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9. Boys set to work at various trades, viz. Blacksmith, Tailor, Shoe maker.
10. Girls called by the bell, come in, marching and repeating
We 'll all take our places, and show no wry faces,
11. Signal for the boys who now take their places on the line; at the second signal commence marching and repeating
In your play be very careful
Not to give another pain,
Never do the same to them.
12. Girls sing.
The bell has rung, we will not stay,
14. Reading, spelling, and defining words,
15. Assemble on the gallery for lessons in Scripture or Natural History, while the pictures are placed before them upon the spelling posts.
17. Signal for the closing of the school,-closed with singing at noon, and with singing and prayer at night.
In schools of very small children, the afternoon exercises are rendered more amusing, to prevent fatigue of mind.
In the choice of a room, cheerfulness, light, freedom of air and of dimension must always be consulted.
The size of the room must be regulated by the number of the children' who are to be instructed in it. As there should be space for the whole of the school, to sit around the room on seats affixed to the walls that the area may be perfectly free.
It is desirable also that the voice of the teacher should be easily heard, without effort on her part, and that her person may be distinctly seen from all parts of the room at the same time. If she be obliged to raise her voice, in order to be heard, her tone will necessarily seem to approach to that of anger, and the good feelings of her little flock will, in consequence, be disturbed; so that one decided aim in fitting up an infant school-room must be, to place the little pupils, as near as possible, at an equal distance from the point, on which the teacher will stand to address them, or the spot chosen for the rostrum.
On the side of the room opposite the rostrum, or seat of the teacher, must be a gallery, constructed with seats raised one above the other, in the form of stairs, on which all the children may be occasionally assembled within a smaller compass, for general examination, and united lessons.
Seats for the monitors must be placed at a sufficient distance from the benches against the walls, to leave room for the free passage of the children, when they walk round the room.
Two small rooms should be adjoined to the schoolroom; one of which may be occupied in receiving those things which would be incumbrances in the larger room. The other is called a class room, and is used for the purpose of more particular, and personal instruction of individual classes, as occasion may require.
ARTICLES OF INSTRUCTION
AND NECESSARY APPARATUS.
The eye of the child above all others needs the advantage of visible illustration. Not accustomed to abstract thinking, the objects of sight form their principal medium of instruction.
Texts of scripture, in large characters, for the walls of the room.
Spelling and reading lessons, in large print.
Large black board, on which various representations may be exhibited to the children by chalk.
A handbell; a tambourine is sometimes used.
Several spelling posts, which are constructed in the form of a fire screen, and are used for holding the pictures, letters, and other lessons, which require to be placed directly before the children.
Pointers made of light wood, a sufficient number for the use of teacher and monitors, of convenient size and length for the use of pointing out their letters, words and various figures, on the pictures.
Rules marked with feet and inches.
A cheap orrery, or small globe made to represent the earth.
Solids and diagrams to illustrate the lessons in geometry.
A sheet containing a view of the solar system.
Also a sheet of large manuscript letters and figures, which are of use as a copy for children to imitate on their slates. This not only furnishes them with pleasing employment, but initiates them in the first elements of geometry and penmanship, and even drawing, a subject both pleasing and important.
Specimens, of whatever kind, tending to illustrate instruction.
A Manual for the use of the Teacher containing appropriate lessons from which to derive instruction for the children.
Books containing hymns and music adapted to the use of infant schools.
Elementary books for the use of the elder children. An hour or more of each day may with success be ap
propriated to works of industry. For this purpose articles for knitting and sewing should be provided.
Play grounds should be furnished with articles by means of which children may safely amuse themselves, such as small wooden bricks, short swings, balls, hoops, &c.
Although the apparatus when hung up to view, serves to decorate the walls of the school room, yet it is thought better to reserve their pictured lessons, that they may have the charm of novelty, when presented for particular
DESCRIPTION OF THE NUMERAL FRAME. The numeral frame is a square of 15 or 18 inches, with twelve strong wires drawn from one side to the other, each of which passes freely through twelve colored balls of wood. It is desirable that the wires should be so placed, that the balls when all brought together to one side, should as nearly as possible form a square.
This instrument has so many uses and such a variety of applications, according to the situation and ingenuity of the teacher, as to permit a description of but a small part of them.
It is convenient in the first attempts at counting. It presents the abstract principles of numbers in a visible and tangible form, and of course it is of important use in teaching children the combination of numbers in all its forms. (See Lessons in Arithmetic.)
It is of use by fixing the attention of children while repeating the tables in geography. The frame is held before them, and one ball moved as each name is repeated.
Also in spelling, the same number of balls are presented as there are letters in the word to be spelled, one is moved back as each letter is spoken.
READING LESSONS. is thought that the great difficulty of learning to read, arises from the fact, that there is nothing in learning unmeaning characters, which can arrest the attention, or employ the understanding.
To avoid in some degree this difficulty, the following method is proposed.
Exhibit to the class in the alphabet - but one letter at first. Tell them the name of it, let them all call it; let them see it in different sizes and places, that they may not mistake it another time, requesting them to remember its name till they see it again-and be sure to show it to them again before they have time to forget it. For the pleasure of having remembered it, together with your approbation, will prove a favorable excitement.
Continue to exhibit the same letter to them the first half day. The next half day show them another, and proceed to teach it in the same manner as before described, taking care that they do not forget the letter they learned first.
When the second letter has become familiar to them, put the two letters together, read them, show them that it is a word, let them read and spell it after you, tell them that words are made by putting letters together; and if they learn how to do this, they will be able to read pretty stories, and their parents will buy nice books for them. The attainment of being able to read and spell a word, will be a pleasure, and they will cheerfully engage in learning the second. Let the second word be taught in the same manner, taking care that the first word learned, is kept in mind also. Thus proceed in teaching the following simple words with the same care as with the first, which when they have learned, they will have acquired a knowledge of all the letters in the alphabet, with their use-pa, do go in-it is an we go by it-so he' is up-can he kill me?-fiveblaze-jump-run-quill
. When they have thus acquired a knowledge of the alphabet, they may proceed to learn the sounds of the letters in their most simple combinations, which advance may easily be attained by means of frequently exercising the children in spelling and pronouncing the syllables simultaneously, beginning with the first table, viz. b-a ba, d-a da, f-a fa, &c. It will be necessary for the monitor