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Hauqui, and other early battles in Upper Peru. He was chief of the medical staff of the army of the Andes until 1820, when he was appointed aide-de-camp, with the rank of colonel, to General San Martin. After the patriots entered Lima, he was promoted to the rank of general of brigade, and sent with the Señor Don Juan Garcia del Rio on a mission to Europe. Having been relieved from the duties of their mission, they turned their attention to mining associations, and became directors of the Potosi company formed in London. Paroissien went out to Peru as commissioner. He died in 1827, on his passage from Arica to Valparaiso. He possessed a great store of general information, and his companionable and amiable manners made him universally esteemed.

Miller reached Buenos Ayres on the 6th of January, 1826. It was on that very day, eight years before, that he had set out from that city to join the army of the Andes in Chile. It would be difficult to describe his pleasurable feelings on this occasion. It was a delightful morning, and the bustle caused by the crowd of carriages, waggons, horses, mules, market people and inhabitants, which increased, as he advanced, formed a pleasing contrast with the solitary pampas he had just left behind. The marks of growing improvement and wealth presented themselves at every step; every thing, in fact, bore to him the most enlivening and exhilarating appearThese, together with the idea of embracing in a few minutes many early and sincere friends whom he had not seen for so many years, created a feeling of happiness bordering almost on ecstacy.





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Retrospect. Buenos Ayres.-Anarchy. Rodriguez.-Provincial junta.-Improvements.-Banda Oriental.-Lavalleja.-Congress.-War with the Brazils.-Rivadavia.-Las Heras.— Brown.-Alvear.-Policy of the emperor.-Garcia.-Dorrego.

HAVING in the first volume represented the affairs of the Argentine republic to have been, at the close of the year 1820, in a state of the wildest disorder, they have since been referred to but seldom. The arrival of Miller at Buenos Ayres now furnishes an opportunity of making some remarks upon that subject.

To enumerate the factions which successively got the upper hand at Buenos Ayres, or to describe their various intrigues to maintain themselves in power, would be to draw a most disgusting picture of the reign of anarchy. Numerous successive governors seized upon office, and retained it but for a few weeks, and in some instances for a still shorter period. These rapid changes were generally preceded by sanguinary struggles, and followed by banishments and proscriptions; but in no instance was confiscation of property resorted to; so far had public opinion wrought an improvement.

During the period which elapsed between the latter part of the year 1819 and the commencement of 1821, the whole of the provinces severally withdrew their allegiance from the central government, till then

established in the metropolis. Thenceforward each province governed itself independently of the rest. In several of them contentions and disturbances arose, forming a counterpart to the transactions of the capital.

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So difficult was it, at one time, for the inhabitants to know who was, or who was not, at the head of affairs, that Judge Prevost, an agent from the United States, a jocose sort of gentleman, used every morning before breakfast to look over the balcony of his house, and calling out to the first person passing would inquire, "Who governs to-day?" He was once answered Quien sabe?" (who can tell?) He thought this so good a joke that he often repeated it to his friends, and it always excited a good deal of laughter, until, reaching the ears of an ephemeral governor, who was more than usually sensitive to sarcasm, the worthy judge was obliged very unceremoniously, and at four hours' notice, to ship himself off for Chile, in the Enterprise, belonging to Mr. Samuel Haigh, who went round Cape Horn in the same vessel.

This series of continual changes was at length terminated by the appointment of Colonel Don Martin Rodriguez, a rich landed proprietor, a man of considerable energy and determination, and very popular with the inhabitants, particularly the gauchos. He was of an unambitious character, and displayed much good sense in directing the power with which he was invested, to the formation of a settled administration. The people, wearied out by the harassing effects of varied misrule, seconded the efforts of Ro

driguez, and gave effect to his patriotic intentions. He evinced the soundest discrimination in the choice of his colleagues, who, having been absent from the scene of anarchy, or out of the country for some time previously, were altogether unconnected with the intrigues that had so long distracted the republic. Don Bernardino Rivadavia was appointed secretary for foreign and home affairs, and became the soul of the new government. Don Francisco Cruz was made secretary for the war department, and Don Manuel Garcia, secretary of finance.

Notwithstanding the secession of the provinces, the government of Buenos Ayres was by tacit consent, the only channel through which negotiations with foreign powers were carried on. All foreign agents and consuls resided in that capital.

One of the first acts of the new administration was the formation of a constituent provincial junta of thirteen members. Four represented the city, and nine the province. Talents, good sense, and enlightened judgment, distinguished the proceedings of this body. Gomez, Aguerro, Frias, and others, spoke with the eloquence of Roman or British senators, and regular reports of their debates were printed and circulated throughout the provinces, where they were read with great avidity.

On the recommendation of the executive, which was empowered to propose laws, the junta passed decrees, which were not merely printed and promulgated, but ACTUALLY CARRIED INTO EFFECT:

For the inviolability of persons and property.

Oblivion of past political offences.
Religious toleration.

Extinction of the monastic orders.

The liberty of the press.

The administration of justice was rendered more pure.

The utmost attention was paid to the education of the rising generation. An university was erected, and one hundred students, from the provinces which had seceded, were kept on the establishment at the expense of Buenos Ayres.

Many schools were established in the capital, and several in the province.

Fifty or sixty youths of the first families were sent to England, France, or the United States, for education. This number is rather upon the increase.

The public library founded by Moreno was frequently enriched by donations.

A bank was established, which contributed greatly to sustain public credit. The whole of its expenses were defrayed by the profits arising from the discounting of bills. The directors were chosen from amongst the native merchants and British residents, who, for the most part, had acquired the privileges of citizens. The very able secretary, Don Santiago Wilde, was an Englishman.

A savings bank was also introduced, and it was well supported.

The few charitable institutions of Buenos Ayres became objects of public attention, and vaccination was very generally introduced.

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