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Christ teaches in the Synagogue of Capernaum. Conver-

sation with his Disciples.

JOHN vi. 22. to the end, and vii. 1. John vi. 22.

The day following, when the people which stood on the Capernaum.
other side of the sea saw that there was none other boat
there, save that one whereinto his disciples were entered,
and that Jesus went not with his disciples into the boat,

but that his disciples were gone away alone :
23. (Howbeit there came other boats from Tiberias nigh

unto the place where they did eat bread, after that the

Lord had given thanks :)
24. When the people therefore saw that Jesus was not

there, neither his disciples, they also took shipping, and

came to Capernaum, seeking for Jesus.
25. And when they had found him on the other side of the

sea, they said unto him, Rabbi, when camest thou

Jesus answered them and said, Verily, verily, I say
unto you, Ye seek me, not because ye saw the miracles,

but because ye did eat of the loaves, and were filled.
27. Labour not for the meat which perisheth, but for that

meat which endureth unto everlasting life, which the Son
of man shall give unto you: for him hath God the Fa-

ther sealed.

Then said they unto him, What shall we do, that we
might work the works of God?

Jesus answered and said unto them, This is the work
of God, that ye believe on him whom he hath sent.
30. They said therefore unto him, What sign shewest thou

then, that we may see, and believe thee? what dost thou

31. Our fathers did eat manna in the desert; as it is.

written, He gave them bread from heaven to eat.

Then Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto
you, Moses gave you not that bread from heaven; but

my Father giveth you the true bread from heaven.
33. For the bread of God is he which cometh down from

heaven, and giveth life unto the world.
34. Then said they unto him, Lord, evermore give us

this bread.

And Jesus said unto them, I am the bread of life"3: he 13 We have here another instance in which Christ applied to himself an epithet given by tbe Jews to their expected Messiah. Midrash Coheleth, fol. 73. 3. R. Berecbia nomine R. Isaac dixit: quem admodum Goël primus, sic quoque erit postremus. Goël primus iran nx 1717, descendere fecit Manna. q. d. Exod. xvi. 4. Et pluere faciam vobis panem de cælo. Sic quoque Goël postremus descendere facit Manna d. Ps. Ixxii. 16. crit multitudo frumenti super terram.-See Schootgen. in loc.


John vi, 35. that cometh to me shall never hunger; and he that be- Capernaum.

lieveth on me shall never thirst.
36. But I said unto you, That ye also have seen me, and

believe not.
37. All that the Father giveth me shall come to me; and

him that cometh to me I will in no wise cast out.
38. For I came down from heaven, not to do mine own

will, but the will of him that sent me.
39. And this is the Father's will which hath sent me, that

of all which he hath given me I should lose nothing, but

should raise it up again at the last day. 40.

And this is the will of him that sent me, that every one which seeth the Son, and believeth on him, may have

everlasting life : and I will raise him up at the last day.

The Jews then murmured at him, because he said, I am
the bread which came down from heaven.
42. And they said, Is not this Jesus, the son of Joseph,

whose father and mother we know ? how is it then that he

saith, I came down from heaven?
43. Jesus therefore answered and said unto them, Murmur

not among yourselves.
44. No man can come to me, except the Father which sent'

me draw him; and I will raise him up at the last day.
45. It is written in the Prophets, And they shall be all

taught of God. Every man therefore that hath heard,
and hath learned of the Father, cometh unto me.

It is probable that our Saviour alluded to this tradition, as well as to the ideas of Philo and the Rabbis, discussed at great length by Whitby, on John vi. 31. 37, &c. The comparison of food which nourishes the body, and wisdom which nourishes the soul, is common in many parts of Scripture. Thus Isaiah-Yo that are thirsty, come buy wine and milk without money, and without price. Wherefore do ye spend your money for that which is not bread, &c. &c.

Lightfoot quotes also Cbajigab, fol. 14. I. and Gloss. in Succah, fol. 52. to prove that bread was frequently used among the Jewish doctors for doctrine-ons obuoxo feed him with bread; that is, make him take pains in the warfare of the law, as it is written.

