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A DESCRIPTION OF SOME USEFUL PLANTS.
1st Class.---Thé ginger plant belongs to the first class, which is called monandria, where does it grow? In the East Indies, and rises in round stalks about four feet above the ground.
How long does it live? One year. What is done with it then? The roots are dug up, cleansed and dried, and put in bags to sell.
Is it brought to this country? It is, and when it is ground fine, is used in making gingerbread and beer.
Does the arrow root plant belong to this class? It does; and is ground into flour to make food for sick people.
In what country does the arrow root grow? In America.
2d Class.--To which class do pepper plants belong? The second class, called diandria.
Where do they grow? In the East and West Indies.
For what is pepper useful? The pepper is ground and used to season meat and broth.
3d Class.--Grass belongs to the third class, which is called triandria.
Does grass form the covering of the earth? It does, and is like a rich carpet, for us to walk on.
For what is it useful? It is food for animals and
How many kinds of grass are there? Three hundred.
How may grass be known?. It has a straight hollow stalk with long tapering leaves.
What are the grasses which are used for food ? Wheat, rye, corn, barley and oats.
For what are wheat, rye and corn used? To make bread.
For what is barley used? It is made into malt for beer
Where do people use oats' for making bread? In Scotland and Ireland.
What are oats used for in this country? For the food of horses.
The sugar cane belongs to the 2d class also; where does it grow? In the East and West Indies.
How high does it rise? Ten feet.
For what is it useful? Sugar and molasses are made of the juice of this plant.
The beautiful tamarind tree belongs to the 2d class; where does it grow? In the East and West Indies.
For what is it useful? The fruit is preserved for the use of the sick.
4th Class.---Madder belongs to the fourth class, which is called tertandria.
Where does madder grow? In the west of England.
For what is it useful? The root of madder will color red.
5th Class. The fifth class is called pentandria; a greater part of the plants belong to this class.
Currants belong to this class; do they grow in this country? They grow in almost all gardens in this country.
For what are they useful? They ripen very quick after the summer comes, and are useful for sauce, and are used in making pies, jellies and wine.
Does the potato belong to this class? It does.
6th Class.-What is the sixth class called? Hexandria.
What belong to this class? A great many beautiful flowers.
Do flowers soon fade and die? They do; many flowers fade, before one day is gone.
What are sometimes called plants and flowers? Children and youth.
When are such plants and flowers beautiful? When humility and love are in the heart.
Do such plants and flowers soon fade? They do; for childhood and youth are vanity:
What does the bible say about this Man cometh forth as a flower and is cut down.
The rice plant belongs to the sixth class; where does that grow? In warm countries; it grows best where the ground is covered with water a part of the time.
For what is it used? For common food.
Is it brought to this country for our use? It is, and is used in making puddings.
Where does cinnamon come from? Cinnamon is the bark of a small laurel tree which grows in the East Indies, and belongs to the 6th class. It is cut lengthwise, stripped from the trees, and dried in sand, where it turns a red color, and curls like a quill.
Camphor belongs to the 6th class; where is that found? In Japan.
How is it obtained? It is pecked out of the knots of the camphor tree.
Class 10.-The mahogany tree belongs to the tenth class, which is called decandria. Where does it grow? In the warmest parts of America.
Is the wood beautiful? It is, and will take a fine polish. It is used in making tables, bureaus, and other furniture.
The lignum vitæ belongs to this class, where does that grow? It is a large tree which grows in the West Indies; the wood of it is so heavy it will sink in water.
Class 12.—The almond tree belongs to the twelfth class which is called icosandria.
Where does the almond tree grow? In Barbary; and bears the nuts called almonds, which are brought to this country and sold,
The clove tree belongs to this class; where does that grow? In the East Indies.
What are the cloves that are brought to this country and sold? They are the flower of the clove tree, picked before they are blown, and dried in the smoke, which makes them almost black.
For what are cloves used? They are used as spice for pickles and pies.
The laurel is of this class; where does it grow? In the West Indies. It rises from 30 to 40 feet.
What grows upon this kind of laurel? Berries called pimento or allspice. The tree and fruit are very fragrant.
For what are the berries used? They are dried and used in making cakes and pies.
Class 13.- The white poppy belongs to the thirteenth class, which is called polyandria.
For what is this plant used? Opium is made of the milky juice which runs out of the plant when it is cut.
For what is opium used? It is a medicine which will remove pain and cause sleep.
The tea plant belongs to this class; where does it grow? In China and Japan.
How tall is the tea plant? It rises 10 feet high; the flowers are white and the leaves are an inch and an half long
How are the leaves prepared for sale? They are gathered when the tree is three years old, and heated in an iron
pan; then they are spread out and rolled in the hands and cooled, and the same thing is done again, and again, until they are dry.
Class 16.—The cotton plant is of the 16th class, which is called monadelphia.
Where does the cotton plant grow? In the East and West Indies and in the southern states.
What part of the plant produces the cotton? The seed vessel, which is filled with this white downy substance.
What use is made of cotton ? It is spun and wove into cloth.
What kind of cloths are made of cotton? Calico, cambric, muslin, nankin, and many other kinds.
Of what kind of cotton is nankin made? It is made of yellow cotton which grows in a part of China.
Class 18.-The orange and lemon trees belong to the 18th class, which is called polyadelphia.
Where are orange and lemon trees found? They are found growing in most warm countries; the fruit which is brought to this country is picked before it becomes ripe, and is not as good as that which ripens on the trees.
Class 21.--The oak tree belongs to the 21st class, which is called monoecia.
What can you tell me of the oak? It is a very large tree and lives a great many years.
For what is the wood of this tree particularly useful? Building ships.
For what is the bark used? Tanning leather.
What are the nuts called, which grow upon the oak? Acorns, they are food for animals.
For what is the saw-dust of this wood used? It is used for dying fustians, and drab colors.
Is the cork which is used in stopping bottles obtained from one species of the oak? It is. Cork is the outer bark of an oak, which grows in the south of Europe and north of Africa.
How old is this tree, before it produces the cork? Twenty-five years, after that it will produce good cork every tenth year, until it is nearly 200 years old.
The mulberry tree belongs to this class, where was that found? It was first found in China, it is now cultivated, in various parts of the world.
For what is it used? The berries are very sweet, they are food for birds, the leaves are used to feed silk worms.
The cocoa nut tree belongs to this class, where is that found? In the East Indies.
How high does it grow? Sometimes it is seen 60 feet high, and makes a very grand appearance; for its leaves are from 10 to 15 feet in length.
How large are the cocoa nuts? As large as a man's head.
The bread fruit tree belongs to this class, where is that found? It is found on the islands in the Southern and Pacific Oceans.
For what is it useful? The fruit, which is as large as a child's head, is good for food. The people of those