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ANIMISM (continued).


Doctrine of SouPs Existence after Death ; its main divisions, Trans-

migration and Future Life—Transmigration of Souls: re-birth

in Human and Animal Bodies, transference to Plants and Objects

—Resurrection of Body scarcely held in savage religion—Future

Life: a ^neral though not universal doctrine of low races—

Continued existence, rather than Immortality; second death of

Soul—Ghost of Dead remains on earth, especially if corpse un-

buried ; its attachment to bodily remains—Feasts of the Dead . 1


ANIMISM (continued).

Journey of the Soul to the Land of the Dead—Visits by the Living

to the Regions of Departed Souls—Connexion of such legends

with myths of Sunset: the Land of the Dead thus imagined as

in the West—Realization of current religious ideas, whether of

savage or civilized theology, in narratives of visits to the Regions

of Souls—Localization of the Future Life—Distant earthly

region: Earthly Paradise, Isles of the Blest—Subterranean

Hades or Sheol—Sun, Moon, Stars—Heaven—Historical course of

belief as to such localization—Nature of Future Life—Continu-

ance-theory, apparently original, belongs especially to the lower

races — Transitional theories — Retribution-theiry, apparently

derived, belongs especially to the higher races—Doctrine of Moral

Retribution as developed in the higher culture—Survey of Doc-

trine of Future State, from savage to civilized stages—Its prac-

tical effect on the sentiment and conduct of Mankind . . 14



ANIMISM (continued).

Animism, expanding from the Doctrine of Souls to the wider

Doctrine of Spirits, becomes a complete Philosophy of Natural

Religion-Definition of Spirits similar to and apparently

modelled on that of Souls—Transition-stage: classes of Souls

passing into good and evil Demons—Manes-Worship—Doctrino

of Embodiment of Spirits in human, animal, vegetable, and

inert bodies—Demoniacal Possession and Obsession as causes of

Disease and Oracle-inspiration—Fetishism—Disease-spirits em-

bodied—Ghost attached to remains of Corpse— Fetish produced

by a Spirit embodied in, attached to, or operating through, an

Object—Analogues of Fetish-doctrine in Modern Science—Stock-

and-Stone-Worship—Idolatry—Survival of Animistic Phraseo-

logy in modern Language—Decline of Animistic theory of

Nature 108


ANIMISM (continued)'

Spirits regarded as personal causes of Phenomena of the World—Per-

vading Spirits as goo^ ar.i evil Demons affecting man—Spirits

manifest in Dreams and Visions: Nightmares; Incuhi »ud

Succubi ; Vampires; Visionary Demons—Demons of dantno«s

repelled by fire—Demons otherwise manifest: seen by animais;

detected by footprints— Spirits conceived and treated as material

—Guardian and Familiar Spirits—Nature-Spirits; historical

course of the doctrine—Spirits of Volcanos, Whirlpools, Rocks-

Water-Worship: Spirits of Wells, Streams, Lakes, eto.—Tree-

Worship: Spirits embodied in or inhabiting Trees; Spirits of

Groves and Forests—Animal-Worship: Animals worshipped,

directly, or as incarnations or representatives of Deities j Totem-

Worship; Serpent-Worship—Species-Deities; their relation to

Archetypal Ideas . 184


ANIMISM (continual).

Higher Deities of Polytheism—Human characteristics applied to

Deity—Lords of Spiritual Hierarchy—Polytheism: its course of

development in lower and higher Culture—Principles of its inves-

tigation ; classification of Deities according to central concep-

tions of their significance and function—Heaven-god—Rain-god

—Thunder-god —Wind-god—Earth god'—Water-god — Sea-god —

Fire-god—Sun-god—Moon-god 247


Religions Rites: their purpose practical or symbolic—Prayer: its

continuity from low to high levels of Culture; its lower phases

Unethical; its higher phases Ethical—Sacrifice: its original Gift-

theory passes into the Homage-theory and the Abnegation-theory

—Manner of reception of Sacrifice by Deity—Material Transfer to

elements, fetish-animals, priests; consumption of substance by

deity or idol ; offering of blood; transmission by fire; incense

Essential Transfer: consumption of essence, savour, etc.—

Spiritual Transfer: consumption or transmission of soul of offer-

ing—Motive of sacrificer—Transition from Gifttheory to Ifomage-

theory: insignificant and formal offerings; sacrificial banquets—

Abnegation-theory; sacrifice of children, etc.—Sacrifice of Sub-

stitutes; part given for whole; inferior life for superior; effigies

—Modern survival of Sacrifice in folklore and religion—Fasting,

as a means of producing ecstatic vision ; its course from lower

to higher Culture - Drugs used to produce ecstacy—Swoons and

fits indued for religious purposes— Orientation: its relation to

Sun-myth and Sun-worship; rules of East and West as to burial

of dead, position of worship, and structure of temple— Lustration





Doctrine of Soul s Existence after Death; its main divisions, Transmigration and Future Life—Transmigration of Souls: re-birth in Human and Animal Bodies, transference to Plants and Objects—Resurrection of Body scarcely held in savage religion—Future Life: a general though not universal doctrine of low races—Continued existence, rather than Immortality; second death of Soul—Ghost of Dead remains on earth, especially if corpse unburied ; ita attachment to bodily remains— Feasts of the Dead.

Having thus traced upward from the lower levels of culture the opinions of mankind as to the souls, spirits, ghosts, or phantoms, considered to belong to men, to the lower animals, to plants, and to things, we are now prepared to investigate one of the great religious doctrines of mankind, the belief in the soul's continued existence in a Life after Death. Here let us once more call to mind the consideration which cannot be too strongly put forward, that the doctrine of a Future Life as held by the lower races is the all but necessary outcome of savage Animism. The evidence that the lower races believe the figures of the dead seen in dreams and visions to be their surviving souls, not only goes far to account for the comparative universality of their belief in the continued existence of the soul after the death of the body, but it gives the key to many of their speculations on the nature of this existence, speculations Vol. n. a

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