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THE SECOND VOLUME.
RITES AND CEREMONIES.
Religions Rites: their purpose practical or symbolic—Prayer: its
continuity from low to high levels of Culture; its lower phases
Unethical; its higher phases Ethical—Sacrifice: its original Gift-
theory passes into the Homage-theory and the Abnegation-theory
—Manner of reception of Sacrifice by Deity—Material Transfer to
elements, fetish-animals, priests; consumption of substance by
deity or idol ; offering of blood; transmission by fire; incense
Essential Transfer: consumption of essence, savour, etc.—
Spiritual Transfer: consumption or transmission of soul of offer-
ing—Motive of sacrificer—Transition from Gifttheory to Ifomage-
theory: insignificant and formal offerings; sacrificial banquets—
Abnegation-theory; sacrifice of children, etc.—Sacrifice of Sub-
stitutes; part given for whole; inferior life for superior; effigies
—Modern survival of Sacrifice in folklore and religion—Fasting,
as a means of producing ecstatic vision ; its course from lower
to higher Culture - Drugs used to produce ecstacy—Swoons and
fits indued for religious purposes— Orientation: its relation to
Sun-myth and Sun-worship; rules of East and West as to burial
of dead, position of worship, and structure of temple— Lustration
Doctrine of Soul s Existence after Death; its main divisions, Transmigration and Future Life—Transmigration of Souls: re-birth in Human and Animal Bodies, transference to Plants and Objects—Resurrection of Body scarcely held in savage religion—Future Life: a general though not universal doctrine of low races—Continued existence, rather than Immortality; second death of Soul—Ghost of Dead remains on earth, especially if corpse unburied ; ita attachment to bodily remains— Feasts of the Dead.
Having thus traced upward from the lower levels of culture the opinions of mankind as to the souls, spirits, ghosts, or phantoms, considered to belong to men, to the lower animals, to plants, and to things, we are now prepared to investigate one of the great religious doctrines of mankind, the belief in the soul's continued existence in a Life after Death. Here let us once more call to mind the consideration which cannot be too strongly put forward, that the doctrine of a Future Life as held by the lower races is the all but necessary outcome of savage Animism. The evidence that the lower races believe the figures of the dead seen in dreams and visions to be their surviving souls, not only goes far to account for the comparative universality of their belief in the continued existence of the soul after the death of the body, but it gives the key to many of their speculations on the nature of this existence, speculations Vol. n. a