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Of what advantage is it to learn this? It is necessary to express the verb in various modes to make our meaning plain; and when verbs are joined together if they are not of the same mode, they are bad language. Examples.- If Mary reads and can write very well. Corrected.-Mary can read and write very well. To read is important, but understand is more so. Cor:- To riead is important but to understand is more so.


You have learned that verbs are made to denote the various times in which actions can be performed. Of what use is it to learn this? It is necessary to specify the time of the verb, that our meaning may be known. Erample.--I go to school before the teacher came. I went to-morrow; I have been next week; I had done when I ate my breakfast; I shall go last week; I shall have gone

Corrected.-Pres. I go to school to-day. Imp. I went yesterday before the teacher. Per. I have been every day. Pluper. I had gone before you came along. First F. I shall go to-morrow.

Second F. I shall have gone before

you come. One noun is often used as the agent to several verbs. If these verbs are not in the same tense, what is the language? It is incorrect. Example. John will cut wood and plants corn and had done his play and shall have been a good boy. Corrected.—John cut wood, and planted corn, and played, and was a good boy.



Of participles you have learned that they belong to

Of what use is it to know this? It teaches me where to place them; if I should use them as belonging to the verb, I should make bad language. You have learned that participles govern the objective

Of what use is it to know this? If I should place the nominative case for the object of the participle, it would make bad language. Example.—John swinging she hurt Mary. Corrected.-John, when swinging Mary, hurt her.

Of adverbs you have learned that they are used to qualify verbs. Of what use is it for you to know this? If I should use an adverb to describe a noun it would make bad language. Example. He is a badly man. Corrected.—The man behaved badly.

What are the rules for adverbs? 1. Adverbs qualify verbs, participles, adjectives and other adverbs. 2. An adverb should not be used for an adjective, nor an adjective for an adverb.

Of conjunctions you have learned that they are used to join words and sentences. Of what use is it to know this? It helps me in describing things, to point out many qualities, without repeating the thing which is described. Èxample.-A poor and lame and old and wicked man. Without the help of the conjunction, man must be repeated. Example.--A poor man, a lame man, an old man, a wicked man,

Is it of any other use? It is of use when one agent is represented as performing several actions. Example. ---Mary reads and writes and learns lessons. It is also of use when several persons or things are represented doing the same action. Example.John and William and Samuel are playing.

Is not the repetition of the and usually omitted? It is, but the connexion is understood. It is also of use in connecting compound sentences. Example.—Mary went to school, and learned all her lessons, Henry is a good boy but James is a naughty boy.

What is the rule for the conjunction? Rule.---Conjunctions connect the same cases of nouns and pronouns, the same modes and tenses of verbs, and participles of the same kind.

You have learned of prepositions that they show the relation which one thing bears to another. Of what use is it to know this? If I should use a preposition which did not express the right relation, my meaning could not be understood. Erample. -Samuel took a book on the table and laid it from the bench. Corrected. --Samuel took a book from the table and laid it on the bench.

You have learned that prepositions govern the objective case. Of what use is it to know this? It teaches

me that when there is a relation expressed there must be an object of the relation.

If the preposition has not an object the language is imperfect. Example.—Samuel went into, and gave a hoe to. Perfect. ---Samuel went into the garden, and gave a hoe to the gardener.

Will you tell which of these words are the objects of the prepositions?

What is the rule? Prepositions govern the objective



You have learned that interjections are words used to express sudden and deep feeling of surprise, wonder or

Of what use is it to know this? It will enable me to express such feelings by proper words, and to avoid profane words which are both vulgar and wicked.

You have learned that interjections must have the objective case of the first person after them. Of what use is it to know this? It will teach me to use them so as to make good language and to avoid that which is incorrect. Example. -AK I! Corrected.---Ah me!

You have learned that the nominative case of the second person is required also. Of what use is it to know this? It will prevent the wrong use of words. Example.-- yours hypocrites! Corrected.-0 ye hypocrites!

What is the rule for the interjection? Interjections require the objective case of a pronoun of the first person, but nominative of the second.

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Pronounce the words nosegay, winter, money, meetinghouse.

Do you not perceive that the first syllable of these words is pronounced plainer and with a louder voice than the others?

What is that stress of voice which comes upon a part of the word, called? Accent.

Pronounce the words return, prepare, permit, refuse. On which part of these words is the accent placed?

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Repeat the sentence, birds fly high in the air.

Do you not perceive that in speaking that sentence you pronounce the word high, louder than the other words?

What is this stress of voice called which comes upon some particular word or words of a sentence? Emphasis.

Repeat the sentences, As I rode along, I passed a great inountain. The little fishes swim and play in the water.

On which words in those sentences is the emphasis placed?


Repeat the sentence, Now the pleasant season is gone.

Do you not perceive that in speaking the last word of that sentence, your voice falls to a lower tone?

What is that fall of the voice to a lower tone called? Cadence.

On what part of a sentence should the cadence be placed? The last word.

Repeat the sentences, The birds are all silent. The green leaves are fallen. The frost has killed the plants and flowers. · The beauties of summer are past. On which words in those sentences is the cadence placed?

Pronounce the words, hat, hate; mop, mope; done, tone; noddy, nosegay; hammer, hayknife. Do you not perceive that some of those words are pronounced much quicker than the others? May not the first word be pronounced in half the time of the last?

What is the difference of time in pronouncing words called? Quantity.



He commandeth and raiseth the stormy wind. Let the sea roar and the fulness thereof. Do you not perceive that these sentences require an elevated voice?


It is appointed unto all men once to die.- Do you not perceive that this sentence should be spoken with a grave voice?

The little mouse steals his food. The insect's life is soon past.–Do you not perceive that these sentences. are spoken with a small voice? What is this variation in the voice called ? Tone.

We have described three different tones of voice; you may name them. The elevated tone, the grave tone, the depressed tone.


In your reading should you join all words together without any stop?

What are the short stops you make in reading called? Pauses.

What are those little points and marks which you find in your reading lessons? They are points which show at what places it is proper to make a pause.


What is the small single point called? Period.

When should the period be used? When the sentence is finished.

What is the pause of a period? It is the longest pause: and is measured by counting six.

How should the word next before the period be sounded? . With a cadence.

When only the first letter is put for a word as N.

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