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in his son, and encouraged them by a careful and liberal education. Milton was at first placed under the domestic tuition of Thomas Young, a puritan minister, and native of Essex; to whom he was in after life much attached, and to whom his fourth elegy, and the first of his Latin Epistles, are inscribed. A portrait of him, by Cornelius Jansen,ô when only ten years old, shows the affection of the parents for their handsome and accomplished child, who even at that early age was expanding the first flower of his youthful genius; and whose vernal promise was ripening fast into works of finished and exquisite beauty.

Young? quitted England in 1623, and it is probable that in the same year,

Milton admitted into St. Paul's School, under the care of Alexander Gill.8 His unwearied love of study had


6 This picture was in the possession of T. Hollis, Esq. and is engraven by Cipriani, in his Memoirs, p. 96, it represents the youthful poet in a richly worked collar, and striped jacket. It was purchased by Mr. Hollis at C. Stanhope's sale, who bought it for twenty guineas of the executors of Milton's widow. The picture of Milton when about twenty, was in the possession of the Right Honourable Arthur Onslow.

? In Mr. Fellowes's translation of Milton's Letters printed in Dr. Symmons's edition, 1806, Why is the direction of Milton's Letters to Young translated to Thomas Jure? For an account of T. Young see Todd's Milton, vol. vi.p. 199, 207. Young returned to England in or before the year 1628 ; he was afterwards master of Jesus Col. Camb and Vicar of Stow Market, in Suffolk. Milton, in his Elegy, ver. 83, says to him :

• Te tamen interea belli circumsonat horror,

Vivis et ignoto solus inopsque solo.' 8 See an account of Al. Gill, in Wood's Ath. Oxon. vol. ii. p. 22, and T. Warton's Milton, p. 419. I possess a copy of Gill's Parerga, sive Poetici Conatus, 12mo. 1632, tha belonged to Is. Casaubon. A. Gill must have been a de.

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already commenced; “ Ab anno,' he says, ' ætatis duodecimo vix unquam ante mediam noctem à lucubrationibus cubitum discederem ;' and Aubrey adds, that when Milton went to school, he studied very hard, and sate up very late, commonly till twelve or one o'clock, and his father ordered the maid to sitt up for him.' In a letter to his preceptor, dated not long after this time, he says— Hæc scripsi Londini, inter urbana diverticula, non libris, ut soleo circumseptuș.'

Thus early and deep were laid the foundation of his future fame. His studies were in a great measure poetical. Humphrey Lownes, the printer, who lived in the same street, supplied him with Spenser and Sylvester's translation of Du Bartas: his admiration of the former is known to all; the attention which he paid to the more obscure, and now almost forgotten poet, was pointed out more fully than before, by my late ingenious friend Mr. Charles Dunster, in a little work which

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cided royalist, for he has several poems addressed to the royal family, and to the bishops. He has an epistle, as Milton has, to his Father, p. 14. There is a line resembling one in Milton's verses to Christina. (* Christina arctoi Lucida stella poli !")

• Pene sub arctoi sidere regna poli!' In Milton's third Elegy, ver. 9, are these lines, which puzzled the commentators till Sir D. Dalrymple explained them to T. Warton.

* Tunc memini clarique ducis, fratrisque verendi

Intempestivis ossa cremata rogis.' In his Tillii Epitaphium, p. 91, Gill mentions who these brothers in arms were.

Quem nec Mansfeltus, quem nec Brunonius heros

Arma nec annorum quem domuere decem ;' i.e. Mansfelt and the Duke of Brunswick. Gill speaks of himself in the Preface ; ' Hactenus vitam egi nescio qua siderum inclementiâ, hominum et fortunæ injuriis perpetuo colluctantem.'


he called Milton's Early Reading, 9 or the Prima Stamina of Paradise Lost.

Aubrey says, Milton was a poet when only ten years old. Those who are interested in watching the early dawning of genius as it opens on the youthful mind; and in comparing the different periods in which great talents have displayed both the promise, and the direction of their future power ; will not be displeased at my recalling to their memory the passage in that elegant biography of Cowley, which Spratt addressed to their mutual friend Martin Clifford, and in which he mentions the age when Cowley first became inspired by the muse, and the book that excited his youthful imagination. There is a singular coincidence between these two great contemporaries, in the dates assigned by their respective biographers.. Vix dum decennis,' says Spratt, · Poeta factus est. We shall be less surprised to hear that Spenser was alike the object of their early admiration, legendo Spensero nostro, Scriptore sane illustri, et vel adultis difficili.' Happy had it been for Cowley's fame, had he not early wandered away from the instructor of his youth ; and left for Epic, and Pindaric flights, that which even now delights, and must for ever please, his moral song, the voice of nature and of truth, the language of his heart.