It may be observed here that an acquaintance with the Jewish traditions would materially assist the theological student to form a more accurate notion of many subjects of controversy between the Church of Rome and the Protestants. This discourse of our Lord in John vi. has been much insisted upon by the Romanists, as defending and supporting the doctrine of transubstantiation. This notion originated in the sixth century, and is founded on the literal interpretation of passages which were commonly used by the Jews, to whom the Scriptures were addressed, and by the inspired writers who primarily wrote for their use, in a metaphorical sense. I do not observe that Fulke has noticed this point in his remarks on John vi. in his work on the Rhemish translation of the New Testament, See that work, p. 275-280. folio edit. 1633. London.


John vi. 46. Not that any man hath seen the Father, save he which Capernaum.

is of God, he hath seen the Father.
47. Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that believeth on
me hath everlasting life.
I am that bread

of life.
49. Your fathers did eat manna in the wilderness, and are

50. This is the bread which cometh down from heaven, that

a man may eat thereof, and not die.
51. I am the living bread which came down from heaven;

if any man eat of this bread, he shall live for ever : and
the bread that I will give is my flesh, which I will give

for the life of the world.
52. The Jews therefore strove among themselves, saying,

How can this man give us his flesh to eat?
53. Then Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto

you, Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and

drink his blood, ye have no life in you.
64. Whoso eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, hath

eternal life ; and I will raise him up at the last day,
55. For my flesh is meat indeed, and my blood is drink in-

56. He that eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, dwell-

eth in me, and I in him.
57. As the living Father hath sent me, and I live by the

Father : so he that eateth me, even he shall live by me.
58. This is that bread which came down from heaven : not

as your fathers did eat manna, and are dead: he that eat

eth of this bread shall live for ever,
59. These things said he in the synagogue, as he taught in

60. Many therefore of his disciples, when they had heard

this, said, This is an hard saying ; who can hear it?

When Jesus knew in himself that his disciples mur-
mured at it, he said unto them, Doth this offend you?
62. What and if ye shall see the Son of man ascend up

where he was before?
63. It is the spirit that quickeneth ; the flesh profiteth

nothing: the words that I speak unto you, they are spirit,

and they are life.
64. But there are some of you that believe not. For Jesus

knew from the beginning who they were that believed

not, and who should betray him.
65. And he said, Therefore said I unto you, that no man can

come unto me, except it were given unto him of my Father.
66. From that time many of his disciples went back, and

walked no more with him.
67. Then said Jesus unto the twelve, Will ye also go away?
68. Then Simon Peter answered him, Lord, to whom shall

we go? thou hast the words of eternal life.

John vi. 69. And we believe and are sure that thou art that Christ, Capernaum,

the Son of the living God.
70. Jesus answered them, Have not I chosen you twelve,

and one of you is a devil ?
71. He spake of Judas Iscariot the son of Simon: for he it

was that should betray him, being one of the twelve.
vii. 1. After these things Jesus walked in Galilee: for he

would not walk in Jewry, because the Jews sought to kill

Julian Pe- Christ converses with the Scribes and Pharisees on the
riod, 4741,

Subject of the Jewish Traditions.

MATT. xv. 1-20. MARK vii. 1-23.
Mark vii. 1. Then came together unto him the Pharisees, and certain

of the Scribes, which came from Jerusalem.
2. And when they saw some of his disciples eat bread with

defiled, that is to say, with unwashen, hands, they found

3. For the Pharisees, and all the Jews, except they wash

their hands oft, eat not, holding the tradition of the

elders. 4.

And when they come from the market, except they wash, they eat not. And

many other things there be, which they have received to hold, as the washing of cups, and

pots, brasen vessels, and of tables.

5. Then the Pharisees and Scribes asked him, Matt. xv. l. saying,

2. Why do thy disciples transgress the tradition of the

elders ? for they wash not their hands when they eat bread. 3. But he answered and said unto them, Why do ye

also transgress the commandment of God by your tradition "?

Et sapientes וחכמים עשו חיזוק מדבריהם יותר משל תורה: .1


The words of the Scribes are" .חביבים דברי סופרים מדברי תורה:

14 To prove that the Evangelist has here spoken with the
utmost correctness, Schoetgen has quoted from Jevachim, fol.

secerunt robur verbis suis, plusquam verbis Legis.

