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Does the land extend all over the earth? It does not. The greatest part of the earth is covered with water. These great waters which cover so much of the earth are so large that if you stood by the side of them you could not see across, if you were on the middle you could not see any shore to them,—you could sail thousands of miles before you would see the shore. They are called the mighty deep, because the depth of them is so great it cannot be measured by men.
What does the bible tell us about the measure of the land and the water? God hath measured the waters in the hollow of his hand, and comprehended the dust of the earth in a measure, he hath weighed, the mountains in scales, and the hills in a balance.
What is the shape of the earth? . It is round like an orange or globe
What is a round solid body called? A sphere.
This globe is only to show you the shape of the earth. I cannot show you its bigness, for the earth is so large that none but God can see it all at once.
How far is it through the earth? 8000 miles.
What is the measure through the earth called? Dic ameter.
How far is it round the earth? 25,000 miles.
What is the measure round the earth called? Circumference.
What is the diameter of the earth from north to south called? Axis.
Why is it called axis? Because the earth turns as those things do, which run on an axis.
Can you name anything which runs on an axis? A wheel.
Does a top run on an axis when it whirls round? It has no axis, but turns as though it had one, as does the earth.
What are the two ends of the earth's axis called? north pole and south pole.
When you stand with your face towards the west, which way from you is the north pole? At the right hand.
Which way from you is the south pole? At the left hand.
What is the circumference of the middle of the earth called, where it is at equal distance from each pole? Equator.
What are the two parts called each way from the equator? One is called the northern hemisphere, the other is the southern hemisphere?
If I divide the earth this way, (tracing a meridian line) what are these two parts called? One is the eastern hemisphere, the other is the western hemisphere.
When the earth is measured from the equator towards the north pole what is it called? North latitude.
When it is measured from the equator to the south pole what is it called? South latitude.
When the earth is measured from east to west what is it called? West longitude.
When it is measured from west to east what is it called? East longitude.
The measure of this large earth is computed by something longer than miles. What is the circumference of the earth
measured by? Degrees. What is the length of one degree? Sixty-nine miles.
How many degrees is measured from the equator , to the poles? Ninety.
How many degrees is the circumference of the earth? Three hundred and sixty.
Of what use is it to learn the description of the earth? It teaches me that He who'made the earth is the great God, who stretcheth out the north over the empty place, and hangeth the earth upon nothing.
Which part of the earth is most exposed to the sun? That which is near the equator, or middle of the earth.
What is that part called ? Torrid zone.
What weather do they have in the torrid zone? It is warm at all times; they have no winter there, nor snow
nor ice, except that there is snow upon the top of some very high mountains.
What is the earth called at the north and south, near the poles? The frigid zones.
How is it in the frigid zones, cold or hot? It is very cold in the frigid zones; the land is covered with snow and the water is covered with ice; there are but very few people living there.
Why is it so cold at the ends of the earth? Because it is so far hidden from the rays of the sun.
Can they not see the sun in the frigid zone? They can only see the sun rise a little above the mountains of ice, and then it goes down without moving over head as it is seen here.
What are those parts of the earth called that are between the cold zones and the hot zone? They are the temperate zones.
What is the weather in the temperate zones? of the year is cold and a part warm.
What are the cold weather and the warm weather called? The cold weather is called winter, the warm weather is called summer.
Do we live in one of the temperate zones? We do.
What does the bible say of cold and heat? David says to God, thou hast made summer and winter. Out of the south cometh the whirlwind, and cold out of the north. He casteth forth his ice like morsels, who can stand before his cold.
What have we to keep us from being frozen with the cold? Houses, fire, and warm clothes
What does this teach you? That God loves his creatures.
What are the largest parts of the earth called? Continents.
What are those parts of the earth called, where the water comes on every side of hem? slands.
What is the edge of the land which is next the water, called? Shore
Is the shore a straight line? No, it is very crooked; in some places the land extends a great way into the sea; in other places the sea extends into the land.
What is the land called, that extends into the sea, when the water comes almost round it? A peninsula.
- What is that narrow land called, which joins a peninsula to the continent? Isthmus.
Where the land extends some way into the ocean, what is the end of it called? Cape.
Where the end of the land is very high above the ocean, what is it called? Promontory.
What particular use do people make of those points of land which extend some ways into the ocean? They build lighthouses upon them.
What is a lighthouse? It is a house built very high, like a steeple, and has a bright light in the top of it through the night.
Why is the light kept in the lighthouse? It is to show people who are sailing on the ocean, in a dark night, which way to go.
If people who are sailing in a dark night do not look at the lighthouse, but let their ship sail as it will, what will become of them? They will sail against the rocks, which will break their ship, and let them into the water; and they will all be drowned in the mighty deep.
Do we not all need the light of true wisdom to teach us which way to go in this dark world? We do.
What has God given us to be a light to our feet and a lamp to our path? The bible.
If any one will not mind the bible, but will walk in his own way, what will become of him? He will be drowned in the perdition of ungodly men.
What are those great waters called, which are thousands of miles across? Oceans.
How many oceans are there? Five.
What are they called? Atlantic, Pacific, Northern, Southern, Indian.
[The children may name these upon the fingers and thumb of the left hand.]
Which of these oceans is the largest ? The Pacific. How wide is the Pacific Ocean? Ten thousand miles.
How wide is the Atlantic Ocean? Three thousand miles.
On which side of the western continent is the Atlantic Ocean? - On the east side.
On which side of the western continent is the Pacific Ocean? On the west side.
Which way from us is the Southern Ocean? South. Which way from us is the Northern Ocean? North.
How do people get across the great deep water of the ocean? They sail across the water in ships.
What is a ship? It is a large vessel made to sail on the water.
What makes it go? The wind blows it along, and makes it sail very fast.
Can people move along as fast in a ship, as they can in a stagecoach? Yes; ships go much faster than a stagecoach, and carry great loads of goods, with men.
What goods do the ships carry from this to other countries? Cotton, tobacco, wheat, flour, and rice.
What goods do ships bring from other countries to this? Cloths, silks, tea, coffee, sugar, wine, molasses, raisins, figs, spices and drugs.
What is carrying goods out of the country called? Exporting goods.
What is bringing goods from other countries to this called? Importing goods.
If you could look all over the ocean you could see thousands of these beautiful ships sailing from one country to another.
If the ocean is much larger than the land, and is on every side, why does it not come over the land and drown the world? The bible tells us, that God has placed the land for a boundary to the sea that it cannot pass over it. Though the waves toss, and roar, they can never pass over their bounds; for God has said to
( Hitherto shalt thou come and no farther, and here shall thy proud waves be stayed,”