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of Habakkuk describes a similar ness ariseth with healing in his vision of his personal glory on his wings to those that fear his name,' second advent. Can the human yet its radiance drinks up even mind perceive all this magnificent their spirits while in he body of assemblage and imagery, and deny sin and death; so that under the a personal manifestation ?

vision of his glory uncreate, even Verse 16. Let all his faithful his aged and beloved saints, Isaiah, ministers rejoice! In that right Daniel, Ezekiel, John, fainted. Thus hand from which none can pluck

can pluck fallen mortality, even in its rethem, he in his sovereign sufficiency, newed state, sinks in conscious unholds the elders or bishops appointed worthiness, utterly unable to sustain to his Gentile Churches. Himself the presence of the holy One. Oh! explains these stars as symbols of did he not lay the right hand of those angels, messengers or mi- new-creating power upon his elect, nisters in verse 20.

who could stand when he appeareth ? But what is the Lord's weapon All flesh must fail before him, exof war ? that sharp two-edged cept he graciously descends from sword with which (probably by the throne of justice, and as the man's instrumentality) he smites propitiation for sin and the advocate the nations s and provides “ the for sinners exerts the power of his supper of the great God," which might to save them by an act terminates the apostacies as of sovereign grace, saying, "Fear foretold Deut. xxxii, 35–43. If not!" I whet my glittering sword and As during his first advent ' mine hand take hold on judge- again, with Jesus the will, the ment, I will render vengeance to word, the act are one.

Why did mine enemies. I will make mine the voice of redeeming love say, arrows drunk with blood, and my - Fear not?”-Because of the imsword shall devour flesh, &c. Re- mediate assurance that he is the 'joice 0 ye nations ! his people, First and the Last; claiming, for befor he will avenge the blood of his lievers' support, his being, without servants, and render vengeance to beginning or ending. Again he • his adversaries : he will be merci- asserts inherent life, eternal self ful to his land and to his people.”* existence ; as when in the days

His countenance was as the of his mortal state, he referred to Sun shineth in his strength,” in his original deity and said, “I am the unshorn, unclouded beams of THE LIFE ;' so now v. 18, meridian power; like the sun of the THAT LIVETH,” the “I AM,'t material system which he created, “ Jehovah who changeth not, thereeffulgent in its noontide blaze. fore ye are not consumed.” But, Though this Sun of righteous- that we may not mistake his



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this son of Rechab, whose practice observes the law of his father, and whose existence proves the fulfilment of the promise, that so doing Rechab should never want a man to stand before the Lord ;-thus he described the glorious majesty in which Messiah shall appear, then turned his courser which, fleet as the wind, bore him through his native desert beyond the sound of salvation.

* On this passage Rabbi Menasse says, " See here, the day of Messiah's coming and of the resurrection are conjoined.” Most ancient Rabbies say that the passages in Dan. vii, of which this in Revelation declares the fulfilment, relate to King Messiah.

r Heb. iii.

$ Chap. xix, 15.

t John viii, 58.


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he adds," and was dead." I am less it be kept in mind, expositions the same

who lay down my life are made to regard secular objects, that I might take it again ;" for you instead of the Lord's controversy I laid it down, for you I took it for Zion,”—literal and spiritual again ; therefore, fear not ! for, Zion, --and the avenging his own Behold! I am alive for evermore.

insulted majesty. Fear not, John ! fear not, poor sinner How significant every iota of the of any degree! He is "mighty to following Revelation becomes, if we

since “ he died for your of- remember that it chiefly relates to fences, rose again for your justifica- judgements upon the two great tion,” and “ ever liveth to make in- apostacies which blasphemously artercession for you;" “ because I live rogate to their representatives that you shall live also.” He who in universal, temporal and spiritual an absolute sense said I am the dominion which belong to God only. Truth,” seals these assurances with Reviewing verses 12-18 upon his “ Amen!” adding, and I have this suggestion, we shall perceive the keys of hell and of death.—All how pointedly the prerogatives of power in heaven and earth being the true Head of the Church are given me, I exercise it as Head asserted, in opposition to the preover all things to the Church.-The tensions of the archheretic of Rome separate spirits of my people are in who assumes that headship. my keeping, their dust is within my

Jesus Christ reveals himself as care, locked up in the still chambers the Royal Priest after the order of of the grave, as in my treasure Melchizedec, i.e. by an unchangehouse.” God typically laid the key able priesthood. The sovereign ponof the house of David upon the tiffs claim an unchangeable priestshoulder of Eliakim, who was over hood by succession from Peter, with the king's household in Jerusalem, royalty,-even the double dignity “ that he should open and none shut, of Christ, with its double authorand shut and none should open.” ity in church and state throughout This was a sign of committing * the Christendom,

