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The question has to be raised, to which of these three categories it belongs :-is it a product of the earlier theology, yet sound enough to maintain a rightful place in the later ;is it derived from a cruder original, yet so modified as to become a proper representative of more advanced views ?-is it a survival from a lower stage of thought, imposing on the credit of the higher by virtue not of inherent truth but of ancestral belief? These are queries the very asking of which starts trains of thought which candid minds should be encouraged to pursue, leading as they do toward the attainment of such measure of truth as the intellectual condition of our age fits us to assimilate. In the scientific study of religion, which now shows signs of becoming for many a year an engrossing subject of the world's thought, the decision must not rest with a council in which the theologian, the metaphysician, the biologist, the physicist, exclusively take part. The historian and the ethnographer must be called upon to show the hereditary standing of each opinion and practice, and their enquiry must go back as far as antiquity or savagery can show a vestige, for there seems no human thought so primitive as to have lost its bearing on our own thought, nor so ancient as to have broken its connexion with our own life.
It is our happiness to live in one of those eventful periods of intellectual and moral history, when the oft-closed gates of discovery and reform stand open at their widest. How long these good days may last, we cannot tell. It may be that the increasing power and range of the scientific method, with its stringency of argument and constant check of fact, may start the world on a more steady and continuous course of progress than it has moved on heretofore. But if history is to repeat itself according to precedent, we must look forward to stiffer duller ages of traditionalists and commentators, when the great thinkers of our time will be appealed to as authorities by men who slavishly accept their tenets, yet cannot or dare not follow their methods through better evidence to higher ends. In either case, it is for those
among us whose minds are set on the advancement of civilization, to make the most of present opportunities, that even when in future years progress is arrested, it may be arrested at the higher level. To the promoters of what is sound and reformers of what is faulty in modern culture, ethnography has double help to give. To impress men's minds with a doctrine of development, will lead them in all honour to their ancestors to continue the progressive work of past ages, to continue it the more vigorously because light has increased in the world, and where barbaric hordes groped blindly, cultured men can often move onward with clear view. It is a harsher, and at times even painful, office of ethnography to expose the remains of crude old culture which have passed into harmful superstition, and to mark these out for destruction. Yet this work, if less genial, is not less urgently needful for the good of mankind. Thus, active at once in aiding progress and in removing hindrance, the science of culture is essentially a reformer's science.
Abacus, i. 270.
dream, i. 444; in Hades, ii. 81.
ties, ii. 244.
phali, i, 389.
ii. 121; serpents vf, ii. 241.
proof of soundness, i. 13.
animate genders, i. 302.
numeral series, i. 258.
81, 96, 295, 311.
ii. 234; worship of divine, ii. 113,
souls, ii. 5.
Andaman Islanders, mythic origin of,
i. 369, 389.
ii. 196, 322.
to and cries of, 177; imitative
spirits invisible to men, ii. 196.
presentatives of deities, ii. 231; re-
ceive and consume sacrifices, 378.
philosophy of religion, i. 426, ii.
See Soul, Spirit, etc., etc.
spirit and deity, ii. 110, 184, 247,
to body, 450.
24, 187, 410, etc.
Ares, ii. 308.
Blemmyæ, headless men, i. 390.
Blood :-related to soul, i. 431; re-
deities, 381; substitute for life,
Blood-reil stain, myths to account
Bloodsuckers, ii. 191.
i. 49; antiquity of culture, i. 64. Bo tree, ii. 218.
Boar's head, ii. 408.
Boats without iron, myth on, i. 374.
Boehme, Jacob, on man's primitive
knowledge, ii. 185.
Boni Homines, i. 77.
Book of Dead, Egipt'an, ii. 13, 95.
Boomerang, i. 7.
Boreas, i. 302, ii, 268.
Bow and arrow, i. 7, 15, 64, 73.
427 ; on dreams, i. 441; on incubi, etc. ; transmigration, ii. 9, 20,
97; manes-worship. 119; stone-
worship, 161 ; idolatry, 178 ;
animal worship, 238; sun-worship.
292; orientation, 425; lustration,
Breath, its relation to soul, i. 432.
Bride-capture, game of, i. 73.
i. 495, ii. 50, 94, 100. etc.
Brinton, Dr. 1), G., i 53, 361, ii. 90,
312; on dualistic myths, ii. 320.
voyage of souls to, ii. 64.
Brosses, C. de, on degeneration and
Brutus, evil genius of, ii. 203.
Brynhild, i. 465.
Buck, buck, game of, i. 74.
Buddha, transmigrations of, i. 414, ii.
Euddhism :-culture-tradition, i. 41;
saints rise in air, i. 149 : transmi-
79; tree-worship, i. 470, ii zid
serpent worship, 240 ; religious
Buildings, victim immured in founda-
I of, i. 394..