Lightfoot also has given many others to the same purpose.
more lovely than the words of the law. Hieros. berac. fol. 3. 2.

The error of the Pharisees was the same as tbat of the Ro-
manists. They substituted unauthorized tradition in the place
of their inspired writings, and ritual observances in the place
of spiritual worship. The ordinances of external religion are
only valuable, as they are the emblems, and the appointed means
of spiritual blessings. While their proper value is set upon the
records of history, the inquiries of the critical, the labours of
the learned, the opinions of the judicious, the decisions of the
early Church, and all the sources of accurate information, it
ought never to be forgotten, neither is it forgotten by the Pro-
testant Churches, that Scripture is the one unerring test of
truth, to which every conclusion must be submitted. The Jews


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Mat, xv. 4. For God commanded, saying, Honour thy father and Capernaum.

thy mother: and, Mark vi. 10. Whoso curseth father or mother, let him die the death.

But ye say, If a man shall say to his father or his mother, It is Corban, that is to say a gift, by whatsoever

thou mightest be profited by me; he shall be free. Mat. xv. 6. And honour not his father or his mother, Markvii. 12. And ye suffer him no more to do ought for his father or

his mother ;
Mat. xv. 6. Thus have ye made the commandment of God of none

effect by your tradition.
Mark vii.13. which ye have delivered : and many such like things ye do.
Mat, xv, 7. Ye hypocrites, well did Esaias prophesy of you, saying,
Mark vời. 6. as it is written, This people
Matt. xv. 8. draweth nigh unto me with their mouth, and honoureth

me with their lips; but their heart is far from me.
Mark vii, 7. Howbeit, in vain do they worship me, teaching for

doctrines the commandments of men.
adopted many traditions, which were not only contrary to, but
were very frequently hostile to Scripture. The Romanists have
been guilty of the very same error. The Jews believed that a
man miglit withhold assistance from his afflicted or poor
parents, under the pretence that he had dedicated bis sub-
stance (or corban) to God, with many other absurdities enume-
rated at length by Lightfoot, Schoetgen, Meuschen, Gill, and
others, and alluded to in many places by the Evangelists. The
Romanists have set aside the plain and express authority of Scrip-
ture, and follow gradual inventions, which they dignify by the name
of traditions. They insist, for instance, on such points as these.
- The mass without communicants—The denial of the cup to
the Laity-The prohibiting the reading of Scripture-The dis-
tinction between latria and dulia, larpeia and deleia, in the
worshipping of angels, and saints, and God— The use of images
-The praying in an unknown tongue-The mediatorial offices
of the saints, and especially of the Virgin Mary-The assump-
tion of the Virgin, an invention of a very late age-Tbe seven
sacraments-- The doctrine of purgatory.

The Church that teaches these doctrines is as justly worthy
of the condemnation of our Lord, as the Pharisees, who were
his contemporaries—" Ye make the word of God of none effect
by your tradition.” Much might be added on this and other
topics connected with the discussions on the doctrines in con-
troversy between the Protestants and Romanists; but to do so
would extend these notes far beyond their limits. See a work
entitled a Learned Treatise on Traditions, translated from the
French of Du Moulin, by. G. C. London, 1632; particularly
ch. 12 and 13. p. 165-223. Fulke's Defence of the English
Translation of the Bible, printed at the eud of his observations on
tho Rhemish translation, p. 29–33. Bishop Hall's tract, entitled
the Old Religion, in the ninth vol. of bis works, 8vo. Pratt's edi-
tion, p. 287. and the tracts against Popery, Tit. 1. p.22. by Bisbop
Stratford. The Reformation Vindicated, &c. together with
many other treatises in that admirable and inestimable collec-
tion. On the Affinity between the Absurdities of the Pharisai.
cal and Catholic Traditions, see also Chemnitius. Exam. Con-
cil. Trident. Pars prior, p. 20–24. See also Schoetgen. Horæ
Hebraicæ, vol. i. p. 138.

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