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pronounced the words, "Let America be independent ?" Flowery speeches, and conciliatory laws, were occasionally made by the Cortes to gild, not to break, the chains by which America was enthralled: but these laws were unobserved, and the Americans were still treated in a manner that would have disgraced the Divan of Constantinople.

In June, 1821, Messrs. Ravenga and Echeverria arrived at Madrid, as commissioners from Colombia, on the express and special invitation of the then existing constitutional government, for the purpose of discussing and adjusting the differences between Spain and Colombia. Mr. Zea, the Colombian envoy to England, went to Madrid to meet the commissioners, to assist in their deliberations. Upon the arrival of these gentlemen, they had an interview of mere introduction with Mr. Bardaxi. The commissioners remained in the Spanish capital ninety days; and although they wrote repeatedly to Bardaxi, they never were able to obtain a second interview with this liberal minister of the liberal Spanish government. At the end of this period they were much surprised to receive an order to leave the capital within twenty-four hours. Ravenga and Echeverria quitted Madrid on the same day. Mr. Zea, who had been prefect of Malaga in the reign of King Joseph, and whose scientific and high literary reputation gave him considerable influence, was permitted to remain four or five days longer.

Yet, in despite of the egotistical liberalism of Spain, South America magnanimously consigns her wrongs to oblivion, and, guided by an enlightened

policy, admits those very men who were so obstinate in not acknowledging her independence. To Spaniards of peaceful habits, in quest of an asylum, and willing to conform to the laws, South America wisely opens her hospitable arms: but, against hostile Spain, the States of America are as firmly closed as the gates of Heaven against the fallen angels.


Miguel Fernandez.-Journey from Potosi.-Jujuy.-Salta.The ladies of Salta.-Doctor Redhead.-General Arenales.The province of Salta.-General Miller presented with a grant of land. Tucuman.-Unceremonious change of governors.— Santiago del Estero.-Cordova.-Marshal Beresford.-General Paroissien.-Arrival at Buenos Ayres.

As individual instances tend to illustrate the character of a people, the following particulars are given relative to a young Peruvian, whom General Miller left sick at Potosi.

When Miller landed at Supe in 1824, on his return from Chile, he was accosted by a very fine lad, who, with tears of joy, recalled himself to the recollection of the general. "I am," said he, "the drummer, Miguel Fernandez, who passed over to you on the mountain of Puruchuco, in 1821, when you were pursuing the royalists. I afterwards served as drummer in your battalion. I became a prisoner at the battle of Moquegua, and was compelled to serve again with the king's troops; but, with twenty-eight of the dispersed men of General Alvarado's army, I once more ran away, and we formed ourselves into a montonero party in the valley of Tambo. Our intention was to force our way to Оcoña, but we found that you had moved nearer to Lima; and we were

hard pressed by parties sent in pursuit of us from Arequipa. We were frequently obliged to disperse, but we as constantly managed to reunite. As we never plundered, the inhabitants favoured us in our difficulties, and supplied our wants until we were once more in a condition to face the godos. We had many skirmishes, but we generally came well off. Sometimes we carried off their cavalry horses when left in pasture at night, and molested them in every other way we could imagine. At length a formidable party was sent to scour the valley, and we could remain there no longer. We fled to Ilo; took possession of a decked boat lying in the port, and, without even a compass, coasted it before the wind, until we had the good fortune to arrive here a week ago. I am now a serjeant of montoneros; but I will tear the three stripes from my arm if you will allow me to become your servant, or follow you as an orderly." The lad begged so hard that his request was complied with, and he remained in the service of Miller until the period arrived for his quitting Potosi to return to England. In the campaign of 1824, Miguel never lost sight of his master. He distinguished himself by a coolness beyond his years, particularly at Chuquibamba, and other places within the royalist line, when the patriot reconnoitring party was cut off, and retreat became apparently hopeless. He kept close to his master at the battles of Junin and Ayacucho. Miller offered to make him a cadet, but he was so much attached to him, that he preferred remaining as his servant. He was the youngest son of a captain in the Spanish

service, who left a widow with a very numerous family. He was vivacious, intelligent, and immoveably good-humoured. His manners were respectful, and, notwithstanding his menial situation, they were gentlemanly. Born in Lima, he had what is termed the lip of a Limenian; that is, he was one who could sit and recount lively and amusing anecdotes from morning till night. The only inconvenience in his character as a servant was his being almost always deeply in love, however frequently he might change his quarters.

Miller having left Potosi on the 28th November, after a fatiguing ride of one hundred and thirty-three leagues, he reached Jujuy* on the 5th of December, where he halted two nights. On the morning after his arrival, he rode round the environs of the town, accompanied by the governor and some of the inhabitants, who pointed out the house which General La Serna once occupied, and which he caused to be surrounded by breast-works. The vestiges of other defensive mounds were also visible in other parts of the town, and confirm what has been said in a previous chapter, of the extreme difficulty of maintaining even a very strong regular force in the midst of hostile gauchos. Narrow paths, clumps of trees, and other situations, were also pointed out as having once been used by them as places of ambuscade, whence they unexpectedly darted upon the royalists, and frequently caused them severe losses.

The country round Jujuy is very fine, and forms a

Jujuy is four hundred and thirty-three leagues from Buenos Ayres, and five hundred and forty-one from Lima.

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