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which convey the same sense? They do; as, Mary, and Lucy, and Sarah, are good children; Mary sewed, and made an apron.
What are conjunctions called, that join words and sentences which convey the same sense ? Copulative conjunctions.
Must nouns which are joined by a copulative conjunction be in the same case? They must or it will be bad language; as I saw Luther and Sarah; him and she were there, Cor.- I saw Luther and Sarah; he and she were there.
Must verbs which are joined by copulative conjunctions, be of the same mode and tense? They must; as, Henry reads and writes. If the mode and tense is not alike; as, Henry reads, and may have written, it is bad language.
Must participles which are joined by these conjunctions be of the same kind? They must; as, the party are eating and drinking. The party have eaten and drinking, is bad language.
Lesson XXIII.---PREPOSITION. What is the use of the words, to, on, unto, for? They are used to express the relation which one thing has to another; as, give the pencil to him.
Could not the relation be perceived without these little words? It would not; as, a squirrel, a tree.
How can that sentence be formed so as to show what the squirrel has to do with the tree? The little word on must be used; as, a squirrel on a tree.
What is this class of little words called, which are used to show the relation which one thing has to another? Preposition.
Must these words which are used to show the relation of things have an object? They must; for if a thing is related there must be another thing for it to be related to; as, there is a tree in—I saw John with
How can these sentences be formed so as to show the object of the relation? There is a tree in the garden, I saw John with James. These nouns, garden and James, are the objects, not of action but of relation.
In what case is the noun which is the object of a preposition? Objective case.
Of what use are the words Oh!- O! alas! They are used to denote sudden-or strong feeling of surprise, wonder or sorrow. This kind of words forms a small class; will
tell me what it is called? Interjection.
Have interjections any connexion with other words? Pronouns and nouns are sometimes placed with them; as, ah me! O ye hypocrites! O woman!
When pronouns of the first person follow the interjection, in what case must they be?. Objective; as, ah me! When
pronouns of the second person follow an interjection, in what case must they be? Nominative; as, O thou greatly beloved!
REVIEW OF LESSONS IN GRAMMAR.
You have learned respecting several classes of words; you may name them. Article, noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, participle, adverb, conjunction, preposition, interjection.
You have learned of what kind of words each class is formed; of what use is it to know this? It is of use, that when I know the meaning of a word,
know to which class it belongs.
Of what use is it to know, to which class words belong?, That I may know where to place them to construct sentences according to the rules of grammar.
Of the article. you have learned, that a is called the indefinite article, and the is called the definite article,
Of what use is it to learn this? It teaches me that
when I wish to designate some particular thing or things, I must use the definite article the; as, the book with a red cover,
is mine. Is it of any farther use? It helps me to mind the rule, and place the indefinite article before singular nouns only. If I use the indefinite article before plural nouns, it makes bad language. Example.- A children are playing.–Corrected. --The children are playing,
What is the rule for the indefinite article? The indefinite article a or an belongs to nouns in the singular number only.
What is the rule for the definite article? The definite article the belongs to nouns either of the singular or plural number. Ex. -The boy drove the cows.
Of nouns you have learned that names given to individual persons or things, are called proper nouns, and that all other nouns are common nouns. Of what use is it to know this? It teaches me how to use the noun. If from learning the name of one man to be John Smith, I should call every man John Smith, it would be wrong. If from learning the name of Merrimack River, I should suppose all large streams should be Merrimack, it would be wrong, and discover much ignorance.
Of nouns you have learned that they are so formed as to designate different numbers. Of what use is it to know this? It will teach me to use them right; if I place a plural noun where I should have put a singular noun, it will make bad language; as she gave me a boxes, and I put my apple in it. Or if I use a singular for plural, it makes bad language; as, I saw two man; one was black, the other was white.
You have learned what are the first, second, and third person of nouns. Is it of any use to know this? It is; for if I misplace them, it makes bad language; Example.--He tell she
Cor.---I tell you she You have learned that some nouns and pronouns are so formed as to denote either male or female; of what use is it to know this? If I did not know it, I might use one for the other, and make gross mistakes. Ex
ample.-John and Henry are the girls I saw." Lucy is the boy which fell and hurt him. The box is pretty, she is made of paper. [To be corrected by the pupils.]
You have learned that nouns are of different cases; of what use is it to know this? It helps me to know where to place them with other words. If I place the nominative case after the verb active, it is incorrect. Ex.-Cut John the wood.
What advantage is there in learning of the possessive case? That I may know how to express it. If I place it after the thing possessed, it is wrong. Ex.--as, this is bonnet Mary's.
What is the rule for the possessive case? The possessive case is governed by the noun which follows it, that being the name of the thing possessed.
What is the advantage of learning respecting the objective case? It teaches me what words to use as objects of the preposition and active verb. If I use the nominative case for the object, and the object for the nominative, it is bad language. Example-Him gave the book to she, the wood cut John. Corrected.---She gave the book to him, John cut the wood.
What are the rules for the objective case? 1st. The objective case may be governed by a preposition. 2d. The objective case may be governed by an active participle. 3d. Active verbs govern the objective case.
You have learned that pronouns are words used instead of nouns, of what use is it to know this? It will enable me to say much about persons and things, without often repeating the same name, which would be disagreeable and incorrect. Example.-James bought a hammer, James pounded with the hammer, James hurt James with the hammer. Corrected. James bought a hammer and while he was pounding with it, he hurt himself
You have learned that pronouns have person, number, gender and case. Of what use is it to know this? It is of the same use to know these things respecting the pronoun, as the noun.
What is the rule for the pronoun? Pronouns agree
with the nouns for which they stand, in gender, numbor
You have learned that adjectives, are 'words used to describe nouns, and designate their various qualities. Of what use is it to know this? It teaches me how to use them, and to place them with the name of the thing which
they describe. If I misplace the adjective it makes bad language. Example.-A apple on a tree red. Cor.-A red apple on a tree.
What is the rule for the adjective? Rule.-Adjectives belong to the nouns which they describe.
You have learned how to compare adjectives; of what use is this? It enables mę to specify how one thing differs from another, also when one thing excoeds others.
Example.-Lucy is a good girl. Sarah is better than Mary, but Ann is the best.
You have learned, that the words used to express action, being or suffering, are verbs, of what advantage is this? I shall know what words belong to the class which is called verbs..
You have learned that verbs may be made to specify number. Of what use is it to know this? I must know this, that I may make the verb in the same number as the noun which is the agent of the verb. If I do not make them of the same number it is bad language. Example.—Mary write well, the children reads well. , Cor. -Mary writes well, the children read well.
You have learned that verbs denote the different per
What advantage is it to know this? It enables me to mind the rule. If I use a verb of a different person from the nominative it makes bad language. Example. He write a letter. I reads a letter. Corrected. -He writes a letter. I read a letter.
What is the rule for the number and person of the verb? A verb must agree with its nominative case in number and person.
You have learned that verbs are used in various modes.