Christendom, as his vicegerents. government into his hand.” Thus In priestly garments and wearing the Jesus, in delivering his message for triple crown, the man of sin, the the angel of the Church in Phila. son of perdition, opposeth and delphia, says; These things saith

' exalteth himself above all that is he that is holy, he that is true, he · called God or that is worshiped ; that hath the key of David, he so that as God, he sitteth in the

that openeth and no man shutteth, ' temple of God, shewing himself · and shutteth and no man openeth.” • that he is God;"-even on a throne

These passages bring me to the on the high altar above the very second view of the subject of this wafer which he declares to be conBook, arising from the Lord's re- verted by his presumptuous conpeatedly claiming pre-eminence in secration into the very body, bones power and glory before he describes and divinity of Jesus Christ;—there the conflict and its event. This he receives worship by prostration suggests, that he proclaims his right as “my Lord God the Pope !" of supremacy as a Priest upon his

Is Christ the King of kings ? throne" in opposition to some Such is the supremacy claimed by usurper whom he will judge and popes. By him kings must reign or destroy. I deem this to be the quit their thrones, placing their esprincipal action of the Book. Un- tates, dignities, subjects,-nay, their

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consciences, words and deeds, -at pretended infallibility, excommunihis disposal. Infallible, as though cating, anathematizing, shutting up his eyes discerned men's thoughts, in purgatory, removing into parafrom his decree lies no appeal : his dise, or irreversibly dooming to hell kingdom is of this world and his those whom he judges according to servants must fight for it. His in- his will. By forging Peter's keys quisitorial spies bring forth hidden he assumes on his shoulder the things and haveastrong prison, whose government of the Son of David tortures and mode of death resemble in both worlds ; presuming to open those to which he dooms their spirits. the gates of hell which no

Is Christ the Shepherd and Bishop shuts, be he Pope or Mahomet, by any of souls ? Does he appear as the bulls or decretals whatsoever; and God-Man, having all powerthrough- to shut what no works of superout time and eternity, to judge in erogation, but only the merits of righteousness, to save or to destroy? Christ can open,—the kingdom of

-This the Pope arrogates; he is heaven to believers. universal bishop with his shepherd's As to the inferior apostacy of crook.

Mahomet, we still find dominion Does Christ hold the stars in his usurped by the sword over matter hand ? the Pope holds all his minis- and mind in opposition to the Christ ters under his control ; and as the of God. Though he wore neither mock sun of his ecclesiastical firma- the mitre nor the crown, he aspired ment, gives forth the only light they as " the Prophet of God” to be sole may

receive or dispense, to enlighten revealer of his will, sole promulger his earth in things natural, moral, of his laws, by opposing the Koran intellectual or spiritual; all must

to the Bible; and to be supreme proceed from his traditions, rites or governor of the universe,-on earth ceremonies; his councils and decrees, by conquest, and in heaven by Alchanging times and laws; his sacra- lah's gift. Unerringly and irrevocaments and holy days; his missal and bly he awards death temporal and masses for the dead, his indul- eternal to all who swerve from his gences for the living, his system of law; hence no light but from his will-worship and self-righteousness. Koran may penetrate the darkness

Did the only Mediator heal all of their moral night. He dispenses manner of diseases, cast out devils, the pleasures of his paradise, and and then die, rise again, show signs, shuts out each rebel to endless sorand ascend into heaven, ever living to row. I think he also insisted upon intercede for transgressors ?-Many a miraculous birth, and passed into mediators were canonized by the the heavens as his home by a mipopes, by them gifted with the pow- raculous flight; whence his spiritual er of working miracles and with the reign and supernal influences comcrown of life, and by them raised to mence, and time is dated to his subthrones in heaven to govern all on jects. They invoke him instead of earth according to their will. Idols Christ, whose humanity he deof wood, stone, gold, silver, adorn graded, and whose deity lie denied ; their chambers of imagery instead and by him only they expect access of the angelic host; a cross instead to Allah. of Christ.

But as this apostacy chiefly Is the voice of our just Judge like afflicts the multitude of Abraham's a trumpet ?-The papal bulls suc- posterity, I suspect its character and cessively re-echo the judgements of doom may be more marked in the

O. C

Old Testament; whilst the Book rejected, oppressed and slain, till he of Revelation chiefly regards the raises them, conquers and reigns. predominant opposition to Christ On the other we find the apostate of the ten horns and little horn of and his confederates prevailing and the Gentiles.

persecuting, whilst, for the trial of In the manifestation of Christ's the patience of the saints, all who mediatorial power and glory in the bear his mark receive power from first four chapters, and in the sub- Satan, the prince and god of this sequent descriptions of mystic Ba- world; till they who are on the bylon, we therefore discover the Lord's side, being made manifest, character of the contest which forms Antichrist with his adherents are the action of this book; and may finally overthrown, and Satan rewell suppose that the description of strained by Christ's millennial scepall subordinate events must be tre, till the last act of judgement ranged under those two heads. On proclaims his victory over Satan, one side we see the Lord Christ and Death, and Hell. (Chap. xx.) his Hebrew and Gentile witnesses



London. 1817.