In 1623 Milton produced his translations of the 114th and 136th Psalms; and in his seven

That Milton read and borrowed from Sylvester in his early poems, no one who reads Mr. Dunster's book can reasonably doubt. Sylvester had the jewels, and Milton set them beautifully. Du Bartas's fame is now in full blossom in Germany, and has received the praise of Goethe himself, He is considered at Dresden and at Weimar as one of the greatest poets that ever appeared.



teenth 10 year he was sent from St. Paul's school, and admitted a pensioner at Christ's College, Cambridge, on the 12th of February, 1624. 11 He was there early distinguished for the elegance of his versification, and his unusual skill in the Latin tongue. A well known passage in his first Elegy certainly betrays some displeasure which he felt, or alludes to some indignities which he suffered from the severity of Collegiate discipline: this was probably occasioned by the freedom of his censures on the established system of education,12 and his reluctance to conform to it. In his Reason of Church Government, he


their honest and ingenuous natures coming to the Universities to store themselves with good and solid learning, are there unfortunately fed with nothing else but the scragged and thorny lectures of monk

Anthony Wood and Toland assert that he was sent to Cambridge in his fifteenth year, but erroneously. See Birch's Life, p. 3.

11 He was admitted Pensionarius minor, under Mr. Wil. liam Chappell, afterwards provost of Trinity College, Dub. lin, and dean of Cassels, and at last bishop of Cork, to whom, among others, the celebrated treatise of the whole Duty of Man has been imputed. See Birch's Life, p. 111. Milton took his first degree in Jan. 1628–9, and that of Master of Arts, in 1632. See Symmons's Pref. to Life, p. 5–7. He was transferred from Mr. Chappell, (though contrary to the rules of the college), to Mr. Tovell. (Tovey) V. Aubrey Lett. iii. p. 445, he was admitted A. M. at Oxford, in 1635, v. Wood's Fasti, i. p. 262.

1? The author of a modest confutation against a slanderous and scurrilous libel, first charged him with being vomited out of the university, after an inordinate and riotous youth spent there, and the author of 'Regii Sanguinis Clamor,' repeated the calumny. • Aiunt hominem Cantabrigiensi academia ob fagitia pulsum, dedecus, et patriam fugisse et in Italiam commigrasse. The former tract,' Milton says, in his Apology for Smectymnus, 'was reported to be written by the son of Bishop Hall.'



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ish and miserable sophistry; were sent home again with such a scholastical bur in their throats, as hath stopped and hindered all true and generous philosophy from entering; cracked their voices for ever with metaphysical gargarisms, hath made them admire a sort of formal outside men, prelatically addicted, whose unchastened and over wrought minds were never yet initiated, nor subdued under the true love of moral or religious virtue, which two are the best, and greatest points of learning: but either slightly trained up in a kind of hypocritical and hackney course of literature to get their living by, and dazzle the ignorant, or else fondly over studied in useless controversies, except those which they use, with all the specious and delusive subtlety they are able, to defend their prelatical Sparta.'—And in his Apology for Smectymnus, he says,- That suburb wherein I dwell shall be in my accounts a more honourable place, than his University; which as in the time of her better health, and mine own younger judgment, I never greatly admired, so now much less ;'13. -and in his third letter to his friend and tutor Alexander Gill, he expresses the same opinion, concerning the superficial and

13 See his tractate on Education, where he speaks against the preposterous exaction of composing Themes and Ora. tions, and the ill habit they got of wretched barbarizing against the Greek and Latin idioms,—and then having really left grammatical flats and shallows, to be presented with the most intellectual abstractions of logic and metaphysics, to be tossed and turmoiled in the fathomless deeps of controversy, to be deluded with ragged notions and babblements, to be dragged to an asinine feast of sow-thistles and brambles.With these opinions, when called upon by the college for Latin themes on logical and metaphysical subjects (see his Prolusiones) cannot we easily conceive the rebellion or discontent, the out-breaks and flashes of his fiery mind ?

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