man hath answered, though many have urged men to be re-ordained. In the third, I have proved that there are divers sorts of episcopacy lawful and desirable. In the fourth and fifth, I show the lawfulness of some ceremonies, and of a liturgy, and what is unlawful here."*
29. “The Judgment and Advice of the Associated Ministers of Worcestershire, concerning Mr. John Dury's Endeavors after Ecclesiastical Peace.” 4to. published in 1648. Whatever was done in the Worcestershire Association, Baxter seems to have been the doer of it. Of the occasion of this pamphlet he says, “ Mr. John Dury having spent thirty years in endeavors to reconcile the Lutherans and Calvinists, was now going over sea again in that work, and desired the judgment of our association, how it should be successfully expedited; which at their desire I drew up more largely in Latin, and more briefly in English. The English letter he printed, as my letter to Mr. Dury for pacification.”+
30. Universal Concord.” 12mo. published in 1658. This was another of his contributions to the cause of catholic communion. “Having been desired,” he says, “in the time of our associations, to draw
may munion upon, I published them, though too late for any such use (till God gave men better minds,) that the world might see what our religion and terms of communion were ; and that if after ages prove more peaceable, they may have some light from those that went before them."'I
31, “The Grotian Religion discovered, at the invitation of Mr. Thomas Pierce." 12mo. published in 1658. In the Universal Concord, he had spoken of Grotius as a concealed papist, and as having designed a reunion of the protestant churches with the church of Rome on the ground of mutual concession; and had in
* Narrative Part I. p. 117. f Ibid. p. 117. Ibid. p. 119.
timated that some were still prosecuting that design. This intimation awakened the wrath of one Mr. Thomas Pierce, who replied by an abusive attack on Baxter and the Puritans, making it however his principal business to defend Grotius. To this, Baxter responded in his “ Grotian Religion Discovered.” The controversy seems to have excited a great interest, as it was in fact an examination of the popish tendencies ascribed to the Arminian prelatists of those days, the followers of Laud. “ This book," he says, "the printer abused, printing every section so distant to fill up paper, as if they had been several chapters." Few authors, in these days, would complain of such “ abuse.”
32. “Four Disputatious of Justification.” 4to. published in 1658. This work was designed as a further explanation and defense of his supposed peculiar views on that subject. It was a continuation of the controversy which had grown out of the publication of his Aphorisms.
33. “A Key for the Catholics, to open the Juggling of the Jesuits, and satisfy all that are but truly willing to understand, whether the cause of the Roman or Reformed Churches is of God.” 4to. published in 1659. “Those that were not prejudiced against this book," he says, “have let me know that it hath not been without success; it being indeed a sufficient armory for to furnish a protes-. tant to defend his religion against all the assaults of the papists whatsoever; and teacheth him how to answer all their books. The second part doth briefly deal with the French and Grotian party that are for the supremacy of a council, at least as to the legislative power; and showeth that we never had a general council, nor can it be at all expected."*
34. “Holy Commonwealth ; or, Political Aphorisms : opening the true principles of Government; for the healing of the mistakes, and resolving the doubts, that most endanger and trouble ENGLAND at this time; and directing the desires of sober christians that long to see the Kingdoms of this world become the Kingdoms of the Lord and of his Christ.”” 8vo, published in 1659. This work was
published at a moment of peculiar interest. Oliver Cromwell had gone from his throne to the grave. Richard had succeeded to the protectorate without any apparent opposition; but his hand was too feeble to hold the iron scepter which his father had swayed with so great ability. The leaders of the army were making arrangements to regain the power which they considered theirs by right of conquest; and the republican politicians whom the protector had so disappointed and baffled, were again beginning to hope for the speedy consummation of their schemes. Another man in such circumstances, might have waited to see which way the tide would turn, before venturing on any political discussion. But Baxter rarely acted with any reference to personal expediency; and at this very juncture, even when Richard Cromwell had already abdicated, he came out with a book in the former part of which he pleaded for a monarchical form of government, and in the conclusion of which, he eloquently defended the war of parliament against the usurpations of Charles. Thus he equally displeased the republicans on the one hand and the royalists on the other. But let us hear his own account of the book and of the occasion on which it was written.
“ The book which hath furnished my enemies with matter of reviling which none must dare to answer, is my Holy Commonwealth.' The occasion of it was this; when our pretorian sectarian bands had cut all bonds, pulled down all government, and after the death of the king had twelve years kept out his son, few men saw any probability of his restitution, and every self-conceited fellow was ready to offer his model for a new form of government. Mr. Hobbes' ·Leviathan,' had pleased many. Mr. Thomas White, the great Papist, had written his Politics in English, for the interest of the protector, to prove that subjects ought to submit and subject themselves to such a change. And now Mr. James Harrington (they say, by the help of Mr. Neville) had written a book in folio for a democracy, called Oceana, seriously describing a form near to the Venetian,
nd setting the people upon the desires of a change. After this, Sir H. Vane and his party were about their sectarian dernocratical model, which Stubbs defended. Rogers, Needham, and Mr. Bagshaw, had also written against monarchy before. In the end of an