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2 The same was in the beginning with God.
of the Antient Jewish Church, bas proved, by an astonishing
“I conceive this Chaldee Paraphrase," says Bishop Pearson, (i).
We should be careful to distinguish between the multiplied
After the return of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity, their native language bad undergone a change so considerable, on account of their adoption of numerous words from the vernacular languages of the countries in which they were settled, that when the Scriptures were appointed by Ezra to be read, they was utterly unintelligible to the greater part assembled. on this account Ezra commanded the Levites to interpret the ori. ginal to the people, by rendering it into Chaldee. These interpretations, or paraphrases, were originally merely oral.
I by my word made“ ,אנא במימרי עברית ארצא Chaldee translateth
3 All things were made by him; and without him was written at not any thing made that was made.
There is no proof that there were any collected written para-
These Paraphrases then, in innumerable instances, translate the
The authority, however, most to be depended upon, with re-
4 In him was life ; and the life was the light of men. Written at
Ephesus. against the persecuting spirit of the Alexaudrians. He has left on record a very curious detail of this expedition. The manner in which, after much delay and many vexatious difficulties, the embassy, when at last admitted to the long desired audience, was received by Caligula, presents us with a most singular and characteristic picture of the haughty sovereign and bis courtiers. Caligula first abruptly addresses them, by inquiring if they were “the odious race" who refused to acknowledge him as their God; and, after baving obliged them to follow him as objects of general ridicule and reproach, while he inspected some rooms in one of his villas, asked them, with a " grave and serious countenance, why they abstained from swine's flesh;" and, after many more sarcasms, dismissed them with this compassionate sentiment, “ That those men who would not believe in him as a God, were, in bis opinion, rather miserable than wicked.”Jerome and Eusebius inform us, that when Philo was at Rome, he was accustomed to converse with St. Peter, and that he cul. tivated the society of that Apostle. Photius tells us that he was a Christian, though he soon separated from their communion; and Dr. J. Jones has lately attempted to revive this opinion, including Josephus also among the number of primitive Christians. Eusebius further assures us, that Philo devoted himself to the study of the Scriptures, and diligently examined the truths received from his ancestors : that he had made the most profound research into the mysteries of the Platonic system, and discovered so much knowledge of the doctrines of the Grecian philosopher, and all his abstruse notions, that it was commonly said, either “ Plato Philonizes, or Philo Platonises.” By mingling the theological opinions of his countrymen with the reveries of the Platonic school, and the undoubted truths of his own Scriptures, he has given to the world in his multifarious productions a strange compound of truth and falsehood, from which, however, can be collected, without difficulty, the prevailing opinions of the learned Jews of that age, respecting the Logos, the Word of God, the manifested Jehovah of the Hebrew Scriptures.
The following is a list of some of the particular terms and doctrines found in Philo, with parallel passages from the New Testament,
1. The Logos is the Son of God-vids Oes. De Agric. vol. i. p. 308. De Profug. ib. p. 562. Compare Mark i. 1. Luke ir. 41. John i. 34. Acts viii. 37.
2. Tbe second divinity-kúrepos Osos Lóyos. Fragm. vol. ii. p. 625. Comp. John i. 1. I Cor. i. 24.
3. The first begotten of God-Abyog upwróyovos. De Somniis, vol. i. p. 653. Comp. Heb. i. 6. Coloss. i. 15.
4. The image of God-ciwy TË 0€8. De Mundi Opific. vol. i. p. 6, 414, 419, 656. Comp. Coloss. i. 15. Heb. i. 3. 2 Cor. iv. 4.
5 Superior to angels – υπεράνω πάντων (αγγέλων) λόγος ocios. De Profugis, vol. i. p. 561. Comp. Heb. i. 4. 6.
6. Superior to all the world-'O Nóyos-ýnepávw havrós ést. De Leg. Allegor. vol. i. p. 121. Comp. Heb. ii. 8.
7. By whom the world was created-τον θείον λόγον τον Taūta diakoouhoavra. De Mund. epif. vol i. p. 4. Comp. John i. 3. I Cor. viii. 6. Heb. i. 2. 10.
