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Mark i: 14. preaching the gospel of the kingdom of God,
Judæ. 15. And saying, The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of
God is at hand ; repent ye, and believe the Gospel.
round about ;
And he taught in their synagogues, being glorified of
all. Matt. iv. 13. And leaving Nazareth, he came and dwelt in Caper
the sea coast in the borders of Zabu-
the prophet, saying,
the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, Galilee of the Gen-
naum, which is
Isa. ii. 19. When he shall arise to smite terribly the earth, is
The transjordanic country was called Galilee, though pro-
Júdas is called by Gamaliel Judas of Galilee, yet Josephus calls him a Galilonite, of the city of Gamala.
Perea, called Galilee, because Canaan was divided into four tetrarchies-Judea, Samaria, Iturea and Tracbonits, the remaining fourth was called Galilee, and included Peræa.
The great estates of Galilee are said to have feasted with Herod. But the palace of Herodium was in the extreme part of Perea. It is not probable that the great men of Perea would have been utterly excluded.
Joshua xxii. 11. refers to a place in Peræa, and Lighfoot supposes that the word “Galilee” was derived from the name of that place, (e) 17793 nosoba
Moses had predicted that Zabulon and Issachar, which with Napthali, were the tribes originally settled in that tract of country, afterwards called Galilee, should call the people unto the mountain of the Lord's house, to offer sacrifices of righteousness, Deut. xxxiii. 19.-And Jacob had before predicted that Napthali, the Galilæan, should give goodly words, Gen. xlix. 21. Both evident predictions of the diffusal of the Gospel in both places (f).
(a) Vide the maps of the tribe of Napthali, and of Canaan, in Wyld's Scripture Atlas, an admirable compendium of sacred geography. (6) Johar. Genes. fol. 74. col. 293. Revelabitum Messias in terra Galilæa. Pesikta sotarta, fol. 58. 1, 2. adverba numer. 24. 17. Johar. Exod. fol. col. 1. Illo die, &c. &c. 5o5a7 xynx) wyny. (c) Discourse xxvi. p. 101. See also Lowth's Isaiah on this passage. (d) Vol. ii. p. 525. and vol. i. p. 11, &c. &c. (e) Lightfoot's Works, vol. i. p. 362. (f) Lightfoot's Works, vol. i. p. 627.
3 The principal inhabitants of Galilee, in addition to the native Jews, were Phænicians, Arabia and Egyptians. Is it not possible that the ministry of our Lord began in Galilee, that by means of these mingled people the fame of his miracles might be more widely extended, and the future success of his Gospel be more effectually prepared. The principal sea ports of Palestine (excepting Joppa) were in Galilee.' Where there is com
Matt. iv. 16. The people which sat in darkness saw great light; and Judea.
to them which sat in the region and shadow of death, light
is sprung up
repent ; for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.
Christ's Conversation with the Woman of Samaria“.
JOHN iv. 1-42. Julian Pe
1 When therefore the Lord knew how the Pharisees Samaria. riod, 4740. had heard that Jesus made and baptized more disciples 27.
Vulgar Æra, than John,
merce there will be an increase of knowledge. The mixed
4 There is a remarkable coincidence here in the three most
2 (Though Jesus himself baptized not, but his disci- Samaria. riod, 4740. ValgarÆra,
3 He left Judea, and departed again into Galilee.
5. Then cometh he to a city of Samaria, which is called
Our Lord might have had another object in view in thus addressing himself to the woman of Samaria. By his own example be taught his followers the propriety, or necessity, of breaking down the distinctions then existing between the Jews and the Samaritans; and by so doing he bestows on them an evident proof of his superiority over the Jewish teachers, who encouraged the reciprocal enmity of the two nations. It may be observed here, that Samaria was the first city addressed after the Jews, when the persecution of the Church at Jerusalem bad scattered the early converts. The extinction of national hatred and prejudice, was a convincing proof to the collective nation of Israel that a new æra had commenced. Philip the deacon converted the Samaritans, and Peter and John were sent down from Jerusalem to confirm their faith. It is not improbable that St. Jobp recalled to their remembrance this first interview of our Lord, at the commencement of his ministry.
The silence of the three first Evangelists on this remarkable circumstance may be accounted for, from a consideration of the peculiar circumstances of the Church and of Palestine at the time when their Gospels were written. Each Gospel was written for one specific purpose, and addressed to one description of people. If St. Matthew had inserted it, the prejudices of the Jews, to whom he addressed bis Gospel, would have been more highly excited against the new religion.
