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up and down until they see a subject likely to suit their purpose. Miller one day put on a broadbrimmed straw hat, and walked into several of the stores, as if with a view of making a purchase. The slave venders came forward with eagerness to show off their stock, making their bipeds move about in every way best calculated to display their good points, and in much the same manner that a jockey does in showing off a horse. Those who appeared to be drowsy were made to bite a piece of ginger, or take a pinch of snuff. If these excitements did not prove sufficient to give them an air of briskness, they were wakened up by a pull of the ear, or a slap on the face, which made them look about them. Miller was so inquisitive, and his observations were so unlike those of a bona fide purchaser, that the dealers soon began to suspect he did not intend to be a customer. One of them being in consequence rather pert in his replies, Miller once more allowed his indignation to get the better of his judgment, and he abused the fellow in terms more violent, if possible, than those he had addressed to the master of the slave ship. He had some difficulty to avoid getting into a very serious squabble, as many of the other dealers came out and joined in the yell now raised against him. As he passed along the street, it was like running the gauntlet; for he was saluted by vituperations on all sides, and it was perhaps only by preserving a menacing attitude in his retreat that he prevented something more than a mere war of words. They dwelt with marked emphasis on the officious English, who, instead of attending to their

own affairs, would not, they said, allow other people to gain an honest livelihood.

Miller left Rio Janeiro, in the Marchioness of Salisbury packet, for England. They touched at Bahia and Pernambuco, both very fine and opulent cities, founded by the Dutch, and which bear testimony to the industry and ingenuity of that persevering people. The spacious streets, and the manner in which the old town of Pernambuco was built by the Dutch, is clear evidence of the superiority of their taste over that of the Portuguese, which is well contrasted by a division which has been added to the city by the latter. Miller dined with the governor, who politely furnished him with horses and an orderly, that he might visit the convent of San Francisco, at Olinda, the easternmost point of land in South America. This convent is celebrated for the richness of its ceilings, which are in the Moorish style of workmanship; it was founded previous to the taking of Pernambuco by the Dutch, in 1625. In 1630 they abandoned the port, filling up the entrance across the bar, or reef. The friars at the convent are extremely obliging to visitors.

Amongst the passengers on board the packet was Don Tadeo Garate, the last royalist governor of the department of Puno, and the immediate predecessor of Miller, who was the first appointed by the patriots. It was singular that these two individuals should have been brought together as messmates on board the same vessel.

Garate, who has before been mentioned in these memoirs, is a native of La Paz, or Chuquiago as it

is called by the aborigines. He is about fifty years of age, of middle stature, though rather taller than the generality of the Cholos, or mixed Indian race, to which he belongs. He stoops considerably; his eyes are dark, and small, like those of a Chinese; his hair is black, coarse, and shining; but, like most Indians, he has little beard; the general expression of his countenance is of a most sinister description. He was educated in the college of San Antonio, at Cuzco, and was so remarkable for close application to his studies, that he was called "el Cholito aplicado," or "the hard-working little Indian." Becoming an advocate, Garate displayed great professional acuteness, vigour of imagination, and an easy style of oratory; which obtained him numerous clients, and enabled him to live in a very independent manner. He soon evinced an ambitious and ostentatious spirit, wore hair powder, and affected, in his dress, colours not usually worn at Cuzco. As a literary character, he was a constant visitor at the palace of the bishop, to whom he afterwards became secretary, and eventually so great a favourite, that the bishop acted only by his advice. In dispensing episcopal patronage, the new secretary displayed, to those who were his suitors, the greatest haughtiness of disposition. was next appointed sub-delegate of Chucuito, and afterwards elected a deputy to serve in the cortes of Spain, to which, soon after his arrival in the Peninsula, he was chosen secretary. He was the author of the famous address to Ferdinand VII., which gained for those who signed it the party sobriquet of " Persians." He acted also as a spy upon the other


American deputies, and the servility of Garate was rewarded by the king with the valuable appointment of governor of Puno; upon which he returned to Peru.

It would appear that the mind and disposition of Garate had been wrongly directed, or perverted, at the commencement of his career, by monkish bigotry and scholastic prejudices. All his actions, his manners, and his very looks, indicated that he was a stranger to every liberal or manly feeling. He is a melancholy instance of the demoralizing effects of habitual servility. Accustomed from his youth to cringe and fawn, whoever was in power was certain of his support. He was alternately the humble slave of Pezuela, of La Serna, and of Olañeta, and to each he was an active, able, and willing instrument in the execution of oppressive measures. In some respects he was always consistent; he never professed to be a patriot, and he never ceased to persecute his countrymen. At length, contemned by all parties, he was now a wanderer towards Spain, his only hope being in the favour of Ferdinand. He had left at Cuzco a most amiable wife, and a very charming daughter. As Garate did not speak English or French, Miller, commiserating his situation, often conversed with him, and desired his servant José, a Spaniard, to wait upon Garate. They were therefore tolerably sociable, until one day a discussion arose at table as to the character of the Irish peasantry, and in which Miller had to combat the arguments of nearly all his fellow passengers. Although Garate could not distinctly understand the whole of the question, he clearly perceived

that his patriot opponent was in the minority; upon which his natural propensity to side with the strongest irresistibly broke forth. He did not merely confine himself to the point in debate, but said that Miller, being an insurgent himself, was a fit advocate for what he called "the insurgents of Ireland." Warmed by his subject, and encouraged by an appearance of support from the party whose cause he seconded, he went on boastingly to say, "that the time would soon arrive when he should return to Peru, with thousands of the king's troops, and have it in his power to gratify his dearest wish, the extermination of all rebels and traitors." During his furious harangue, Garate was a fit study for a painter. Malignity, envy, rage, revenge, and insolence, were severally depicted in his countenance. In consideration of his forlorn situation, Miller allowed him to go extraordinary lengths; but finding that his forbearance only increased the other's virulence, he thought it time to arrest his oratory, by giving him a mild but determined hint, that if he proceeded one step farther, nothing should save him from that species of castigation to which his scurrility had already so richly entitled him. Garate became instantly speechless, and slunk away. After this they were never cordial, although they still occasionally entered into conversation.

Garate was constantly complaining of his poverty, and described himself to be an utterly ruined man. He protested, by all that was sacred, that a forced contribution of twenty thousand dollars, which Bolivar had levied upon him at Arequipa, had swept

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