8. The great substitute of God-napxos te Oes. De Agricult. vol. i. p. 308. Comp. John i. 3. and xvii. 4. Eph. iii. 9. Phil, ii, 7.
5 And the light shineth in darkness; and the darkness Written at comprehended it not.
9. The light of the world - Pūs kogue : and intellectual sun-icos vontos. De Sompiis, vol. i. p. 6. 414, 632, 633. Comp. John i. iv. 9. and viii. 12. (1 Pet. ii. 9.
10. Who only can see God-qu nóvw Tòv Oloy deest kafopäv. De Confus. Ling. vol. i. p. 418. Comp. John i. 18. and vi. 46.
11. Who resides in God-tv avto uovq, karouņoet. De Profug. vol. i. p. 561. Comp. Jobn i. 1$. and xiv. 11.
12, The most ancient of God's works, and before all things TYPEOCÚTATOS TWv öga yéyove. De Confus. Ling. vol. i. p. 427. De Leg. Allegor. ib. p. 121. Comp. John i. 2. and xvii. 5. 24. 2 Tim. i. 9. Heb. i. 2.
13. Esteemed the same as God-óyov us aútov Odv karavãou. De Somniis, vol. i. p. 656. Cump. Mark ii. 7. Rom, ix.5. Phil. ii. 6.
14. The Logos is eternal-ó aidlog Nóyos. De Plant. Noæ. vol. i. 332, and vol. ii. p. 604. Comp. John xii. 34. 2 Tim. i. 9. and iv. 18. Heb. i. 8. Rev. x. 6.
15. Beholds all things— Evdepkésaros, uç trávra épopãv elval ikavos. De Leg. Allegor. vol. i. p. 121. Comp. Heb. iv. 12, 13. Rev. ii. 23.
16. He unites, supports, preserves, and perfects the worldκαι τε γαρ τα όντος λόγος δεσμός ών των απάντων-συνέχει τα μέρη πάντα, και σφίγγει-περιεχει τα όλα, και πεπλήρωκεν. De Prof. vol. i. p. 562. fragm. vol. ii. p. 655. Comp. John iii. 35. Colos. i. 17 Heb. i. 3.
17. Nearest to God without any separation--, eyyuterw undevos Övtos pedopis diaoņparos: De Profug. vol. i. p. 561. Comp. John i, 18. and x. 30. and xiv. 11. and xvii. 11.
18. Free from all taint of sin, voluntary or involuntaryάνευ τροπής εκουσίε-και της ακεσία. De Profug. vol. i. p. 561. Comp. John viii. 46. Heb. vii. 26. and ix. 14. 1 Pet. iv. 22.
19. Who presides over the imperfect and weak-ouros yåp quay twv árewv dy çin okoç. De Leg. Allegor. vol. i. p. 128, Comp. Matt. xi. 5. Luke v. 32. 1 Tim. i. 15.
20. The Logos, the fountain of wisdom--Mórov Okov ôs copias ési anyń. De Profug. vol. i. p. 560. 566. Comp. John iv. 14. vii. 38. 1 Cor. i. 24. Colos. ii. 3.
21. A messenger sent from God -πρεσβευτής τα ηγεμόνος TIPÒS TÓ ÚTnKoov. Quis. Rer. Div. Hæres. vol. i. p. 501. Comp. John v. 36. viii, 29. 42. John iv. 9.
22. The advocate for mortal man-ikérns pév ési të Ovnte. Quis. Rer. Div. Hær. vol. i. p. 501. Comp. John xiv. 16. xvii. 20. Rom. viii. 34. Heb. viii. 25.
23. He ordered and disposed of all things-dielne w Quévelme trávra. Ib. p. 506. Comp. Col. i. 15, 16. Heb. xi. 8.
24. The shepherd of God's flock-Tov oplov aŭtoù lóyov-os Try étiue elav rūs iepās taúrns dyeins.' De Agricul. vol. i. p. 308. Comp. John X. 14. Heb. xiii. 20. 1 Pet. ii. 25.
25. Of the power and royalty of the Logos—Ò Tš nyepóvos λόγος – βασιλική δύναμις αυτέ. De Profug. vol. i. p: 561. Comp. 1 Cor. xv. 25. Eph. i. 21, 22. Heb. i. 2, 3. Rev. xvii. 14.