(5) A Dissertation on the Seals Noteson the Apocalypse, whereby and Trumpets of the Apocalypse, and the subject under another form will the prophetical period of 1260 years. still be kept alive ; and secondly, beBy WILLIAM CUNINGHAME,

Esq. cause, in our own deliberate judge8vo. pp. Lxx and 360. Cadell and Davies, ment, the work of Mr. Cuninghame

is on the whole the most entitled to It was our intention to have re- regard. viewed, if not in combination, at Mr. Cuninghame displays great least in immediate succession, some acuteness in discovering those chroof the principal treatises on the nological indices, which serve both Apocalypse. But to do tolerable to determine the structure of the justice to any one treatise, will oc- Apocalypse, and to fix the various cupy, throughout two or three events set forth to the Church thereNumbers, the short space which we in. His views are generally illuscan afford in the Investigator ; trated by striking and appropriate and therefore we intend to postpone historical facts, and supported by other voluminous authors on the

on the clear and learned argumentation. Apocalypse, and limit ourselves And he exhibits, with but few exmore especially to Mr. Cuninghame, ceptions, and perhaps in those until we have been enabled to bring others will think differently,) a conworks on other subjects before our sistent principle of homogeneity Readers. This we can do with the in the interpretation of symbols. more satisfaction for two reasons : For example : if a horse is assumed first, because we are now enabled to be the symbol of conquest or trito present a series of Original umph, he justly contends, not only



that all the horses depicted must be disable us from subserving the cause interpreted as of prevalence or con- of truth or the efforts of individuals quest; but that if one relate to spi- in this department of our labors. ritual conquests, or to military, or We seize this opportunity of to political, so must the whole in making known our sentiments on the same series. Thus, even though this head to our friends, because we we may hesitate to concur in the may not readily meet with interpretation of the symbol, yet Author, in whose works we find so must it be manifest, that it is far little with which we can be captious, more difficult to find a series of ho- and so much which we can approve ; mogeneous events, all suitably com- nor one, according to the notion we porting with each other, than it is have formed of his christian candour, for an expositor to cull incidents at who would more deprecate our imrandom from circumstances of a po- posing any restraint upon our sentilitical, ecclesiastical, or military ments.

or military ments. And though we always character. An interpretation con- intend to point out those things ducted upon the former principle at (if we think them of importance) least commends itself by its greater in which we cannot agree; yet we consistency and probability,

trust we shall always do it with We have intimated at p. 143 of deference and humility, and offer our fifth Number, that we are not our remarks and observations in the prepared to say of any writer on same tone of friendly suggestion we the Apocalypse that his treatise is should assume, were we familiarly unobjectionable throughout; which discussing the subject with the Auremark will apply to the work be- thor at his own fireside. Were we to follow the

To proceed now with the Treatise too frequent method of Reviewers, under review : we have already and gloss over or conceal the defects given our opinion of its general of authors to whom they are under character; but it may nevertheless obligation, or with whom they en- be well, before we enter upon the joy personal friendship, we should exposition, to give the sum of the suppress all that our own mind Author's own statement of the cannot concur with, and dwell ex

principles on which he conducts it. clusively upon the numerous in

* ]st. I assign to the same symbols the stances in which we coincide: for

same meaning; or where there is any we have gratefully to acknowledge variation of signification, I endeavour to ourselves indebted to Mr. Cuning- fix the meaning on the principles of anahame for his christian kindness and logy.--2nd. I apply no prophecy of the liberality towards our undertaking. Apocalypse to more than one series of

events : i. e. I deny that the principle of a But if such a course is at all times

first and secondary sense, however it may improper when religious topics are be admitted in interpreting the unchronothe subject of discussion, it would be logical prophecies of Isaiah, Jeremiah, &c. doubly so in a work professing

can be allowed in explaining the Apoca

lypse.—3rd. I apply symbols of the same impartially to investigate topics, nature, or homogeneous, to similar objects. which among christians are for the

-4th. I do not attempt to explain every most part controverted, and often minute part of a symbol, but content myconsidered obscure : it is a course self with endeavouring to seize its great

This rule is well known, and indeed which, by destroying the independence of our opinions, would carefully observed by all judicious exposi

tors of the Scriptural parables; and I ultimately take from them that only consider the symbols of the Apocalypse in value which they possess; and thus the light of prophetical parables.-5th.

fore us.


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