The Gospel of St. Mark, which with equal justice may be called the Gospel of St. Peter, was written for the use of the converted proselytes, particularly those of Rome; who were but little interested in these national transactions; or, as is more probable, St. Mark omitted it because St. Peter was not present, as he did not become the constant follower of Christ till a period subsequent to this conversation: and it is supposed that St. Mark has related those events only to which St. Peter was an eye-witness. St. Luke omitted it, for he wrote to the Gentiles of Achaia, who were likewise indifferent to the controversies which prevailed between the Jews and Samaritans. St. John had been sent down from Jerusalem by the Church, in company with St. Peter, and, as his own historian, copld not fail to mention this circumstance in all its minuteness ().
(a) Works, vol. i. p. 596. (6) Dr. Townson's Discourses, vol. i.
5 Christ did not himself baptize, because,
4. The early Christians valued themselves according to the
* Jacob had bought a piece of land of the children of Hamor,
Julian Pe 6 Now Jacob's well was there : Jesus therefore, being Samaria, riod, 4740. wearied with his journey, sat thus on the well ; and it VulgarÆra, 27.
was about the sixth hour.
7 There cometh a woman of Samaria to draw water. Jesus saith unto her, Give me to drink.
8 (For his disciples were gone away unto the city to buy meat.)
9 Then saith the woman of Samaria unto him, How is it that thou, being a Jew, askest drink of me, which am a woman of Samaria ? for the Jews have no dealings with the Samaritans.
10 Jesus answered and said unto her, If thou knewest
11 The woman saith unto him, Sir, thou hast nothing
13 Jesus answered and said unto her, Whosoever drinketh of this water shall thirst again :
14 But whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give him shall never thirst : but the water that I shall give him shall be in him a well of water springing up into everlasting life.
15 The woman saith unto him, Sir, give me this water, that I thirst not, neither come hither to draw.
16 Jesus saith unto her, Go, call thy husband, and come hither.
17 The woman answered and said, I have no husband. Jesus said unto her, Thou hast well said, I have no husband;
18 For thou hast had five husbands; and he whom thou now hast, is not thy husband : in that saidst thou truly,
19 The woman saith unto him, Sir, I perceive that thou art a prophet.
20 Our fathers worshipped in this mountain, and ye say that in Jerusalem is the place where men ought to worship?
for a hundred lambs, Gen. xlviii, 22. and xxxiii, 19. But, aster
7 The Jews had more favourable thoughts of the temple built
Julian Pe 21 Jesus saith unto her, Woman, believe me, the hour Samaria. riod, 4740. cometh when ye shall neither in this mountain, nor yet at Vulgar Æra, Jerusalem, worship the Father,
22 Ye worship ye know not what : we know what we worship: for salvation is of the Jews.
23 But the hour cometh, and now is, when the true worshippers shall worship the Father in spirit and in truth : for the Father seeketh such to worship him.
24 God is a Spirit: and they that worship him must worship him in spirit and in truth,
25 The woman saith unto him, I know that Messias cometh ®, which is called Christ : when he is come, he will tell us all things.
26 Jesus saith unto her, I that speak unto thee am he.
27 And upon this came his disciples, and marvelled that he talked with the woman: yet no man said, What seekest thou ? or, Why talkest thou with her ?
28 The woman then left her waterpot, and went her way into the city, and saith to the men,
respective claims are about equal. The one was built by a
The Samaritans well knew that Jerusalem was the place ap-
8 In Bishop Horsley's beautiful illustration of this passage, in his twenty-fourth, twenty-fifth, and twenty-sixth sermons, he has not taken into consideration the circumstance related at some length by Lightfoot, and proved with his usual learning, that although the Samaritans received only as canonical books the Pentateuch of Moses, they held in great estimation the prophetical writings. Bishop Horsley's argument, therefore, that the Samaritan woman necessarily expected a Messiah from studying the books of Moses only, is not well founded. Archdeacon Blomtield, in his excellent dissertation on the traditional knowledge of a Redeemer (notes, p. 172, 3.) has likewise made the same observation.
The Samaritan woman, he observes, uses the word Messias, which does not occur in Moses. But as Moses had clearly predicted Him, whom the prophets called Messiah, the Samaritans did not hesitate to use the prophetical designation of that person whom Moses had foretold. From the words of the woman, õida öre Meogias ipxetai, Dr. Blomfield concludes that her countrymen were expecting the speedy advent of the Messiah. Christ was first called Messiah, in the Song of Hannah. - Vide Lightfoot's Works, vol. ii. p. 511 ; and Archdeacon Blomfield's, Dissertation, note, p. 172-3.