26. The Logos is the physician who heals all evil-ov âyyeλον (ός εςι λόγος) ώσπερ ιατρών κακών. De Leg. Allegor. vol. i. p. 122. Comp. Luke iv. 18. vii. 21. 1 Pet. ii. 24. Jam. i. 21.
27. The Logos is the seal of Godmo dé ésiv i oppayis. De
6 9 There was a man sent from God, whose name was written at John.
Profug. vol. i. p. 547, 548. De Plant. Noæ. ibid. p. 332. Comp.
28. The sure refuge of those who seek him-ép' òv prov
29. Of heavenly food distributed by the Logos equally to all who seek it-tov spáviov spopriv túxns. Quis. Rer. Divin. Hær. vol. i. p. 499. Comp. Matt. v. 6. vii. 7. xiii. 10. xxiv. 14. Xxxvii. 19. Rom. x. 12. 18.
30. of men's forsaking their sins, and obtaining spiritual freedom by the Logos-Eevepia rñs vuxns. De Cong. Quær. Erud. Grat. vol. i. p. 534. De Profug. ib. p. 561. 563. Comp. John viii. 36. I Cor. vii. 22, 2 Cor. iii. 17. Gal. v. 1. 13.
31. Of men's being freed by the Logos from all corruption, And entitled to immortality-ο ιερός λόγος ετίμησε γέρας εξαίρε τον δές, κλήρον αθάνατον, την εν άφθάρτι γενεϊ τάξιν. De Cong. Quær. Erud. Grat. vol. i. p. 535. Comp. Rom. viii. 21. 1 Cor. xv. 52, 53. Pet. i. 3, 4.
32. The Logos mentioned by Philo, not only, as vios 0€8, the son of God; but also ayaanTdu rékvov, his beloved son. De Leg. Allegor. vol. i. p. 129. Comp. Matt. iii. 17. Luke ix. 35. Col. i. xiii. 2 Pet. i. 17.
33. The just man advanced by the Logos to the presence of his Creator-τω αυτώ λόγω-ιδρύσας πλησίον εαυτ8. De Sacrificiis, vol i. p. 165. Comp. John vi. 37. 44. xii. 26. xiv. 6.
34. The Logos the true high-priest—ápxrepevs, ò mpwróyovos aŭts ocios lóyos. De Somniis, vol. i. p. 658. De Profug. ib. 562. Comp. John i. 41. viii. 46. Acts iv. 27. Heb. iv. 14. vii. 26.
35. The Logos in bis mediatorial capacity-Sóyos áp xepeus μεθοριός: of whom he says, θαυμάζω και τον μετά σπε δής απνευσί δραμόντα συντόνως ιερόν λόγον, ίνα τη μέσον των τεθνηκότων και tūv Súvtwv. “I am astonished to see the holy Logos running with so much speed and earnestness, that he may stand between the living and the dead." Quis. Rer. Divin. Hæris. vol. i. p. 501. Comp. 1 Tim. ii. 5. Heb. viii. 1.6. ix. 11, 12, 24.
These extracts (n) contain the sum and substance of the doctrines of Philo concerning the Word. Whatever the Old Testament applies to the Angel Jehovah, or Jehovah, this distinguished author applies to his Logos; and he is supposed to have expressed only the prevailing opinions of his time. Yot, if his opinions be attentively considered, many striking inconsistencies will be found in them respecting the Logos, as he frequently confounds all the personal qualities and attributes assigned to the Logos of the Old Testament, with a Logos so purely spiritual, or, as Dr. Smith calls it, so merely conceptual, that it could be capable only of being manifested to the spiritual or the intellectual part of man. We accordingly find Philo asserting that the divine Word would not assume a visible form, or reprosentation (idéa), and that it was “not to be reckoned among the objects known by sense.” An assertion which will furnish us with a solution to some of his discordant expressions: and which very satisfactorily explains the train of asso. ciations which leads him to such contradictory opinions on this subject: opinions, indeed, so strangely at variance, that the Unitarian writers have claimed Philo as a Platonist, who has transmitted no kind of evidence in favour of the generally re. ceived opinion that the Logos treated of in his works was the