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The question has to be raised, to which of these three categories it belongs :-is it a product of the earlier theology, yet sound enough to maintain a rightful place in the later ;is it derived from a cruder original, yet so modified as to become a proper representative of more advanced views ?-is it a survival from a lower stage of thought, imposing on the credit of the higher by virtue not of inherent truth but of ancestral belief? These are queries the very asking of which starts trains of thought which candid minds should be encouraged to pursue, leading as they do toward the attainment of such measure of truth as the intellectual condition of our age fits us to assimilate. In the scientific study of religion, which now shows signs of becoming for many a year an engrossing subject of the world's thought, the decision must not rest with a council in which the theologian, the metaphysician, the biologist, the physicist, exclusively take part. The historian and the ethnographer must be called upon to show the hereditary standing of each opinion and practice, and their enquiry must go back as far as antiquity or savagery can show a vestige, for there seems no human thought so primitive as to have lost its bearing on our own thought, nor so ancient as to have broken its connexion with our own life.

It is our happiness to live in one of those eventful periods of intellectual and moral history, when the oft-closed gates of discovery and reform stand open at their widest. How long these good days may last, we cannot tell. It may be that the increasing power and range of the scientific method, with its stringency of argument and constant check of fact, may start the world on a more steady and continuous course of progress than it has moved on heretofore. But if history is to repeat itself according to precedent, we must look forward to stiffer duller ages of traditionalists and commentators, when the great thinkers of our time will be appealed to as authorities by men who slavishly accept their tenets, yet cannot or dare not follow their methods through better evidence to higher ends. In either case, it is for those

among us whose minds are set on the advancement of civilization, to make the most of present opportunities, that even when in future years progress is arrested, it may be arrested at the higher level. To the promoters of what is sound and reformers of what is faulty in modern culture, ethnography has double help to give. To impress men's 'minds with a doctrine of development, will lead them in all honour to their ancestors to continue the progressive work of past ages, to continue it the more vigorously because light has increased in the world, and where barbaric hordes groped blindly, cultured men can often move onward with clear view. It is a harsher, and at times even painful, office of ethnography to expose the remains of crude old culture which have passed into harmful superstition, and to mark these out for destruction. Yet this work, if less genial, is not less urgently needful for the good of mankind. Thus, active at once in aiding progress and in removing hindrance, the science of culture is essentially a reformer's science.


Abacus, i. 270.
Accent, i. 173.
Acephali, i. 390.
Achilles :--vulnerable spot, i. 358;

dream, i. 444; in Hades, ii. 31.
Acosta, on American archetypal dei-

ties, ii. 244.
Adam, ii. 312, 315.
Elian, i. 372, ii. 423; on Kynoke-

phali, i. 389.
Æolus, i. 361, ii. 269.
Æsculapius :-incubation in temple,

ii. 121; serpents of, ii, 241.
Affirmative and negative particles, i.

Afghans, race-genealogy of, i. 403.
Agni, ii. 281, 386.
Agreement in custom and opinion nc

proof of soundness, i. 13.
Agriculture, god of, ii. 305.
Ahriman, ii. 328.
Ahura Mazda, ii. 283, 328, 355.
Alexander the Great, i. 395, ii. 138.
Alfonso di Liguori, St., bilocation of,

i. 447.
Alger, Rev. W. R., i. 471, 484, ii. 83.
Algonquin languages, animate and in-

animate genders, i. 302.
Ali as Thunder-god, ü. 264.
All Souls', feast of dead, ii. 37.
Allegory, i. 277, 408.
Aloysius Gonzaga, St., letters to, ii.

Alphabet, i. 171 ; by raps, i. 145; as

numeral series, i. 258.
Amatongo, i. 443, ii. 115, 131, 313,

367, 387.
Amenti, Egyptian dead-land, ii. 67,

81, 96, 295, 311.
Amphidromia, ii. 439.
Analogy, myth product of, i. 297.
Ancestors, eponymic myths of, i. 398,

ii. 234; worship of divine, ii. 113,
311; see Manes-worship, Totem-

Ancestral names indicate re-birth of

souls, ii. 5.
Ancestral tablet, Chinese, ii. 118,


Andaman Islanders, mythic origin of,

i. 369, 389.
Angang, omen from meeting animal,

i. 120.
Angel, see Spirit; of death, i. 295,

ii. 196, 322.
Angelo, St., legend of, i. 295.
Anima, animus, i. 433, 470.
Animals :-omens from, i. 120 ; calls

to and cries of, 177; imitative
names from cries, etc., 206; treated
as human, i. 467, ii. 230; souls of,
i. 469; future life and funeral sa-
crifice of, i. 469, ii. 75, etc.; entry
and transmigration of souls into
and possession by spirits, ii. 7, 152,
161, 175, 231, 2+1, 378, etc.; dis-
eases transferred to, ii. 147; see

spirits invisible to men, ii. 196.
Animals, sacred, incarnations or re-

presentatives of deities, ii. 231; re-

ceive and consume sacrifices, 378.
Animal-worship, i. 467, ii. 229, 378.
Animism :-defined, i. 424; is the

philosophy of religion, i. 426, ii.
356; is a primitive scientific sys-
tein of man and nature based on
the conception of the human soul,
i. 428, 499, ii. 108, 181, 356 ; its
stages of development, survival,
and decline, i. 499, ii. 181, 356.

