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What is it to say a thing is good or bad without comparing it? It is called the positive degree.
What is it when we compare one thing with another, and say it is better, or harder, or prettier? It is called the comparative degree.
What is it when we say, “ the best,” or “ the hardest,” or “ the prettiest?”. It is called the superlative degree.
How many are the degrees of comparison and what are they called? They are thrce, positive, comparative, superlative.
(Expressing the degrees of comparison forms a pleasing exercise for children.]
What is the use of the word is? It is used to tell us of a thing, that it is.
What is the use of the word live? It is used to tell us in what state of being a thing is, as it lives, and is not dead.
What is the use of the word sit? It is used to tell of a person or thing, in what state of being it is, as, John sits, and does not stand.
What is the use of the word sleep? It is used to tell us of a person or thing, in what state of being it is, as, the babe sleeps, and is not awake. What is the use of the word run?
It tells us of persons or things, that they go rapidly; as, boys run, rivers run. What is the use of the word sero?
It tells us of persons, what they are doing; as, tailors sew and make clothes.
What is the use of the word crowded? It tells us of persons, what they suffer; as, the children are crowded on the small bench.
Here are words which tell us of things, what is their state of being, what they are doing, and what they are suffering. These words form a large class of very important words; will you tell me what this class is called? Verb.
Some verbs express an action which is related to two things, viz. It depends on the thing that does the action, and affects the thing to which the action is done; as, John cuts the wood. What are such verbs called? Active.
What is the person or thing which does the act called? The agent-John cuts.
What is the person or thing called, which the action affects? It is the object; as, John cuts the wood.
Some verbs specify that an act is received; as, the wood is cut, the negroes were driven. · Here the thing named, is not the one that does the act, but that which receives it.
What is this kind of verb called? Passive.
Some verbs express an act that does not pass from the one that does it, to another object; but relates to the agent only; as, Mary laughs, Samuel jumps, the wind whistles.
What is this kind of verb called? Neuter.
Will you name the three kinds of verbs which we have described? Active, passive, neuter.
When only an act is expressed without referring to the one that performs it, as, to worite is improving, to ride is pleasing; what is this manner of expressing the verb called? The infinitive mode.
When it is only specified that one performs an act; as, I write, John reads, the wind blows, what is the manner of using the verb called? The indicative mode.
When a command is given, or entreaty made, as, Jane come here, Mary do not be troubled, what is the manner of using the verb called? The imperative mode.
What is the use of the word may, when placed with a verb; as, I may take that map, Lucy may read? It signifies liberty to do something.
What is the use of the word can, when placed with a verb; as you can read, you can say lessons, or you can sing? It signifies that one is able to do things.
What is the use of the word must, when placed with a verb; as you must obey your teacher; you must have sleep and food to support life? It specifies what one is obliged to do, or have.
These little words denote the liberty, ability, and obligation of an action; what are these circumstances of the verb called? The potential mode.
What is the meaning of the word if ? It denotes a condition; as, if Mary comes, I shall play with her.
The act is here represented as uncertain and depending on another action; what is this manner of using the verb called? The subjunctive mode.
We have now described five different modes of the verb; will you repeat them? Infinitive, indicative, imperative, potential, and subjunctive.
Is the verb so formed as to denote the time when the act is done? It is; as,
go to school to-day; I went to school yesterday, and expect I shall go to school to-mor
When an act is represented as now doing; as, Mary reads, John plays; what is the time of the verb called? Present tense.
When it is expressed that one has performed an act without specifying the time; as, Mary told the truth; John killed a bird, what is the time of the verb called? Imperfect tense.
When an act is represented as done; as, the carpenter has made the house, John has broken the window; what is the time of the verb called? Perfect tense.
When it is denoted that one action was performed before another; as, Mary had finished her sewing before Jane came, John had cut all the wood before it rained; what is the time of the verb called? Pluperfect tense.
When it is expressed that an act will be performed in a time that has not yet come; as, I shall ride in a coach to-morrow, John will make my sled next week; what is the time of the verb called? First future tense.
When it is designated that an act shall be performed before, or at the time of another act; as, I shall have learned my lesson before the school is closed, I shall have eaten my dinner and made ready for school when the bell rings; what is the time of the verb called? Second future tense.
We have now described six tenses of the verb; will you repeat them?' Present, imperfect, perfect, pluperfect, first future, second future.
Of what use are the words, running, swimming, laughing, crying, singing? They help to describe persons or things by designating what their actions are; as, the laughing boy, the singing bird.
These words which help to describe nouns by telling what they do, form a small class of words. What is this class of words called? Participle.
They are called participle because they participate (or partake) of the nature of words which belong to other classes. What other classes is the participle most like? The verb and adjective.
Does the action expressed by a participle sometimes fall on an object? It does; as, Sarah, when singing the hymn, made sweet music.
Lesson XXI. -ADVERB.
Of what use is the word badly? It tells how something is done; as, badly written.
Of what use is the word nobly? It expresses the manner of an action; as, James conducted nobly.
Of what use is the word, shamefully? It expresses the manner of actions, as, Emma fretted and teased shamefully
Of what use are the words, here, there, and where? They designate the place of an action; as, the children
sing here; the house was built there; the street where you live is pleasant.
Of what use are the words, now, soon, long ago? They designate the time of an action.
Of what use are the words, much, well, tolerably, extremely? They express the degree of actions; as, Sarah sung tolerably well; Lucy was much loved; the child was hurt extremely.
What is this class of words called, which are used to designate the manner, place, time, and degree, of actions? Adverb.
Lucy came soon, John came sooner, but Mary, came soonest, what is this varying the adverb called? Degrees of comparison.
[The children will readily learn to compare the adverb with a little instruction.]
Are adverbs often used to qualify adjectives? They are; as, very loud ;-extremely high.
Are they sometimes used to qualify other adverbs? They are; as, she viewed the picture very attentively. They were soon here.
Of what use is the word, and ? It is used to join two or more words together; as, Henry ran and jumped and fell down.
Are there other words of a similar use: There are; as, Lucy, or James, or John must have done it.
Are not these words also used to join sentences? They are; as, butter is made of cream, and cheese is made of milk. We must have food to eat or we shall die of hunger.
What is this small class of words called, which are used to join words and sentences? Conjunctions. Do some conjunctions join sentences, where the sense is disjoined? They do; as, John must go to school, or he will waste his time. Lucy will go, or she will not go.
What are the conjunctions which are used in this way called? Disjunctive conjunctions.
Do some conjunctions connect words and sentences