See Soul, Spirit, etc., etc.
Anra-Mainyu, ii. 328.
Antar, tumulus of, ii. 29.
Anthropomorphic conceptions of

spirit and deity, ii. 110, 184, 247,

Antipodes, i. 392.
Ape-men, i. 379; apes degenerate

men, 376; can but will not talk,

Apollo, ii. 294.
Apophis-serpent, ii. 241.
Apotheosis, ii. 120.
Apparitional soul, i. 428; its likenes

to body, 450.
Apparitions, i. 143, 440, 445, 478, ii.

24, 187, 410, etc.
Archetypal deities and ideas, ii. 243.

Ares, ii. 308.

Blemmyæ, headless men, i. 390.
Argos Panoptes, i. 320.

Blood :-related to soul, i. 431; re-
Argyll, Duke of, on priinuval man,i.60. vives ghosts, ii. 48; offered to
Arithmetic, see Counting.

deities, 381; substitute for life,
Arriero, i. 191.

Arrows, magic, i 345.

Blood-reil stain, myths to account
Artemidorus, on dream-omens, i. 122. for, i. 406.
Artemis, ii 302.

Bloodsuckers, ii. 191.
Aryan race :--no savage tribe among, Blow-tube, i. 67.

i. 49; antiquity of culture, i. 54. Bo tree, ii. 218.
Ascendant in horoscope, i. 129.

Boar's head, ii. 408.
Ashera, worship of, ii. 166

Boats without iron, myth on, i. 374.
Ashes strewn for spirit-footprints, i. Bochica, i 363, ii 290.
455, ii. 197.

Boehme, Jacob, on nian's primitive
Asmodeus. ii. 254.

knowledge, ii. 185.
Association of ideas, foundation of Bolotu, ii. 6-2, 62, 310.
magic, i. 11'i.

Boni Homines, i. 77.
Astrology. i 128, 291.

Book of Dead, Egipt'an, ii. 13, 93.
Atahentsic, ii. -99, 309, 323.

Boomerang, i. 17.
Atahocan, ii. 321, 339.

Boreas, i. 362, ii. 268.
Atavism, explained by transmigra- Eosjesman, etymology of word, i.
tion, ii. 3.

Atheist, use of word, i. 420.

Bow and arrow, i. 7, 15, 64, 73.
Augury, etc., i. 119. See ii. 179, 231. Brahma, ii. 354, 4:25.
Augustine, St., i. 199, 44), ii. 54, Brahmanism:- funeral rites, i. 465,

427 ; on dreams, i. 441; on incubi, etc. ; transmigration, ii. 9, 20,
ii. 190.

97; manes-worship. 119; stone-
Augustus, genius of, ii. 202.

worship, 161; idolatry, 178 ;
Avatars, ii. 239.

animal.worship, 238; sun-worship.
Avernus, Lake, ii. 45.

292; orientation, 425; lustration,
Ayenbite of Inwyt, i. 456.


Breath, its relation to soul, i. 432.
Baal Shemesh, ii. 295.

Bride-capture, game of, i. 73.
Bacon, Lord, on allegory, i. 277. Bridge, first crossing, i. 106; of dead,
Bætyle, animated stunes, ii. 166.

i. 495, ii. 50, 94, 100. etc.
Baku, burning wells of, ii. 282.

Brinton, Dr. D. G., i 53, 301, ii. 90,
Baldr, i. 461.

312; on dualistic myths, ii. 320.
Bale, Bishop, i. 384; on witchcraft, i. Britain, eponymic kings of, i. 400;

voyage of souls to, ii. 64,
Bands, clerical, i. 18.

Brosses, C. de, on degeneration and
Baptism, ii 440; orientation in, 427. development, i. 36; origin of lan-
Baring-Gould, Rev. S., on werewolves, guage. 161; fetishism, ii. 144;
i. 311.

species-deities, 246.
Bastian, Prof Adolf, Mensch in der Browne, Sir Thos., on magnetic

Geschichte, i. vi.; ii. 209, 222, 242, mountain, i. 375.
280, etc.

Brutus, evil genius of, ii. 203.
Baudet, etymology of, i. 413.

Brynhild, i. 465.
Beal, ii. 252, 408.

Buck, buck, game of, i. 74.
Bear, Great, i. 359.

Buddha, transmigrations of, i. 414, ü.
Beast-fables, i. 381,409.

Bees, telling, i. 287.

Euddhism :-culture-tradition, i. 41;
Bel, ii, 293, 3-0, 384.

saints rise in air, i. 149: transmi-
Berkeley, Bishop, on ideas, i. 499; on gration. ii. 11, 20, 97; nirvana, ii.
force and matter, ii. 160.

79; tree-worship, i. 476, ii zid
Bewitching by objects, i. 116.

serpent.worship, 240 ; religious
Bible and key, ordeal by, i. 128.

formulas, 372.
Bilocation, i. 447

Buildings, victim immured in founda-
Bird, of thunder, i. 362; bird conveys tion, i. 104, etc.; niythic founders
spirit, ii. 161, 175,

of, i. 394.

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